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Joseph L Price – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • architectonic subdivision of the human orbital and medial prefrontal cortex
    The Journal of Comparative Neurology, 2003
    Co-Authors: Dost Ongur, Amon T Ferry, Joseph L Price

    Abstract:

    The structure of the human orbital and medial prefrontal cortex (OMPFC) was investigated using five histological and immunohistochemical stains and was correlated with a previous analysis in macaque monkeys [Carmichael and Price (1994) J. Comp. Neurol. 346:366–402]. A cortical area was recognized if it was distinct with at least two stains and was found in similar locations in different brains. All of the areas recognized in the macaque OMPFC have counterparts in humans. Areas 11, 13, and 14 were subdivided into areas 11m, 11l, 13a, 13b, 13m, 13l, 14r, and 14c. Within area 10, the region corresponding to area 10m in monkeys was divided into 10m and 10r, and area 10o (orbital) was renamed area 10p (polar). Areas 47/12r, 47/12m, 47/12l, and 47/12s occupy the lateral orbital cortex, corresponding to monkey areas 12r, 12m, 12l, and 12o. The Agranular Insula (areas Iam, Iapm, Iai, and Ial) extends onto the caudal orbital surface and into the horizontal ramus of the lateral sulcus. The growth of the frontal pole in humans has pushed area 25 and area 32pl, which corresponds to the prelimbic area 32 in Brodmann’s monkey brain map, caudal and ventral to the genu of the corpus callosum. Anterior cingulate areas 24a and 24b also extend ventral to the genu of the corpus callosum. Area 32ac, corresponding to the dorsal anterior cingulate area 32 in Brodmann’s human brain map, is anterior and dorsal to the genu. The parallel organization of the OMPFC in monkeys and humans allows experimental data from monkeys to be applied to studies of the human cortex. J. Comp. Neurol. 460:425–449, 2003. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

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  • prefrontal cortical projections to the hypothalamus in macaque monkeys
    The Journal of Comparative Neurology, 1998
    Co-Authors: Dost Ongur, X An, Joseph L Price

    Abstract:

    The organization of projections from the macaque orbital and medial prefrontal cortex (OMPFC) to the hypothalamus and related regions of the diencephalon and midbrain was studied with retrograde and anterograde tracing techniques. Almost all of the prefrontal cortical projections to the hypothalamus arise from areas within the ‘‘medial prefrontal network,’’ as defined previously by Carmichael and Price ([1996] J. Comp. Neurol. 371:179‐ 207). Outside of the OMPFC, only a few neurons in the temporal pole, anterior cingulate and Insular cortex project to the hypothalamus. Axons from the OMPFC also innervate the basal forebrain, zona incerta, and ventral midbrain. Within the medial prefrontal network, different regions project to distinct parts of the hypothalamus. The medial wall areas 25 and 32 send the heaviest projections to the hypothalamus; axons from these areas are especially concentrated in the anterior hypothalamic area and the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus. Orbital areas 13a, 12o, and Iai, which are related to the medial prefrontal network, selectively innervate the lateral hypothalamic area, especially its posterior part. The cellular regions of the paraventricular, supraoptic, suprachiasmatic, arcuate, and mammillary nuclei are conspicuously devoid of cortical axons, but many axons abut the borders of these nuclei and may contact dendrites that extend from them. Areas within the orbital prefrontal network on the posterior orbital surface and Agranular Insula send only weak projections to the posterior lateral hypothalamic area. The rostral orbital surface does not contribute to the cortico-hypothalamic projection. J. Comp.

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  • architectonic subdivision of the orbital and medial prefrontal cortex in the macaque monkey
    The Journal of Comparative Neurology, 1994
    Co-Authors: S T Carmichael, Joseph L Price

    Abstract:

    The orbital and medial prefrontal cortex (OMPFC) of macaque monkeys is a large but little understood region of the cerebral cortex. In this study the architectonic structure of the OMPFC was analyzed with nine histochemical and immunohistochemical stains in 32 individuals of three macaque species. The stains included Nissl, myelin, acetylcholinesterase, Timm, and selenide stains and immunohistochemical stains for parvalbumin, calbindin, a nonphosphorylated neurofilament epitope (with the SMI-32 antibody), and a membrane-bound glycoprotein (with the 8b3 antibody). In addition to patterns of cell bodies and myelinated fibers, these techniques allow the visualization of markers related to metabolism, synapses, and neurotransmitters. A cortical area was defined as distinct if it was differentiated in at least three different stains and, as described in later papers, possessed a distinct set of connections. Twenty-two areas were recognized in the OMPFC. Walker’s areas 10, 11, 12, 13, and 14 [J. Comp. Neurol. (1940) 73:59-86] have been subdivided into areas 10m, 10o, 11m, 11l, 12r, 12l, 12m, 12o, 13m, 13l, 13a, 13b, 14r, and 14c. On the medial wall, areas 32, 25, and 24a,b,c have been delineated, in addition to area 10m. The Agranular Insula also has been recognized to extend onto the posterior orbital surface and has been subdivided into medial, intermediate, lateral, posteromedial, and posterolateral Agranular Insula areas. The OMPFC, therefore, resembles other areas of primate cortex, such as the posterior parietal and temporal cortices, where a large number of relatively small, structurally and connectionally distinct areas have been recognized. Just as the area-specific neurophysiological properties of these parietotemporal areas underlie broader regional functions such as visuospatial analysis, it is likely that the many small areas of the OMPFC also make differential contributions to the general mnemonic, sensory, and affective functions of this region.

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Edmund T. Rolls – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Age differences in the brain mechanisms of good taste
    NeuroImage, 2015
    Co-Authors: Edmund T. Rolls, Michele B. Kellerhals, Thomas E. Nichols

    Abstract:

    There is strong evidence demonstrating age-related differences in the acceptability of foods and beverages. To examine the neural foundations underlying these age-related differences in the acceptability of different flavors and foods, we performed an fMRI study to investigate brain and hedonic responses to orange juice, orange soda, and vegetable juice in three different age groups: Young (22), Middle (40) and Elderly (60 years). Orange juice and orange soda were found to be liked by all age groups, while vegetable juice was disliked by the Young, but liked by the Elderly. In the Insular primary taste cortex, the activations to these stimuli were similar in the 3 age groups, indicating that the differences in liking for these stimuli between the 3 groups were not represented in this first stage of cortical taste processing. In the Agranular Insula (anterior to the Insular primary taste cortex) where flavor is represented, the activations to the stimuli were similar in the Elderly, but in the Young the activations were larger to the vegetable juice than to the orange drinks; and the activations here were correlated with the unpleasantness of the stimuli. In the anterior midcingulate cortex, investigated as a site where the activations were correlated with the unpleasantness of the stimuli, there was again a greater activation to the vegetable than to the orange stimuli in the Young but not in the Elderly. In the amygdala (and orbitofrontal cortex), investigated as sites where the activations were correlated with the pleasantness of the stimuli, there was a smaller activation to the vegetable than to the orange stimuli in the Young but not in the Elderly. The Middle group was intermediate with respect to the separation of their activations to the stimuli in the brain areas that represent the pleasantness or unpleasantness of flavors. Thus age differences in the activations to different flavors can in some brain areas be related to, and probably cause, the differences in pleasantness of foods as they differ for people of different ages. This novel work provides a foundation for understanding the underlying neural bases for differences in food acceptability between age groups.

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  • Neural systems underlying decisions about affective odors
    Journal of cognitive neuroscience, 2010
    Co-Authors: Edmund T. Rolls, Fabian Grabenhorst, Benjamin A. Parris

    Abstract:

    Decision-making about affective value may occur after the reward value of a stimulus is represented and may involve different brain areas to those involved in decision-making about the physical properties of stimuli, such as intensity. In an fMRI study, we delivered two odors separated by a delay, with instructions on different trials to decide which odor was more pleasant or more intense or to rate the pleasantness and intensity of the second odor without making a decision. The fMRI signals in the medial prefrontal cortex area 10 (medial PFC) and in regions to which it projects, including the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and Insula, were higher when decisions were being made compared with ratings, implicating these regions in decision-making. Decision-making about affective value was related to larger signals in the dorsal part of medial area 10 and the Agranular Insula, whereas decisions about intensity were related to larger activations in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dorsolateral PFC), ventral premotor cortex, and anterior Insula. For comparison, the mid orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) had activations related not to decision-making but to subjective pleasantness ratings, providing a continuous representation of affective value. In contrast, areas such as medial area 10 and the ACC are implicated in reaching a decision in which a binary outcome is produced.

