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Agricultural Education

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Harry N Boone – 1st expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Does Agricultural Education Have a Future
    The Agricultural education magazine, 2015
    Co-Authors: Harry N Boone

    Abstract:

    This is the second issue devoted to the topic of “reflecting on the past while looking to the future.” Over the past two issues I have encountered a familiar problem with Agricultural educators at all levels. They do not like to “toot their own horn.” Keep in mind the old proverb that says “He that toots not his own horn, the same shall not be tooted.” I have had trouble with people not wanting to share their story because they feel their story is not unique. I feel that everyone has a unique story to tell.For this editorial I am going to devote my comments to “does Agricultural Education have a future?” I could answer this question with one word, “yes,” and stop, however, that would leave a lot of blank space on this space. While blank/white space has a role in a publication, two thirds of a page is frowned upon.Does Agricultural Education have a future? Again the answer is “yes,” however there are some lessons from the past we must carry forward to the future. It is easy to listen to the buzz words of today and modify our curriculums to fit. The buzz words of today, however, will quickly be replaced by the buzz words of tomorrow and if we are not careful the Agricultural Education programs built on those buzz words will fade as quickly as the trends they tried to emulate.What were the basic principles that early Agricultural Education programs contained? Others may disagree, however, I would argue that the components that made Agricultural Education great were; experiential learning (what we know as SAEs today), instruction through problem solving, kinesthetic learning, and the use of leadership as a motivational tool. Regardless of the curriculum Agricultural Education must contain these elements to remain strong.A strong Agricultural Education program starts with a modern curriculum. All three phases of the Agricultural Education profession; teachers, teacher educators, and state supervisors; are responsible for making certain this need is met. The curriculum must change with changes in agriculture practices, technology, and needs of the community. In my years in the profession I have seen changes in the profession accelerate at an alarming pace. My career has spanned the introduction of personal computers in the classroom to global positioning devices determining the location and amount of fertilizer that is added to a field.Experiential learning has been the component that has separated Agricultural Education from other Educational programs including most of the career and technical Education areas. It is not enough for Agricultural Education students to learn the material in the classroom/laboratory, they apply these principles/concepts in personal situations through their supervised Agricultural experience programs. …

  • an assessment of problems faced by high school Agricultural Education teachers
    Journal of Agricultural Education, 2009
    Co-Authors: Harry N Boone, Deborah A Boone

    Abstract:

