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Midori Okami – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Agronomic performance of an IR64 introgression line with large leaves derived from New Plant Type rice in Aerobic Culture
    European Journal of Agronomy, 2014
    Co-Authors: Midori Okami, Yoichiro Kato, Nobuya Kobayashi, Junko Yamagishi
    Abstract:

    Abstract Aerobic Culture is a promising water-saving technology in irrigated rice ecosystems, but the vulnerability of plants to fluctuations in soil moisture constrains leaf expansion and yield. The objective of this study was to examine whether an aboveground architecture with large leaves and reduced tillering is associated with vigorous leaf growth in Aerobic rice Culture. In a series of field experiments, we evaluated the agronomic performance of an IR64 introgression line, YTH323 (IR84640-11-27-1-9-3-2-4-2-2-2-B), with fewer tillers and larger leaves than IR64, derived from New Plant Type rice, under various water and nitrogen conditions. In flooded Culture, YTH323 yielded the same as IR64 and 38% more than IR65564-44-51 (a New Plant Type rice) (9.0 vs. 6.6 t ha −1 ). In Aerobic Culture, in contrast, it yielded 81% more than IR64 in slightly dry soils (5.1 vs. 2.8 t ha −1 ). YTH323 had a higher leaf area index than IR64 and IR65564-44-51 under slightly dry soil conditions and under a range of nitrogen conditions. The higher and more stable yield of YTH323 in Aerobic Culture was attributable to greater early vigor, high specific leaf area, a high ratio of leaf weight to total biomass, and larger leaves, along with the characteristics of high-yield cultivars such as high responsiveness to fertilizers and good grain filling. We conclude that genetic modification of the aboveground architecture of IR64, a typical tropical lowland rice cultivar, to reduce tiller and leaf number improves adaptation to Aerobic Culture.

  • Allometric relationship between the size and number of shoots as a determinant of adaptations in rice to water-saving Aerobic Culture
    Field Crops Research, 2012
    Co-Authors: Midori Okami, Yoichiro Kato, Junko Yamagishi
    Abstract:

    Abstract For efficient canopy expansion, field crops must choose between producing more organs or building larger organs. The objective of this study was to characterize the effects of soil water condition (flooded vs. Aerobic) on the allometric relationship between leaf area on the main stem and tiller number (i.e., shoot size vs. shoot number) in nine rice cultivars representing contrasting plant types ( indica , temperate japonica , and tropical japonica ). We also evaluated individual leaf area and plant leaf area in the middle of the vegetative stage for 91 cultivars. In Aerobic fields, soil water potential at a 20-cm depth averaged between −15 and −30 kPa, but frequently reached −60 kPa. The allometric slope (i.e., the ratio of shoot size to shoot number) was lower in Aerobic than in flooded Culture, and was further reduced by increased soil water deficit. Among the nine cultivars, a slight change in the allometric slope was associated with larger variation in leaf area in Aerobic Culture than in flooded Culture. Consequently, cultivars with larger leaves (shoots), mediated by a higher allometric slope, were advantaged compared to those with smaller leaves with respect to early vigor under limited soil moisture. A significant relationship between leaf size and early vigor was also observed for the 91 cultivars grown in Aerobic Culture. The study confirms the existing perception that tropical japonica cultivars are useful genetic sources for yield stability because of their ability to maintain large shoot size despite fluctuations in hydrological conditions.

  • root morphology hydraulic conductivity and plant water relations of high yielding rice grown under Aerobic conditions
    Annals of Botany, 2011
    Co-Authors: Yoichiro Kato, Midori Okami
    Abstract:

    †Background and Aims Increasing physical water scarcity is a major constraint for irrigated rice (Oryza sativa) production. ‘Aerobic rice Culture’ aims to maximize yield per unit water input by growing plants in Aerobic soil without flooding or puddling. The objective was to determine (a) the effect of water management on root morphology and hydraulic conductance, and (b) their roles in plant –water relationships and stomatal condconductance in Aerobic Culture. †Methods Root system development, stomatal condconductance (gs) and leaf water potential (Cleaf ) were monitored in a high-yielding rice cultivar (‘Takanari’) under flooded and Aerobic conditions at two soil moisture levels [nearly saturated (. – 10 kPa) and mildly dry (. –30 kPa)] over 2 years. In an ancillary pot experiment, whole-plant hydraulic conductivity (soil-leaf hydraulic conductance; Kpa) was measured under flooded and Aerobic conditions. †Key Results Adventitious root emergence and lateral root proliferation were restricted even under nearly saturated conditions, resulting in a 72–85 % reduction in total root length under Aerobic Culture conditions. Because of their reduced rooting size, plants grown under Aerobic conditions tended to have lower Kpa than plants grown under flooded conditions. Cleaf was always significantly lower in Aerobic Culture than in flooded Culture, while gs was unchanged when the soil moisture was at around field capacity. gs was inevitably reduced when the soil water potential at 20-cm depth reached –20 kPa. †Conclusions Unstable performance of rice in water-saving cultivations is often associated with reduction in Cleaf. Cleaf may reduce even if Kpa is not significantly changed, but the lower Cleaf would certainly occur in case Kpa reduces as a result of lower water-uptake capacity under Aerobic conditions. Rice performance in Aerobic Culture might be improved through genetic manipulation that promotes lateral root branching and rhizogenesis as well as deep rooting.

