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Adequate Intakes

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D. Hornig – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • selected vitamins and trace elements support immune function by strengthening epithelial barriers and cellular and humoral immune responses
    British Journal of Nutrition, 2007
    Co-Authors: Silvia Maggini, Eva S. Wintergerst, Stephen Beveridge, D. Hornig
    Abstract:

    Adequate Intakes of micronutrients are required for the immune system to function efficiently. Micronutrient deficiency suppresses immunity by affecting innate, T cell mediated and adaptive antibody responses, leading to dysregulation of the balanced host response. This situation increases susceptibility to infections, with increased morbidity and mortality. In turn, infections aggravate micronutrient deficiencies by reducing nutrient intake, increasing losses, and interfering with utilization by altering metabolic pathways. Insufficient intake of micronutrients occurs in people with eating disorders, in smokers (active and passive), in individuals with chronic alcohol abuse, in certain diseases, during pregnancy and lactation, and in the elderly. This paper summarises the roles of selected vitamins and trace elements in immune function. Micronutrients contribute to the body’s natural defences on three levels by supporting physical barriers (skin/mucosa), cellular immuimmunity and antibody production. Vitamins A, C, E and the trace element zinc assist in enhancing the skin barrier function. The vitamins A, B6, B12, C, D, E and folic acid and the trace elements iron, zinc, copper and selenium work in synergy to support the protective activities of the immune cells. Finally, all these micronutrients, with the exception of vitamin C and iron, are essential for antibody production. Overall, inAdequate intake and status of these vitamins and trace elements may lead to suppressed immunity, which predisposes to infections and aggravates malnutrition. Therefore, supplementation with these selected micronutrients can support the body’s natural defence system by enhancing all three levels of immunity.

  • Contribution of Selected Vitamins and Trace Elements to Immune Function
    Annals of nutrition & metabolism, 2007
    Co-Authors: Eva S. Wintergerst, Silvia Maggini, D. Hornig
    Abstract:

    Adequate Intakes of vitamins and trace elements are required for the immune system to function efficiently. Micronutrient deficiency suppresses immune functions by affecting the innate T-cell-mediated

  • immune enhancing role of vitamin c and zinc and effect on clinical conditions
    Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, 2006
    Co-Authors: Eva S. Wintergerst, Silvia Maggini, D. Hornig
    Abstract:

    Vitamin C concentrations in the plasma and leukocytes rapidly decline during infections and stress. Supplementation of vitamin C was found to improve components of the human immune system such as antimicrobial and natural killer cell activities, lymphocyte proliferation, chemotaxis, and delayed-type hypersensitivity. Vitamin C contributes to maintaining the redox integrity of cells and thereby protects them against reactive oxygen species generated during the respiratory burst and in the inflammatory response. Likewise, zinc undernutrition or deficiency was shown to impair cellular mediators of innate immunity such as phagocytosis, natural killer cell activity, and the generation of oxidative burst. Therefore, both nutrients play important roles in immune function and the modulation of host resistance to infectious agents, reducing the risk, severity, and duration of infectious diseases. This is of special importance in populations in which insufficient intake of these nutrients is prevalent. In the developing world, this is the case in low- and middle-income countries, but also in subpopulations in industrialized countries, e.g. in the elderly. A large number of randomized controlled intervention trials with Intakes of up to 1 g of vitamin C and up to 30 mg of zinc are available. These trials document that Adequate Intakes of vitamin C and zinc ameliorate symptoms and shorten the duration of respiratory tract infections including the common cold. Furthermore, vitamin C and zinc reduce the incidence and improve the outcome of pneumonia, malaria, and diarrhea infections, especially in children in developing countries.

M Walter D Mertz – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • risk assessment of essential trace elements new approaches to setting recommended dietary allowances and safety limits
    Nutrition Reviews, 2009
    Co-Authors: M Walter D Mertz
    Abstract:

    By definition, every essential trace element must have a range of Intakes safe from toxicity but Adequate enough to meet nutrition requirements. That range is part of the total dose—response curve and its lower and upper limits are delineated on the basis of nutrition and toxicology data, respectively. Close coordination of activities to set these limits is necessary to avoid recommendations that are either impractical (narrow zones of safe and Adequate Intakes) or contradictory (overlapping limits, i.e., no zones of safe and Adequate Intakes).