    Leaders in the Agricultural Education profession established a goal to expand the number of programs offering high school agriculture Education over the next 10 years. If the Agricultural Education profession is going to meet this challenge, it will need to increase its supply of qualified teachers. Currently Agricultural Education faces a shortage of qualified teachers. The situation is made worse by the attrition of teachers from the profession. One way to increase the number of qualified Agricultural Education teachers is to reduce the number of teachers who leave the profession early through attrition. The purpose of this study was to identify and quantify the problems faced as beginning teachers and the problems teachers currently face in West Virginia. Financial rewards for teaching were perceived as a moderate to strong problem for teachers as they entered the profession and as a moderate to strong problem for current teachers. Teachers viewed time management, paperwork, and balancing school and home activities as a slight to moderate problem for beginning teachers as well as a slight to moderate problem for current teachers. Respondents also felt facilities-equipment, student motivation, and discipline were slight to moderate problems for beginning teachers. Introduction/Theoretical Framework In 2005, The National Council for Agricultural Education announced a longrange strategic goal of having 10,000 Agricultural science programs in place by the year 2015 (Team Ag Ed, n.d.). To place the 10 x 15 goal in perspective, in 2005 there were 7,242 active FFA chapters with 8,889 FFA advisors (Team Ag Ed). To meet this goal, the Agricultural Education profession will have to generate more than 2,500 additional certified Agricultural Education teachers in the next 10 years, a 33% increase above the average of 760 qualified teachers generated each year (Kantrovich, 2007). The 10 x 15 goal will exacerbate the current shortage of individuals willing to teach Agricultural Education. For example, in 2006 there were 785 individuals newly qualified to teach Agricultural Education. Only 69.8% of these newly qualified teachers entered the teaching profession, leaving 78 teaching positions unfilled (Kantrovich, 2007). Although the numbers have fluctuated, unfilled teaching positions in Agricultural Education have been an annual phenomenon. There are a number of factors that contribute to the teacher shortage. Agricultural Education graduates are qualified for a number of private sector and government positions. In a regional study of Agricultural Education graduates, Hovatter (2002) found that 50% of certified graduates were employed in a profession other than teaching. Croasmun, Hampton, and Herrmann (1999) found that teacher attrition was the largest factor determining the demand for teachers in the United States. Approximately 20% of all K-12 teachers employed in 1994 were not in the same occupation 3 years later (Henke & Zahn, 2001). Nearly one in three first-year teachers employed in the 1970s left the profession (Croasmun et al.). In many situations, attrition is linked to the number and types of problems teachers face. A teacher’s success or failure in their given profession is dependent on their Journal of Agricultural Education Volume 50, Number 1, pp. 21 – 32 DOI: 10.5032/jae.2009.01021 Boone & Boone An Assessment of Problems… Journal of Agricultural Education 22 Volume 50, Number 1, 2009 ability to solve these problems. Numerous studies found salary to be one of the leading reasons for leaving the teaching profession (Ingersoll, 2001, 2003; Self, 2001; U.S. Department of Education, 1999). Many teachers leaving the profession indicated poor administrative support as the reason (Fox & Certo, 1999; Gersten, Gillman, Morvant, & Billingsley, 1995; Ingersoll, 2001, 2003; Self; U.S. Department of Education, 2002). Other problems linked to teacher attrition include lack of parental support (Fox & Certo; Self), lack of involvement in decision making (Fox & Certo; Gersten et al.; Ingersoll, 2001, 2003), student discipline (Ingersoll, 2001, 2003; Self), poor student motivation (Ingersoll, 2001, 2003; Self), large class sizes (Ingersoll, 2001), inadequate time to prepare (Ingersoll, 2001), and lack of community support (Ingersoll, 2001). To meet the 10 x 15 goal established by Team Ag Ed, steps must be taken to increase the supply of qualified Agricultural Education teachers. Because many teachers leave teaching because of problems they face (Fox & Certo, 1999; Gersten et al., 1995; Luekens, Lyter, & Fox, 2004; Self, 2001; U.S. Department of Education, 1999, 2002), the profession needs to devote more time and energy to identifying and providing services to help the teachers through these situations. Review of Literature Job satisfaction is directly linked to the problems faced by teachers of Agricultural Education. Perie and Baker (1997) found that workplace factors/problems such as administrative support, parental involvement, and teacher control over the classroom were significant contributors to teacher satisfaction. A number of studies have examined the job satisfaction of Agricultural Education teachers and found they were satisfied with their jobs (Cano & Miller, 1992; Castillo, Conklin, & Cano, 1999; Flowers & Pepple, 1988; Newcomb, Betts, & Cano, 1987). Teachers who are satisfied with their career also perceive themselves as effective classroom teachers (Bruening & Hoover, 1991). A review of the literature identified the following problems faced by teachers: salaries (Croasmun et al., 1999; Fox & Certo, 1999; Self, 2001; U.S. Department of Education, 2002), marital status (Croasmun et al.), low ability students (Farrington, 1980), student motivation (Farrington; Heath-Camp, Camp, Adams-Casmus, Talbert, & Barber, 1992; Self, 2001; Veenman, 1987), demands of young and adult farmer programs (Farrington; Miller & Scheid, 1984), balancing school and personal lives (Godley, Klug, & Wilson, 1985; Mundt & Connors, 1999), community support (Heath-Camp et al.; Mundt & Connors), management and organizational skills (Godley et al.; Miller & Scheid; Mundt & Connors; Talbert, Camp, & HeathCamp, 1994), student discipline (Godley et al.; Heath-Camp et al.; Karge, 1993; Self; U.S. Department of Education, 1999; Talbert et al.; Veenman), administration support (Fox & Certo; Gersten et al., 1995; Mundt & Connors; Self; Sultana, 2002; Veenman), facilities and equipment (Farrington; Heath-Camp et al.; Veenman), time management (Heath-Camp et al.; Mundt & Connors; Talbert et al.; Veenman), lesson planning (Heath-Camp et al.; Talbert et al.), recruiting students (Mundt & Connors), paperwork (Karge; Mundt & Connors; Veenman), parental relationships (Fox & Certo; Heath-Camp et al.; U.S. Department of Education, 1999, Veenman), stress (U.S. Department of Education, 1999), and preparation (U.S. Department of Education, 2002).

