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Zahid Hussain – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Impact of Socio-Economic Characteristics of Farmers on Access to Agricultural Credit
    , 2013
    Co-Authors: Muhammad Nouman, Muhammad Fahad Siddiqi, Syed Mohammad Asim, Zahid Hussain
    Abstract:

    This study aims to study impact of socio-economic characteristics of farmers on access to Agricultural Credit in Pakistan. Data have been collected using a structured questionnaire from a sample of 80 beneficiaries of formal Agricultural Credit from the district Swabi of Khyber Pahktunkhwa province. Amount of Credit borrowed by the farmers is used as dependent variable whereas, the independent variables are different socio-economic characteristics of the borrowers of the Agricultural Credit including age, marital status, education, number of dependents, other occupations, farm size, farm status, tenancy status, farming experience, income from farming, and income from other occupations. The dependent variable is a categorical variable; therefore the Ordered Logit Model has been used for analysis of data. Findings suggest that the amount of Agricultural Credit that can be borrowed by the farmers is significantly affected by their marital status, farm status, farm size, and education level.

  • IMPACT OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF FARMERS ON ACCESS TO Agricultural Credit
    Sarhad Journal of Agriculture, 2013
    Co-Authors: Muhammad Nouman, Muhammad Fahad Siddiqi, Syed Mohammad Asim, Zahid Hussain
    Abstract:

    This study aims to study impact of socio-economic characteristics of farmers on access to Agricultural Credit in Pakistan. Data have been collected using a structured questionnaire from a sample of 80 beneficiaries of formal Agricultural Credit from the district Swabi of Khyber Pahktunkhwa province. Amount of Credit borrowed by the farmers is used as dependent variable whereas, the independent variables are different socio-economic characteristics of the borrowers of the Agricultural Credit including age, marital status, education, number of dependents, other occupations, farm size, farm status, tenancy status, farming experience, income from farming, and income from other occupations. The dependent variable is a categorical variable; therefore the Ordered Logit Model has been used for analysis of data. Findings suggest that the amount of Agricultural Credit that can be borrowed by the farmers is significantly affected by their marital status, farm status, farm size, and education level. History of modern agriculture has witnessed huge expansion in production. The development of agriculture is mainly due to the extensive use of Credit. Agricultural Credit is considered as an important factor in the course of modernization of agriculture. It creates and maintains adequate flow of inputs, and thus increases efficiency in farm production. It makes farmers able to use modern technologies and advanced practices. Credit facilities are vital for progress of the rural and Agricultural development. In short, Agricultural Credit plays integral role in boosting up the speed of Agricultural modernization and economic development, but only if it is easily and widely available and utilized effectively. Keeping in view the importance of Credit for the agriculture sector, Government of Pakistan is providing low interest rate Credit to farmers. Formal Credit system has been established in rural areas to help farmer in agriculture production. This formal system is implemented in rural areas through establishment of banks, NGOs and cooperative societies etc. The organizations in Pakistan which lend formal Credit are banks especially ZTBL and TACCAVI Loan, and Multi Purpose cooperatives. The informal lenders are also playing significant role in the rural areas of Pakistan since traditional times. Informal sector have comparative advantage in providing better services at low cost than formal sector. The wealthier families in rural area have better access to formal Credit than poorer household. Poorer household mostly depend on the informal lenders. Various researchers have worked in different regions of the world on access to agriculture Credit, obstacles faced by farmers in accessing agriculture Credit, and the impact of their socio-economic characteristics on access to agriculture Credit. This study is an attempt to study the impact of socio-economic characteristics of farmers on access to Agricultural Credit. Limitations of the Study In this study only those farmers are considered who have borrowed from formal Credit sources like Zarai Taraqiyati Bank Limited (ZTBL) and other commercial banks Creditors. But in the rural areas of Pakistan there are many farmers who take Credit from the informal sources, therefore future researches should consider the informal Credits as well.

Ubaid Ali – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • factors determining subsistence farmers access to Agricultural Credit in flood prone areas of pakistan
    The Kasetsart Journal Social Sciences, 2018
    Co-Authors: Shahab E. Saqib, John K M Kuwornu, Sanaullah Panezia, Ubaid Ali
    Abstract:

    Abstract This paper examines the factors influencing farmers’ access to Agricultural Credit in a flood disaster riskprone area in Pakistan. Multistage sampling through a structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 168 subsistence landholders in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The empirical results of the heteroscedasticity corrected and weighted least squares regression with robust standard errors revealed that education, farming experience, total landholding, monthly income, family size, and proportion of owned land were significant factors in farmers’ access to Credit. The findings of this study reveal that socio-economic factors play a key role in farmers’ access to Agricultural Credit in flood-hit areas in Pakistan. Hence, there is a need for Credit policy to address the issues of farmers living in risk-prone areas. Moreover, the existing Credit policy could be amended to protect the interest of tenant farmers, who lack collateral security.