  • food fortification in the united states
    Nutrition Reviews, 2009
    Co-Authors: M Walter D Mertz
    Abstract:

    Formulas for the fortification of nutrients have remained essentially unchanged for the half-century in which the U.S. government has had a fortification policy in place. During that period, the classical micronutrient deficiencies have disappeared, but changes in the U.S. food supply have occurred and concerns about Adequate Intakes of other micronutrients have emerged. In 1974 the Food and Nutrition Board published its “Proposed Fortification Policy for Cereal Grain Products.” Of the six fortification endorsement conditions outlined in the policy statement, three do not meet the stated criteria or today’s needs. New approaches to address this situation are proposed.

Eva S. Wintergerst – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • selected vitamins and trace elements support immune function by strengthening epithelial barriers and cellular and humoral immune responses
    British Journal of Nutrition, 2007
    Co-Authors: Silvia Maggini, Eva S. Wintergerst, Stephen Beveridge, D. Hornig
    Abstract:

    Adequate Intakes of micronutrients are required for the immune system to function efficiently. Micronutrient deficiency suppresses immunity by affecting innate, T cell mediated and adaptive antibody responses, leading to dysregulation of the balanced host response. This situation increases susceptibility to infections, with increased morbidity and mortality. In turn, infections aggravate micronutrient deficiencies by reducing nutrient intake, increasing losses, and interfering with utilization by altering metabolic pathways. Insufficient intake of micronutrients occurs in people with eating disorders, in smokers (active and passive), in individuals with chronic alcohol abuse, in certain diseases, during pregnancy and lactation, and in the elderly. This paper summarises the roles of selected vitamins and trace elements in immune function. Micronutrients contribute to the body’s natural defences on three levels by supporting physical barriers (skin/mucosa), cellular immunity and antibody production. Vitamins A, C, E and the trace element zinc assist in enhancing the skin barrier function. The vitamins A, B6, B12, C, D, E and folic acid and the trace elements iron, zinc, copper and selenium work in synergy to support the protective activities of the immune cells. Finally, all these micronutrients, with the exception of vitamin C and iron, are essential for antibody production. Overall, inAdequate intake and status of these vitamins and trace elements may lead to suppressed immunity, which predisposes to infections and aggravates malnutrition. Therefore, supplementation with these selected micronutrients can support the body’s natural defence system by enhancing all three levels of immunity.

  • Contribution of Selected Vitamins and Trace Elements to Immune Function
    Annals of nutrition & metabolism, 2007
    Co-Authors: Eva S. Wintergerst, Silvia Maggini, D. Hornig
    Abstract:

    Adequate Intakes of vitamins and trace elements are required for the immune system to function efficiently. Micronutrient deficiency suppresses immune functions by affecting the innate T-cell-mediated

  • immune enhancing role of vitamin c and zinc and effect on clinical conditions
    Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, 2006
    Co-Authors: Eva S. Wintergerst, Silvia Maggini, D. Hornig
    Abstract:

    Vitamin C concentrations in the plasma and leukocytes rapidly decline during infections and stress. Supplementation of vitamin C was found to improve components of the human immune system such as antimicrobial and natural killer cell activities, lymphocyte proliferation, chemotaxis, and delayed-type hypersensitivity. Vitamin C contributes to maintaining the redox integrity of cells and thereby protects them against reactive oxygen species generated during the respiratory burst and in the inflammatory response. Likewise, zinc undernutrition or deficiency was shown to impair cellular mediators of innate immunity such as phagocytosis, natural killer cell activity, and the generation of oxidative burst. Therefore, both nutrients play important roles in immune function and the modulation of host resistance to infectious agents, reducing the risk, severity, and duration of infectious diseases. This is of special importance in populations in which insufficient intake of these nutrients is prevalent. In the developing world, this is the case in low- and middle-income countries, but also in subpopulations in industrialized countries, e.g. in the elderly. A large number of randomized controlled intervention trials with Intakes of up to 1 g of vitamin C and up to 30 mg of zinc are available. These trials document that Adequate Intakes of vitamin C and zinc ameliorate symptoms and shorten the duration of respiratory tract infections including the common cold. Furthermore, vitamin C and zinc reduce the incidence and improve the outcome of pneumonia, malaria, and diarrhea infections, especially in children in developing countries.

