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Wan Ru Leow – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • An artificial somatic reflex arc
    'Wiley', 2020
    Co-Authors: Liu Yaqing, Wang Ming, Chen Geng, Jiang Ying, Yu Jiancan, Wan Changjin, Qi Dianpeng, Xiao Meng, Wan Ru Leow
    Abstract:

    The emulation of human sensation, perception, and action processes has become a major challenge for bioinspired intelligent robotics, interactive human-machine interfacing, and Advanced Prosthetics. Reflex actions, enabled through reflex arcs, are important for human and higher animals to respond to stimuli from environment without the brain processing and survive the risks of nature. An artificial reflex arc system that emulates the functions of the reflex arc simplifies the complex circuit design needed for “central-control-only” processes and becomes a basic electronic component in an intelligent soft robotics system. An artificial somatic reflex arc that enables the actuation of electrochemical actuators in response to the stimulation of tactile pressures is reported. Only if the detected pressure by the pressure sensor is above the stimulus threshold, the metal-organic-framework-based threshold controlling unit (TCU) can be activated and triggers the electrochemical actuators to complete the motion. Such responding mechanism mimics the all-or-none law in the human nervous system. As a proof of concept, the artificial somatic reflex arc is successfully integrated into a robot to mimic the infant grasp reflex. This work provides a unique and simplifying strategy for developing intelligent soft robotics, next-generation human-machine interfaces, and neuroProsthetics.NRF (Natl Research Foundation, S’pore)ASTAR (Agency for Sci., Tech. and Research, S’pore)MOE (Min. of Education, S’pore)Accepted versio

  • An Artificial Somatic Reflex Arc
    Advanced Materials, 2019
    Co-Authors: Yaqing Liu, Ming Wang, Geng Chen, Ying Jiang, Changjin Wan, Meng Xiao, Wan Ru Leow
    Abstract:

    The emulation of human sensation, perception, and action processes has become a major challenge for bioinspired intelligent robotics, interactive human-machine interfacing, and Advanced Prosthetics. Reflex actions, enabled through reflex arcs, are important for human and higher animals to respond to stimuli from environment without the brain processing and survive the risks of nature. An artificial reflex arc system that emulates the functions of the reflex arc simplifies the complex circuit design needed for “central-control-only” processes and becomes a basic electronic component in an intelligent soft robotics system. An artificial somatic reflex arc that enables the actuation of electrochemical actuators in response to the stimulation of tactile pressures is reported. Only if the detected pressure by the pressure sensor is above the stimulus threshold, the metal-organic-framework-based threshold controlling unit (TCU) can be activated and triggers the electrochemical actuators to complete the motion. Such responding mechanism mimics the all-or-none law in the human nervous system. As a proof of concept, the artificial somatic reflex arc is successfully integrated into a robot to mimic the infant grasp reflex. This work provides a unique and simplifying strategy for developing intelligent soft robotics, next-generation human-machine interfaces, and neuroProsthetics.

Cynthia L. Marcelo – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Bioengineering the Skin–Implant Interface: The Use of Regenerative Therapies in Implanted Devices
    Annals of Biomedical Engineering, 2010
    Co-Authors: Antonio Peramo, Cynthia L. Marcelo
    Abstract:

    This discussion and review article focuses on the possible use of regenerative techniques applied to the interfaces between skin and medical implants. As is widely known, the area of contact between an implant and the skin—the skin–implant interface—is prone to recurrent and persistent problems originated from the lack of integration between the material of the implant and the skin. Producing a long-term successful biointerface between skin and the implanted device is still an unsolved problem. These complications have prevented the development of Advanced Prosthetics and the evolution of biointegrated devices with new technologies. While previous techniques addressing these issues have relied mostly on the coating of the implants or the modification of the topology of the devices, recent in vitro developed techniques have shown that is possible to introduce biocompatible and possibly regenerative materials at the skin–device interface. These techniques have also shown that the process of delivering the materials has biological effects on the skin surrounding the implant, thus converting bioinert into bioactive, dynamic interfaces. Given that the best clinical outcome is the long-term stabilization and integration of the soft tissue around the implant, this article presents the basis for the selection of regenerative materials and therapies for long-term use at the skin–device interface, with focus on the use of natural biopolymers and skin cell transplantation.