  • Factors influencing farmers’ adoption of Agricultural Credit as a risk management strategy: The case of Pakistan
    International journal of disaster risk reduction, 2016
    Co-Authors: Shahab E. Saqib, Mokbul Morshed Ahmad, Sanaullah Panezai, Ubaid Ali
    Abstract:

    Abstract Agriculture yield is the main source of income in all Agricultural operations. It is indispensable for farmers to ascertain and then manage production risks. Agricultural Credit plays an important role in farm management. It is used around the globe, and particularly in Pakistan, as an ex-ante and ex-post risk management strategy by famers. However, there is limited literature available on the adoption of Agricultural Credit as a risk management strategy in post floods disasters. The purpose of this paper is to study the impacts of socio-economic factors on the adoption of Agricultural Credit as risk management strategy by farmers in Pakistan. This study incorporates explanatory research design to investigate the causal relationship between the dependent (binary) and independent variables. Data were collected through survey and checklist from 168 farmers in the study area. Probit model was employed to explore the said relationships. Risk perception, risk attitude and access to Credit were calculated for each individual and used as independent variables along with other socio-economic factors. Results from probit estimation showed that overall model was a good fit, most of the socio-economic factors were found significant. Experience, education, risk perception of heavy rains, income, distance and access to Credit sources had positive relationship with the adoption of Agricultural Credit.

M V Narayana Swamy – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Performance Evaluation Model for Primary Agricultural Credit Societies
    Vikalpa: The Journal for Decision Makers, 1999
    Co-Authors: Yashavantha Dongre, M V Narayana Swamy
    Abstract:

    This article by Dongre and Narayana Swamy is an attempt to evolve an appropriate statistical model to evaluate the financial performance of the primary Agricultural Credit societies. It is based on the empirical data gathered from 14 sample societies of two talukas in the Dakshina Kannada district of Karnataka state. Considering that fund management is the basic weak link in most primary Agricultural Credit societies, it is imperative that they be able to evaluate their performance and, based on the feedback, restructure their financial policies. It is hoped that the model suggested here comes handy to the management in periodic evaluation, feedback, and followup activities.

Ewa Rabinowicz – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Agricultural Credit market institutions a comparison of selected european countries
    , 2013
    Co-Authors: Kristina Hedman Jansson, Chelsey Jo Huisman, Carl Johan Lagerkvist, Ewa Rabinowicz
    Abstract:

    In this paper, we describe and compare the institutional framework of the Agricultural Credit markets in selected European countries. The institutions can be both formal (rules, regulations, authorities and actors) and informal (norms, values and relations). They also interact and in a situation where the formal institutions are weak, the informal ones increase in importance. The study is based on a questionnaire sent to Agricultural financial experts in selected countries. The case studies show that Credit regulations are typically general, with no specific regulations for the Agricultural Credit market. On the other hand, several countries support Agricultural Credit in various forms, implying that the governments do not perceive the general Credit market to function in the case of Agricultural firms. In a risk assessment, the most frequent reasons for rejecting a loan application are all linked to economic performance and the situation of the farmer. Personal characteristics, such as educational level or lack of experience, were generally perceived as less influential. Another interesting point when it comes to risk assessment is that in some countries the importance of asset-based lending compared with cash flow-based lending seems to differ when concerning a first-time applicant and when there is an application to extend a loan. To get an idea of the availability of Credit, the loan-to-value (LTV) ratio was calculated, and it showed remarkably low values for Poland and Slovakia. For all the countries, the calculated value was lower than what the financial experts would have expected. This might imply Credit rationing in agriculture in some of the countries studied. At the same time, the financial experts all judged the possibility of an Agricultural firm obtaining a loan as higher than that for other small rural firms, implying that the latter are also Credit-rationed.

