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Loek Groot – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Educational presorting and occupational segregation
    Labour Economics, 1999
    Co-Authors: Lex Borghans, Loek Groot

    Abstract:

    Abstract This article concentrates on the measurement of both occupational and educational segregation between men and women of the Dutch labour force. The majority of studies which have been conducted in this area are rather one-sided, concentrating on occupational segregation only. However, occupational segregation can be split into three components. The first component concerns presorting as a consequence of the different educational choices made by boys and girls. The second component concerns postsorting (given their educational status), as a result of the differing occupational choices and opportunities for promotion between men and women during their careers. If men and women with the same educational background are directed towards different occupations, then postsorting may add to the occupational segregation which was already induced by the earlier educational segregation. This kind of postsorting increases the gap between occupational and educational segregation. The third component, which we refer to as reintegration, is also a kind of postsorting but narrowing the gap between occupational and educational segregation. This occurs when men with a `male type’ of education and women with a `female type’ of education come together in one occupation. Given that educational segregation of the labour force is fixed in the short term, reintegration is the only effective, but probably difficult Affirmative Action Program to reduce occupational segregation in the short term. More usual Programs are ineffective and can even be counterproductive. A more detailed insight into these three components is relevant when choosing the policy instruments needed to achieve equal employment opportunities for men and women. The paper shows that from 1979 until 1993/1994 educational segregation increased, but occupational segregation decreased. Partly, this is explained by increased reintegration, but the main cause of these developments is a clear increase in presorting in education.

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  • Educational presorting as a cause of occupational segregation
    , 1999
    Co-Authors: Lex Borghans, Loek Groot

    Abstract:

    This article concentrates on the measurement of both occupational and educational segre gation between the men and women of the Dutch labour force. The majority of studies which have been conducted in this area are rather one-sided, concentrating on occupational segregation alone. However, occupational segregation can be split into three components. The first component concerns presorting as a consequence of the different educational choices made by boys and girls. The second component concerns postsorting (given their educational status), as a result of the differing occupational choices and opportunities for promotion between men and women during their careers. If men and women with the same educational background are directed towards different occupations, then postsorting may add to the occupational segregation which was already induced by the earlier educational segregation. This kind of postsorting increases the gap between occupational and educational segregation. The third component, which we refer to as reintegration is also a kind of postsorting, narrowing the gap between occupational and educational segregation. This occurs when men with a ”male type” of education and women with a ”female type” of education come together in one occupation. Given that educational segregation of the labour force is fixed in the short term, reintegration is the only effective, but probably difficult Affirmative Action Program to reduce occupational segregation in the short term. More usual Programs are ineffective and can even be counterproductive. After using the Duncan and Duncan segregation index we construct new segregation indices which measure the relative importance of pre- and postsorting in the occupational segregation more accurately. A more detailed insight into these three components is relevant when choosing the policy instruments needed to achieve equal employment opportunities for men and women.

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Ofer Malamud – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • The impact of Israel’s class-based Affirmative Action policy on admission and academic outcomes §
    Economics of Education Review, 2014
    Co-Authors: Sigal Alon, Ofer Malamud

    Abstract:

    In the early to mid-2000s, four flagship Israeli selective universities introduced a voluntary need-blind and color-blind Affirmative Action policy for students from disadvantaged backgrounds. The Program allowed departments to offer admission to academically borderline applicants who were above a certain threshold of disadvantage. We examine the effect of eligibility for Affirmative Action on admission and enrollment outcomes as well as on academic achievement using a regression discontinuity (RD) design. We show that students who were just barely eligible for this voluntary policy had a significantly higher probability of admission and enrollment, as compared to otherwise similar students. The Affirmative Action Program also led to higher rates of admission to the most selective majors. Moreover, after enrollment, AA-eligible students are not falling behind academically, even at the most selective majors. Our results suggest the potential for a long-lasting impact of class-based preferences in admission on social and economic mobility.

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  • the impact of israel s class based Affirmative Action policy on admission and academic outcomes
    Economics of Education Review, 2014
    Co-Authors: Sigal Alon, Ofer Malamud

    Abstract:

    In the early to mid-2000s, four flagship Israeli selective universities introduced a voluntary need-blind and color-blind Affirmative Action policy for students from disadvantaged backgrounds. The Program allowed departments to offer admission to academically borderline applicants who were above a certain threshold of disadvantage. We examine the effect of eligibility for Affirmative Action on admission and enrollment outcomes as well as on academic achievement using a regression discontinuity (RD) design. We show that students who were just barely eligible for this voluntary policy had a significantly higher probability of admission and enrollment, as compared to otherwise similar students. The Affirmative Action Program also led to higher rates of admission to the most selective majors. Moreover, after enrollment, AA-eligible students are not falling behind academically, even at the most selective majors. Our results suggest the potential for a long-lasting impact of class-based preferences in admission on social and economic mobility.

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Richard A Shweder – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • should social psychologists create a disciplinary Affirmative Action Program for political conservatives
    Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 2015
    Co-Authors: Richard A Shweder

    Abstract:

    Freely staying on the move between alternative points of view is the best antidote to dogmatism. Robert Merton’s ideals for an epistemic community are sufficient to correct pseudo-empirical studies designed to confirm beliefs that liberals (or conservatives) think deserve to be true. Institutionalizing the self-proclaimed political identities of social psychologists may make things worse.

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