Silvia Maggini – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • selected vitamins and trace elements support immune function by strengthening epithelial barriers and cellular and humoral immune responses
    British Journal of Nutrition, 2007
    Co-Authors: Silvia Maggini, Eva S. Wintergerst, Stephen Beveridge, D. Hornig
    Abstract:

    Adequate Intakes of micronutrients are required for the immune system to function efficiently. Micronutrient deficiency suppresses immunity by affecting innate, T cell mediated and adaptive antibody responses, leading to dysregulation of the balanced host response. This situation increases susceptibility to infections, with increased morbidity and mortality. In turn, infections aggravate micronutrient deficiencies by reducing nutrient intake, increasing losses, and interfering with utilization by altering metabolic pathways. Insufficient intake of micronutrients occurs in people with eating disorders, in smokers (active and passive), in individuals with chronic alcohol abuse, in certain diseases, during pregnancy and lactation, and in the elderly. This paper summarises the roles of selected vitamins and trace elements in immune function. Micronutrients contribute to the body’s natural defences on three levels by supporting physical barriers (skin/mucosa), cellular immunity and antibody production. Vitamins A, C, E and the trace element zinc assist in enhancing the skin barrier function. The vitamins A, B6, B12, C, D, E and folic acid and the trace elements iron, zinc, copper and selenium work in synergy to support the protective activities of the immune cells. Finally, all these micronutrients, with the exception of vitamin C and iron, are essential for antibody production. Overall, inAdequate intake and status of these vitamins and trace elements may lead to suppressed immunity, which predisposes to infections and aggravates malnutrition. Therefore, supplementation with these selected micronutrients can support the body’s natural defence system by enhancing all three levels of immunity.

  • Contribution of Selected Vitamins and Trace Elements to Immune Function
    Annals of nutrition & metabolism, 2007
    Co-Authors: Eva S. Wintergerst, Silvia Maggini, D. Hornig
    Abstract:

    Adequate Intakes of vitamins and trace elements are required for the immune system to function efficiently. Micronutrient deficiency suppresses immune functions by affecting the innate T-cell-mediated

  • immune enhancing role of vitamin c and zinc and effect on clinical conditions
    Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, 2006
    Co-Authors: Eva S. Wintergerst, Silvia Maggini, D. Hornig
    Abstract:

    Vitamin C concentrations in the plasma and leukocytes rapidly decline during infections and stress. Supplementation of vitamin C was found to improve components of the human immune system such as antimicrobial and natural killer cell activities, lymphocyte proliferation, chemotaxis, and delayed-type hypersensitivity. Vitamin C contributes to maintaining the redox integrity of cells and thereby protects them against reactive oxygen species generated during the respiratory burst and in the inflammatory response. Likewise, zinc undernutrition or deficiency was shown to impair cellular mediators of innate immunity such as phagocytosis, natural killer cell activity, and the generation of oxidative burst. Therefore, both nutrients play important roles in immune function and the modulation of host resistance to infectious agents, reducing the risk, severity, and duration of infectious diseases. This is of special importance in populations in which insufficient intake of these nutrients is prevalent. In the developing world, this is the case in low- and middle-income countries, but also in subpopulations in industrialized countries, e.g. in the elderly. A large number of randomized controlled intervention trials with Intakes of up to 1 g of vitamin C and up to 30 mg of zinc are available. These trials document that Adequate Intakes of vitamin C and zinc ameliorate symptoms and shorten the duration of respiratory tract infections including the common cold. Furthermore, vitamin C and zinc reduce the incidence and improve the outcome of pneumonia, malaria, and diarrhea infections, especially in children in developing countries.