Yoichiro Kato – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • rice adaptation to Aerobic soils physiological considerations and implications for agronomy
    Plant Production Science, 2014
    Co-Authors: Yoichiro Kato, Keisuke Katsura
    Abstract:

    AbstractAerobic Culture is a water-saving technique for direct-seeded rice cultivation. Growing rice under continuously unsaturated soil conditions can maximize water-use efficiency and minimize both labor requirements and greenhouse-gas emissions. Under a temperate climate, Aerobic Culture can produce a rice yield greater than 9 t ha–1 especially in central Japan (11.4 t ha–1). Aerobic Culture using large-scale center-pivot sprinklers is being established in the central United States, where yields can surpass 10 t ha–1. However, yields remain at less than 8 t ha–1 in the tropics. The high yield of Japanese Aerobic Culture is mainly attributed to vigorous nitrogen uptake during the reproductive stage, which allows rice plants to produce more spikelets and biomass. Fertilizer management for Aerobic Culture must satisfy both the nitrogen demand and control spikelet density to achieve an appropriate sink–source balance. Unfortunately, the poor development of the root system in rice limits its water uptake fr…

  • Agronomic performance of an IR64 introgression line with large leaves derived from New Plant Type rice in Aerobic Culture
    European Journal of Agronomy, 2014
    Co-Authors: Midori Okami, Yoichiro Kato, Nobuya Kobayashi, Junko Yamagishi
    Abstract:

    Abstract Aerobic Culture is a promising water-saving technology in irrigated rice ecosystems, but the vulnerability of plants to fluctuations in soil moisture constrains leaf expansion and yield. The objective of this study was to examine whether an aboveground architecture with large leaves and reduced tillering is associated with vigorous leaf growth in Aerobic rice Culture. In a series of field experiments, we evaluated the agronomic performance of an IR64 introgression line, YTH323 (IR84640-11-27-1-9-3-2-4-2-2-2-B), with fewer tillers and larger leaves than IR64, derived from New Plant Type rice, under various water and nitrogen conditions. In flooded Culture, YTH323 yielded the same as IR64 and 38% more than IR65564-44-51 (a New Plant Type rice) (9.0 vs. 6.6 t ha −1 ). In Aerobic Culture, in contrast, it yielded 81% more than IR64 in slightly dry soils (5.1 vs. 2.8 t ha −1 ). YTH323 had a higher leaf area index than IR64 and IR65564-44-51 under slightly dry soil conditions and under a range of nitrogen conditions. The higher and more stable yield of YTH323 in Aerobic Culture was attributable to greater early vigor, high specific leaf area, a high ratio of leaf weight to total biomass, and larger leaves, along with the characteristics of high-yield cultivars such as high responsiveness to fertilizers and good grain filling. We conclude that genetic modification of the aboveground architecture of IR64, a typical tropical lowland rice cultivar, to reduce tiller and leaf number improves adaptation to Aerobic Culture.

  • Allometric relationship between the size and number of shoots as a determinant of adaptations in rice to water-saving Aerobic Culture
    Field Crops Research, 2012
    Co-Authors: Midori Okami, Yoichiro Kato, Junko Yamagishi
    Abstract:

    Abstract For efficient canopy expansion, field crops must choose between producing more organs or building larger organs. The objective of this study was to characterize the effects of soil water condition (flooded vs. Aerobic) on the allometric relationship between leaf area on the main stem and tiller number (i.e., shoot size vs. shoot number) in nine rice cultivars representing contrasting plant types ( indica , temperate japonica , and tropical japonica ). We also evaluated individual leaf area and plant leaf area in the middle of the vegetative stage for 91 cultivars. In Aerobic fields, soil water potential at a 20-cm depth averaged between −15 and −30 kPa, but frequently reached −60 kPa. The allometric slope (i.e., the ratio of shoot size to shoot number) was lower in Aerobic than in flooded Culture, and was further reduced by increased soil water deficit. Among the nine cultivars, a slight change in the allometric slope was associated with larger variation in leaf area in Aerobic Culture than in flooded Culture. Consequently, cultivars with larger leaves (shoots), mediated by a higher allometric slope, were advantaged compared to those with smaller leaves with respect to early vigor under limited soil moisture. A significant relationship between leaf size and early vigor was also observed for the 91 cultivars grown in Aerobic Culture. The study confirms the existing perception that tropical japonica cultivars are useful genetic sources for yield stability because of their ability to maintain large shoot size despite fluctuations in hydrological conditions.