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  • Taste-olfactory convergence, and the representation of the pleasantness of flavour
    , 2003
    Co-Authors: Ivan E. T. De Araujo, Edmund T. Rolls, Morten L. Kringelbach, Francis Mcglone, Nicola Phillips

    Abstract:

    The functional architecture of the central taste and olfactory systems in primates provides evidence that the convergence of taste and smell information onto single neurons is realized in the caudal orbitofrontal cortex (and immediately adjacent Agranular Insula). These higher-order association cortical areas thus support ¯avour processing. Much less is known, however, about homologous regions in the human cortex, or how taste±odour interactions, and thus ¯avour perception, are implemented in the human brain. We performed an event-related fMRI study to investigate where in the human brain these interactions between taste and odour stimuli (administered retronasally) may be realized. The brain regions that were activated by both taste and smell included parts of the caudal orbitofrontal cortex, amygdala, Insular cortex and adjoining areas, and anterior cingulate cortex. It was shown that a small part of the anterior (putatively Agranular) Insula responds to unimodal taste and to unimodal olfactory stimuli, and that a part of the anterior frontal operculum is a unimodal taste area (putatively primary taste cortex) not activated by olfactory stimuli. Activations to combined olfactory and taste stimuli where there was little or no activation to either alone (providing positive evidence for interactions between the olfactory and taste inputs) were found in a lateral anterior part of the orbitofrontal cortex. Correlations with consonance ratings for the smell and taste combinations, and for their pleasantness, were found in a medial anterior part of the orbitofrontal cortex. These results provide evidence on the neural substrate for the convergence of taste and olfactory stimuli to produce ¯avour in humans, and where th

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Nicola Phillips – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Taste-olfactory convergence, and the representation of the pleasantness of flavour
    , 2003
    Co-Authors: Ivan E. T. De Araujo, Edmund T. Rolls, Morten L. Kringelbach, Francis Mcglone, Nicola Phillips

    Abstract:

    The functional architecture of the central taste and olfactory systems in primates provides evidence that the convergence of taste and smell information onto single neurons is realized in the caudal orbitofrontal cortex (and immediately adjacent Agranular Insula). These higher-order association cortical areas thus support ¯avour processing. Much less is known, however, about homologous regions in the human cortex, or how taste±odour interactions, and thus ¯avour perception, are implemented in the human brain. We performed an event-related fMRI study to investigate where in the human brain these interactions between taste and odour stimuli (administered retronasally) may be realized. The brain regions that were activated by both taste and smell included parts of the caudal orbitofrontal cortex, amygdala, Insular cortex and adjoining areas, and anterior cingulate cortex. It was shown that a small part of the anterior (putatively Agranular) Insula responds to unimodal taste and to unimodal olfactory stimuli, and that a part of the anterior frontal operculum is a unimodal taste area (putatively primary taste cortex) not activated by olfactory stimuli. Activations to combined olfactory and taste stimuli where there was little or no activation to either alone (providing positive evidence for interactions between the olfactory and taste inputs) were found in a lateral anterior part of the orbitofrontal cortex. Correlations with consonance ratings for the smell and taste combinations, and for their pleasantness, were found in a medial anterior part of the orbitofrontal cortex. These results provide evidence on the neural substrate for the convergence of taste and olfactory stimuli to produce ¯avour in humans, and where th

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  • Taste-olfactory convergence, and the representation of the pleasantness of flavour, in the human brain
    The European journal of neuroscience, 2003
    Co-Authors: Ivan E. T. De Araujo, Edmund T. Rolls, Morten L. Kringelbach, Francis Mcglone, Nicola Phillips

    Abstract:

    The functional architecture of the central taste and olfactory systems in primates provides evidence that the convergence of taste and smell information onto single neurons is realized in the caudal orbitofrontal cortex (and immediately adjacent Agranular Insula). These higher-order association cortical areas thus support flavour processing. Much less is known, however, about homologous regions in the human cortex, or how taste-odour interactions, and thus flavour perception, are implemented in the human brain. We performed an event-related fMRI study to investigate where in the human brain these interactions between taste and odour stimuli (administered retronasally) may be realized. The brain regions that were activated by both taste and smell included parts of the caudal orbitofrontal cortex, amygdala, Insular cortex and adjoining areas, and anterior cingulate cortex. It was shown that a small part of the anterior (putatively Agranular) Insula responds to unimodal taste and to unimodal olfactory stimuli, and that a part of the anterior frontal operculum is a unimodal taste area (putatively primary taste cortex) not activated by olfactory stimuli. Activations to combined olfactory and taste stimuli where there was little or no activation to either alone (providing positive evidence for interactions between the olfactory and taste inputs) were found in a lateral anterior part of the orbitofrontal cortex. Correlations with consonance ratings for the smell and taste combinations, and for their pleasantness, were found in a medial anterior part of the orbitofrontal cortex. These results provide evidence on the neural substrate for the convergence of taste and olfactory stimuli to produce flavour in humans, and where the pleasantness of flavour is represented in the human brain.

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