Susan I. Barr – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Dietary Choline Intake: Current State of Knowledge Across the Life Cycle
    MDPI AG, 2018
    Co-Authors: Alejandra M. Wiedeman, Susan I. Barr, Timothy J. Green, Sheila M. Innis, David D. Kitts
    Abstract:

    Choline, an essential dietary nutrient for humans, is required for the synthesis of the neurotransmitter, acetylcholine, the methyl group donor, betaine, and phospholipids; and therefore, choline is involved in a broad range of critical physiological functions across all stages of the life cycle. The current dietary recommendations for choline have been established as Adequate Intakes (AIs) for total choline; however, dietary choline is present in multiple different forms that are both water-soluble (e.g., free choline, phosphocholine, and glycerophosphocholine) and lipid-soluble (e.g., phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin). Interestingly, the different dietary choline forms consumed during infancy differ from those in adulthood. This can be explained by the primary food source, where the majority of choline present in human milk is in the water-soluble form, versus lipid-soluble forms for foods consumed later on. This review summarizes the current knowledge on dietary recommendations and assessment methods, and dietary choline intake from food sources across the life cycle

  • Reducing dietary sodium intake: the Canadian context.
    Applied physiology nutrition and metabolism = Physiologie appliquee nutrition et metabolisme, 2010
    Co-Authors: Susan I. Barr
    Abstract:

    Sodium is a required nutrient; Adequate Intakes for adults range from 1200 to 1500 mgday -1 , depending on age. The Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) for sodium is 2300 mgday -1 for adults, based on the relationship between so- dium intake and increased blood pressure. Elevated blood pressure, which is prevalent among Canadians, is, in turn, a ma- jor risk factor for stroke, cardiovascular disease, and renal disease. Sodium intake is not the only determinant of blood pressure; other modifiable risk factors include relative mass, physical activity, overall dietary quality, and alcohol con- sumption. However, because >90% of adult Canadian men and two thirds of Canadian women have sodium Intakes above the UL, Health Canada’s Working Group on Dietary Sodium Reduction has been charged with developing, implementing, and overseeing a strategy to reduce Canadians’ sodium Intakes. It is estimated that *75% of dietary sodium is added dur- ing food processing; in addition to taste and palatability, sodium also has functional roles in food manufacturing and pres- ervation, although the amounts used often exceed those required. Because of the central role of processed foods in sodium intake, the strategy proposed by Health Canada’s Working Group includes voluntary reduction of sodium in processed foods and foods sold in food service establishments. It will also include an education and awareness campaign, and re- search and surveillance. Initiatives to reduce sodium in other parts of the world have demonstrated that it will be challeng- ing to reduce sodium intake to the recommended range and will likely require many years to accomplish.

  • Recommended Dietary Allowances should be used to set Daily Values for nutrition labeling
    The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2006
    Co-Authors: Suzanne P. Murphy, Susan I. Barr
    Abstract:

    Guiding principles were recently suggested for revising the Daily Values (DVs) used for nutrition labels on foods and dietary supplements. These principles incorporate the new Dietary Reference Intakes, which are nutrient standards issued between 1997 and 2005 by the Institute of Medicine. Most of the principles are likely to lead to a more accurate basis for the DVs. However, the recommendation to use the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) rather than the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) should be reconsidered. Traditional public health messages to American and Canadian consumers have focused on nutrient intake levels with a high probability of being Adequate. The RDA, with a 98% probability of adequacy, is designed to be the target nutrient intake for individuals; in contrast, the EAR has only a 50% probability of adequacy. Three considerations should lead to a preference for using the RDA rather than the EAR for the DVs: 1) consumers are likely to expect that a product (or a diet) with 100% of the DV has a high probability of nutrient adequacy; 2) use of the RDA for the DV will be consistent with other types of dietary guidance, such as the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005 and US food guides; and 3) use of the RDA as a standard for nutrient intake, rather than the EAR, has a potential benefit (a higher prevalence of Adequate Intakes) that exceeds potential risk (a higher prevalence of excessive Intakes).