  • Agricultural Credit market institutions a comparison of selected european countries
    , 2013
    Co-Authors: Kristina Hedman Jansson, Chelsey Jo Huisman, Carl Johan Lagerkvist, Ewa Rabinowicz
    Abstract:

    This paper describes and compares the institutional framework of the Agricultural Credit markets in selected European countries. The institutions can be both formal (rules, regulations, authorities and actors) and informal (norms, values and relations). They also interact and in situations where the formal institutions are weak, the informal ones increase in importance. The study is based on a questionnaire sent to Agricultural financial experts in selected countries.The case studies show that Credit regulations are typically general, with no specific regulations for the Agricultural Credit market. On the other hand, several countries support Agricultural Credit in various forms, implying that the governments do not perceive the general Credit market to function in the case of Agricultural firms. In a risk assessment, the most frequent reasons for rejecting a loan application are all linked to economic performance and the situation of the farmer. Personal characteristics, such as educational level or lack of experience, were generally perceived as less influential. Another interesting point when it comes to risk assessment is that in some countries the importance of asset-based lending compared with cash flow-based lending seems to differ when concerning a first-time applicant and when there is an application to extend a loan. To get an idea of the availability of Credit, the loan-to-value (LTV) ratio was calculated, and it showed remarkably low values for Poland and Slovakia. For all the countries, the calculated value was lower than what the financial experts would have expected. This might imply Credit rationing in agriculture in some of the countries studied. The financial experts all judged the possibility of an Agricultural firm obtaining a loan as higher than that for other small rural firms, implying that the latter are also Credit-rationed.

S. Gandhimathi – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Distribution of Agricultural Credit in the pre and post reform period
    International Journal of Managment IT and Engineering, 2012
    Co-Authors: S. Gandhimathi
    Abstract:

    Agriculture plays a crucial role in the development of the Indian economy. It accounts for about 19 percent of GDP and about two thirds of the population is dependent on the sector. (Economic Survey, 2009). Recognizing the importance of agriculture sector in India’s development, the Government and the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) have played a vital role in creating a broad-based institutional framework for catering to the increasing Credit requirements of the sector. The policy measures increased the institutional sources of Credit. The policy measures increased the institutional sources of Credit. In 1991–1992, the amount of loan issued by the co-operatives was Rs.3934 crore, whereas the scheduled commercial banks disbursed only Rs.2341 crore. The dominance of the co-operatives in the Agricultural loan disbursement was retained till the year 2004–2005. In 2005–2006, the direct loan disbursement from the scheduled commercial banks was higher than the co-operative banks. The amount of direct Agricultural advances from the scheduled commercial banks was Rs.45644 crore whereas it was Rs. 35624 crore for cooperatives in 2005- 2006, the regional rural banks provided Rs.12816 crore in the same year. The Agricultural Credit policies and the economic reform in general aim to have positive influence on the total volume of institutional Credit. However, the rural banking system in India made tremendous quantitative achievement by neglecting the qualitative aspects of the Credit delivery system (Shrivastava and Padma Saxena. 2007). Hence an attempt was made to analyze the “Impact of economic reform on the distribution of Agricultural Credit in India”. To findings of the study shows that the co-operative banks dominated in the total Agricultural Credit disbursement in the pre reform period. The loan outstanding in the direct Agricultural Credit was higher for the co-operatives than the scheduled commercial banks in the pre reform period. The dominance of the co-operatives in the Agricultural loan disbursement was retained till the year 2004–2005. In 2005–2006, the direct loan disbursement from the scheduled commercial banks was higher than the co-operative banks. The distribution of Agricultural Credit in the post reform period was significantly higher than in the pre reform period. The economic reform 1991 had significant impact on the distribution of Agricultural Credit.

  • REGIONAL DISPARITY IN THE DISTRIBUTION OF Agricultural Credit
    International Journal of Physical and Social Sciences, 2012
    Co-Authors: S. Gandhimathi, P. Ambigadevi, V. Shobana
    Abstract:

    The Eleventh Five year plan makes specific focus on the inclusive growth of the economy. It implies that the growth process that experienced over the years were not sufficiently inclusive of all. Although there had been substantial reduction of poverty over past few decades during the five year plans, the core content of the rural poverty remained intractable. In fact, last Ten Five year plan envisaged balanced regional development and equality and employment. But the growth of population and urban biased industrial development have left out the backward section of population and the rural sector in general un-addressed. The Agricultural Credit policies and the economic reform in general aim to have positive influence on the total volume of institutional Credit. However, the rural banking system in India made tremendous quantitative achievement by neglecting the qualitative aspects of the Credit delivery system (Shivamaggi, 2000). The inequalities in the banking system across the regions and social classes persisted (Bell, 1990). Hence an attempt was made to analyze the “Impact of economic reform on the regional disparity in the distribution of Agricultural Credit”.