Kwok-yung Yuen – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Reduction of Platelet Transfusion– Associated Sepsis by Short–Term Bacterial Culture
    Vox Sanguinis, 1999
    Co-Authors: Kwok-yung Yuen, Tammy Shui-ying Cheng, Elizabeth Kin-ming Chua, Pak-leung Ho
    Abstract:

    Background and Objectives: There is as yet no suitable routine laboratory test for a blood trantransfusion service to detect bacterial contcontamination in platelets. This study evaluates the effectiveness and the applicability of short-term bacterial Culture for such a purpose. Materials and Methods: Samples from 5-unit platelet pools were inoculated into an Aerobic Culture bottle, then monitored for 48 h at 35°C in an automated monitoring and detection system. Results: 26,210 whole-blood-derived platelet components were tested, of which 14 (0.053%) platelet units were found to be contaminated. In addition, nine of the associated red cell units and 4 fresh-frozen plasma units grew the same organisms on Culture. Conclusion: Short-duration bacterial Culture by an automated system is effective and suitable for routine screening in a regional transfusion center.

  • reduction of platelet transfusion associated sepsis by short term bacterial Culture
    Vox Sanguinis, 1999
    Co-Authors: Hingwing Liu, Kwok-yung Yuen, Tammy Shui-ying Cheng, Elizabeth Kin-ming Chua, Kwanbun Lee, C K Lin
    Abstract:

    Background and Objectives: There is as yet no suitable routine laboratory test for a blood trantransfusion service to detect bacterial contcontamination in platelets. This study evaluates the effectiveness and the applicability of short-term bacterial Culture for such a purpose. Materials and Methods: Samples from 5-unit platelet pools were inoculated into an Aerobic Culture bottle, then monitored for 48 h at 35°C in an automated monitoring and detection system. Results: 26,210 whole-blood-derived platelet components were tested, of which 14 (0.053%) platelet units were found to be contaminated. In addition, nine of the associated red cell units and 4 fresh-frozen plasma units grew the same organisms on Culture. Conclusion: Short-duration bacterial Culture by an automated system is effective and suitable for routine screening in a regional transfusion center.

Pak-leung Ho – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Reduction of Platelet Transfusion– Associated Sepsis by Short–Term Bacterial Culture
    Vox Sanguinis, 1999
    Co-Authors: Kwok-yung Yuen, Tammy Shui-ying Cheng, Elizabeth Kin-ming Chua, Pak-leung Ho
    Abstract:

    Background and Objectives: There is as yet no suitable routine laboratory test for a blood transfusion service to detect bacterial contamination in platelets. This study evaluates the effectiveness and the applicability of short-term bacterial Culture for such a purpose. Materials and Methods: Samples from 5-unit platelet pools were inoculated into an Aerobic Culture bottle, then monitored for 48 h at 35°C in an automated monitoring and detection system. Results: 26,210 whole-blood-derived platelet components were tested, of which 14 (0.053%) platelet units were found to be contaminated. In addition, nine of the associated red cell units and 4 fresh-frozen plasma units grew the same organisms on Culture. Conclusion: Short-duration bacterial Culture by an automated system is effective and suitable for routine screening in a regional transfusion center.

C K Lin – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • reduction of platelet transfusion associated sepsis by short term bacterial Culture
    Vox Sanguinis, 1999
    Co-Authors: Hingwing Liu, Kwok-yung Yuen, Tammy Shui-ying Cheng, Elizabeth Kin-ming Chua, Kwanbun Lee, C K Lin
    Abstract:

    Background and Objectives: There is as yet no suitable routine laboratory test for a blood transfusion service to detect bacterial contamination in platelets. This study evaluates the effectiveness and the applicability of short-term bacterial Culture for such a purpose. Materials and Methods: Samples from 5-unit platelet pools were inoculated into an Aerobic Culture bottle, then monitored for 48 h at 35°C in an automated monitoring and detection system. Results: 26,210 whole-blood-derived platelet components were tested, of which 14 (0.053%) platelet units were found to be contaminated. In addition, nine of the associated red cell units and 4 fresh-frozen plasma units grew the same organisms on Culture. Conclusion: Short-duration bacterial Culture by an automated system is effective and suitable for routine screening in a regional transfusion center.