  • bioengineering the skin implant interface the use of regenerative therapies in implanted devices
    Annals of Biomedical Engineering, 2010
    Co-Authors: Antonio Peramo, Cynthia L. Marcelo
    Abstract:

    This discussion and review article focuses on the possible use of regenerative techniques applied to the interfaces between skin and medical implants. As is widely known, the area of contact between an implant and the skin–the skin-implant interface–is prone to recurrent and persistent problems originated from the lack of integration between the material of the implant and the skin. Producing a long-term successful biointerface between skin and the implanted device is still an unsolved problem. These complications have prevented the development of Advanced Prosthetics and the evolution of biointegrated devices with new technologies. While previous techniques addressing these issues have relied mostly on the coating of the implants or the modification of the topology of the devices, recent in vitro developed techniques have shown that is possible to introduce biocompatible and possibly regenerative materials at the skin-device interface. These techniques have also shown that the process of delivering the materials has biological effects on the skin surrounding the implant, thus converting bioinert into bioactive, dynamic interfaces. Given that the best clinical outcome is the long-term stabilization and integration of the soft tissue around the implant, this article presents the basis for the selection of regenerative materials and therapies for long-term use at the skin-device interface, with focus on the use of natural biopolymers and skin cell transplantation.

Antonio Peramo – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Bioengineering the Skin–Implant Interface: The Use of Regenerative Therapies in Implanted Devices
    Annals of Biomedical Engineering, 2010
    Co-Authors: Antonio Peramo, Cynthia L. Marcelo
    Abstract:

    This discussion and review article focuses on the possible use of regenerative techniques applied to the interfaces between skin and medical implants. As is widely known, the area of contact between an implant and the skin—the skin–implant interface—is prone to recurrent and persistent problems originated from the lack of integration between the material of the implant and the skin. Producing a long-term successful biointerface between skin and the implanted device is still an unsolved problem. These complications have prevented the development of Advanced Prosthetics and the evolution of biointegrated devices with new technologies. While previous techniques addressing these issues have relied mostly on the coating of the implants or the modification of the topology of the devices, recent in vitro developed techniques have shown that is possible to introduce biocompatible and possibly regenerative materials at the skin–device interface. These techniques have also shown that the process of delivering the materials has biological effects on the skin surrounding the implant, thus converting bioinert into bioactive, dynamic interfaces. Given that the best clinical outcome is the long-term stabilization and integration of the soft tissue around the implant, this article presents the basis for the selection of regenerative materials and therapies for long-term use at the skin–device interface, with focus on the use of natural biopolymers and skin cell transplantation.

  • bioengineering the skin implant interface the use of regenerative therapies in implanted devices
    Annals of Biomedical Engineering, 2010
    Co-Authors: Antonio Peramo, Cynthia L. Marcelo
    Abstract:

    This discussion and review article focuses on the possible use of regenerative techniques applied to the interfaces between skin and medical implants. As is widely known, the area of contact between an implant and the skin–the skin-implant interface–is prone to recurrent and persistent problems originated from the lack of integration between the material of the implant and the skin. Producing a long-term successful biointerface between skin and the implanted device is still an unsolved problem. These complications have prevented the development of Advanced Prosthetics and the evolution of biointegrated devices with new technologies. While previous techniques addressing these issues have relied mostly on the coating of the implants or the modification of the topology of the devices, recent in vitro developed techniques have shown that is possible to introduce biocompatible and possibly regenerative materials at the skin-device interface. These techniques have also shown that the process of delivering the materials has biological effects on the skin surrounding the implant, thus converting bioinert into bioactive, dynamic interfaces. Given that the best clinical outcome is the long-term stabilization and integration of the soft tissue around the implant, this article presents the basis for the selection of regenerative materials and therapies for long-term use at the skin-device interface, with focus on the use of natural biopolymers and skin cell transplantation.

Harry H. Liu – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Economic benefits of microprocessor controlled prosthetic knees: a modeling study
    Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation, 2018
    Co-Authors: Christine Chen, Mark Hanson, Ritika Chaturvedi, Soeren Mattke, Richard Hillestad, Harry H. Liu
    Abstract:

    Background Advanced prosthetic knees allow for more dynamic movements and improved quality of life, but payers have recently started questioning their value. To answer this question, the differential clinical outcomes and cost of microprocessor-controlled knees (MPK) compared to non-microprocessor controlled knees (NMPK) were assessed. Methods We conducted a literature review of the clinical and economic impacts of prosthetic knees, convened technical expert panel meetings, and implemented a simulation model over a 10-year time period for unilateral transfemoral Medicare amputees with a Medicare Functional Classification Level of 3 and 4 using estimates from the published literature and expert input. The results are summarized as an incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER) from a societal perspective, i.e., the incremental cost of MPK compared to NMPK for each quality-adjusted life-year gained. All costs were adjusted to 2016 U.S. dollars and discounted using a 3% rate to the present time. Results The results demonstrated that compared to NMPK over a 10-year time period: for every 100 persons, MPK results in 82 fewer major injurious falls, 62 fewer minor injurious falls, 16 fewer incidences of osteoarthritis, and 11 lives saved; on a per person per year basis, MPK reduces direct healthcare cost by $3676 and indirect cost by $909, but increases device acquisition and repair cost by $6287 and total cost by $1702; on a per person basis, MPK is associated with an incremental total cost of $10,604 and increases the number of life years by 0.11 and quality adjusted life years by 0.91. MPK has an ICER ratio of $11,606 per quality adjusted life year, and the economic benefits of MPK are robust in various sensitivity analyses. Conclusions Advanced Prosthetics for transfemoral amputees, specifically MPKs, are associated with improved clinical benefits compared to non-MPKs. The economic benefits of MPKs are similar to or even greater than those of other medical technologies currently reimbursed by U.S. payers.

  • Economic benefits of microprocessor controlled prosthetic knees: a modeling study.
    Journal of neuroengineering and rehabilitation, 2018
    Co-Authors: Christine Chen, Mark Hanson, Ritika Chaturvedi, Soeren Mattke, Richard Hillestad, Harry H. Liu
    Abstract:

    Advanced prosthetic knees allow for more dynamic movements and improved quality of life, but payers have recently started questioning their value. To answer this question, the differential clinical outcomes and cost of microprocessor-controlled knees (MPK) compared to non-microprocessor controlled knees (NMPK) were assessed. We conducted a literature review of the clinical and economic impacts of prosthetic knees, convened technical expert panel meetings, and implemented a simulation model over a 10-year time period for unilateral transfemoral Medicare amputees with a Medicare Functional Classification Level of 3 and 4 using estimates from the published literature and expert input. The results are summarized as an incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER) from a societal perspective, i.e., the incremental cost of MPK compared to NMPK for each quality-adjusted life-year gained. All costs were adjusted to 2016 U.S. dollars and discounted using a 3% rate to the present time. The results demonstrated that compared to NMPK over a 10-year time period: for every 100 persons, MPK results in 82 fewer major injurious falls, 62 fewer minor injurious falls, 16 fewer incidences of osteoarthritis, and 11 lives saved; on a per person per year basis, MPK reduces direct healthcare cost by $3676 and indirect cost by $909, but increases device acquisition and repair cost by $6287 and total cost by $1702; on a per person basis, MPK is associated with an incremental total cost of $10,604 and increases the number of life years by 0.11 and quality adjusted life years by 0.91. MPK has an ICER ratio of $11,606 per quality adjusted life year, and the economic benefits of MPK are robust in various sensitivity analyses. Advanced Prosthetics for transfemoral amputees, specifically MPKs, are associated with improved clinical benefits compared to non-MPKs. The economic benefits of MPKs are similar to or even greater than those of other medical technologies currently reimbursed by U.S. payers.

Yaqing Liu – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • An Artificial Somatic Reflex Arc
    Advanced Materials, 2019
    Co-Authors: Yaqing Liu, Ming Wang, Geng Chen, Ying Jiang, Changjin Wan, Meng Xiao, Wan Ru Leow
    Abstract:

    The emulation of human sensation, perception, and action processes has become a major challenge for bioinspired intelligent robotics, interactive human-machine interfacing, and Advanced Prosthetics. Reflex actions, enabled through reflex arcs, are important for human and higher animals to respond to stimuli from environment without the brain processing and survive the risks of nature. An artificial reflex arc system that emulates the functions of the reflex arc simplifies the complex circuit design needed for “central-control-only” processes and becomes a basic electronic component in an intelligent soft robotics system. An artificial somatic reflex arc that enables the actuation of electrochemical actuators in response to the stimulation of tactile pressures is reported. Only if the detected pressure by the pressure sensor is above the stimulus threshold, the metal-organic-framework-based threshold controlling unit (TCU) can be activated and triggers the electrochemical actuators to complete the motion. Such responding mechanism mimics the all-or-none law in the human nervous system. As a proof of concept, the artificial somatic reflex arc is successfully integrated into a robot to mimic the infant grasp reflex. This work provides a unique and simplifying strategy for developing intelligent soft robotics, next-generation human-machine interfaces, and neuroProsthetics.