  • PROBLEMS FACED BY HIGH SCHOOL Agricultural Education TEACHERS
    Journal of Agricultural Education, 2007
    Co-Authors: Harry N Boone, Deborah A Boone

    Abstract:

    If the Agricultural Education profession is going to grow and prosper in the 21 st century, it will need an adequate supply of qualified teachers. In 2001, however, the number of qualified potential Agricultural Education teachers actually seeking employment as teachers fell far short of the net number of replacements needed. Two contributing factors include qualified potential teachers fail to accept employment in the profession and many beginning teachers fail to remain in the teaching profession. One way to improve the number of qualified Agricultural Education teachers is to reduce the number of teachers who leave the profession early through attrition. The purpose of this study was to identify problems faced by beginning and current teachers of Agricultural Education. The research revealed 20 problem areas experienced by beginning and current teachers. The categories included administrative support, discipline, class preparations, time management, paperwork, facilities/equipment, community support, self-confidence, developing a course of instruction, budgets/funding, the reputation of the previous teacher, faculty relationships, undergraduate preparation, student motivation, guidance counselors, enrollment numbers, balancing school and home, university relations, special needs students, multi-teacher issues, image of Agricultural Education, financial rewards, and changes in FFA and agriculture.

Deborah A Boone – 2nd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • an assessment of problems faced by high school Agricultural Education teachers
    Journal of Agricultural Education, 2009
    Co-Authors: Harry N Boone, Deborah A Boone

    Abstract:

    Leaders in the Agricultural Education profession established a goal to expand the number of programs offering high school agriculture Education over the next 10 years. If the Agricultural Education profession is going to meet this challenge, it will need to increase its supply of qualified teachers. Currently Agricultural Education faces a shortage of qualified teachers. The situation is made worse by the attrition of teachers from the profession. One way to increase the number of qualified Agricultural Education teachers is to reduce the number of teachers who leave the profession early through attrition. The purpose of this study was to identify and quantify the problems faced as beginning teachers and the problems teachers currently face in West Virginia. Financial rewards for teaching were perceived as a moderate to strong problem for teachers as they entered the profession and as a moderate to strong problem for current teachers. Teachers viewed time management, paperwork, and balancing school and home activities as a slight to moderate problem for beginning teachers as well as a slight to moderate problem for current teachers. Respondents also felt facilities-equipment, student motivation, and discipline were slight to moderate problems for beginning teachers. Introduction/Theoretical Framework In 2005, The National Council for Agricultural Education announced a longrange strategic goal of having 10,000 Agricultural science programs in place by the year 2015 (Team Ag Ed, n.d.). To place the 10 x 15 goal in perspective, in 2005 there were 7,242 active FFA chapters with 8,889 FFA advisors (Team Ag Ed). To meet this goal, the Agricultural Education profession will have to generate more than 2,500 additional certified Agricultural Education teachers in the next 10 years, a 33% increase above the average of 760 qualified teachers generated each year (Kantrovich, 2007). The 10 x 15 goal will exacerbate the current shortage of individuals willing to teach Agricultural Education. For example, in 2006 there were 785 individuals newly qualified to teach Agricultural Education. Only 69.8% of these newly qualified teachers entered the teaching profession, leaving 78 teaching positions unfilled (Kantrovich, 2007). Although the numbers have fluctuated, unfilled teaching positions in Agricultural Education have been an annual phenomenon. There are a number of factors that contribute to the teacher shortage. Agricultural Education graduates are qualified for a number of private sector and government positions. In a regional study of Agricultural Education graduates, Hovatter (2002) found that 50% of certified graduates were employed in a profession other than teaching. Croasmun, Hampton, and Herrmann (1999) found that teacher attrition was the largest factor determining the demand for teachers in the United States. Approximately 20% of all K-12 teachers employed in 1994 were not in the same occupation 3 years later (Henke & Zahn, 2001). Nearly one in three first-year teachers employed in the 1970s left the profession (Croasmun et al.). In many situations, attrition is linked to the number and types of problems teachers face. A teacher’s success or failure in their given profession is dependent on their Journal of Agricultural Education Volume 50, Number 1, pp. 21 – 32 DOI: 10.5032/jae.2009.01021 Boone & Boone An Assessment of Problems… Journal of Agricultural Education 22 Volume 50, Number 1, 2009 ability to solve these problems. Numerous studies found salary to be one of the leading reasons for leaving the teaching profession (Ingersoll, 2001, 2003; Self, 2001; U.S. Department of Education, 1999). Many teachers leaving the profession indicated poor administrative support as the reason (Fox & Certo, 1999; Gersten, Gillman, Morvant, & Billingsley, 1995; Ingersoll, 2001, 2003; Self; U.S. Department of Education, 2002). Other problems linked to teacher attrition include lack of parental support (Fox & Certo; Self), lack of involvement in decision making (Fox & Certo; Gersten et al.; Ingersoll, 2001, 2003), student discipline (Ingersoll, 2001, 2003; Self), poor student motivation (Ingersoll, 2001, 2003; Self), large class sizes (Ingersoll, 2001), inadequate time to prepare (Ingersoll, 2001), and lack of community support (Ingersoll, 2001). To meet the 10 x 15 goal established by Team Ag Ed, steps must be taken to increase the supply of qualified Agricultural Education teachers. Because many teachers leave teaching because of problems they face (Fox & Certo, 1999; Gersten et al., 1995; Luekens, Lyter, & Fox, 2004; Self, 2001; U.S. Department of Education, 1999, 2002), the profession needs to devote more time and energy to identifying and providing services to help the teachers through these situations. Review of Literature Job satisfaction is directly linked to the problems faced by teachers of Agricultural Education. Perie and Baker (1997) found that workplace factors/problems such as administrative support, parental involvement, and teacher control over the classroom were significant contributors to teacher satisfaction. A number of studies have examined the job satisfaction of Agricultural Education teachers and found they were satisfied with their jobs (Cano & Miller, 1992; Castillo, Conklin, & Cano, 1999; Flowers & Pepple, 1988; Newcomb, Betts, & Cano, 1987). Teachers who are satisfied with their career also perceive themselves as effective classroom teachers (Bruening & Hoover, 1991). A review of the literature identified the following problems faced by teachers: salaries (Croasmun et al., 1999; Fox & Certo, 1999; Self, 2001; U.S. Department of Education, 2002), marital status (Croasmun et al.), low ability students (Farrington, 1980), student motivation (Farrington; Heath-Camp, Camp, Adams-Casmus, Talbert, & Barber, 1992; Self, 2001; Veenman, 1987), demands of young and adult farmer programs (Farrington; Miller & Scheid, 1984), balancing school and personal lives (Godley, Klug, & Wilson, 1985; Mundt & Connors, 1999), community support (Heath-Camp et al.; Mundt & Connors), management and organizational skills (Godley et al.; Miller & Scheid; Mundt & Connors; Talbert, Camp, & HeathCamp, 1994), student discipline (Godley et al.; Heath-Camp et al.; Karge, 1993; Self; U.S. Department of Education, 1999; Talbert et al.; Veenman), administration support (Fox & Certo; Gersten et al., 1995; Mundt & Connors; Self; Sultana, 2002; Veenman), facilities and equipment (Farrington; Heath-Camp et al.; Veenman), time management (Heath-Camp et al.; Mundt & Connors; Talbert et al.; Veenman), lesson planning (Heath-Camp et al.; Talbert et al.), recruiting students (Mundt & Connors), paperwork (Karge; Mundt & Connors; Veenman), parental relationships (Fox & Certo; Heath-Camp et al.; U.S. Department of Education, 1999, Veenman), stress (U.S. Department of Education, 1999), and preparation (U.S. Department of Education, 2002).

  • PROBLEMS FACED BY HIGH SCHOOL Agricultural Education TEACHERS
    Journal of Agricultural Education, 2007
    Co-Authors: Harry N Boone, Deborah A Boone

    Abstract:

    If the Agricultural Education profession is going to grow and prosper in the 21 st century, it will need an adequate supply of qualified teachers. In 2001, however, the number of qualified potential Agricultural Education teachers actually seeking employment as teachers fell far short of the net number of replacements needed. Two contributing factors include qualified potential teachers fail to accept employment in the profession and many beginning teachers fail to remain in the teaching profession. One way to improve the number of qualified Agricultural Education teachers is to reduce the number of teachers who leave the profession early through attrition. The purpose of this study was to identify problems faced by beginning and current teachers of Agricultural Education. The research revealed 20 problem areas experienced by beginning and current teachers. The categories included administrative support, discipline, class preparations, time management, paperwork, facilities/equipment, community support, self-confidence, developing a course of instruction, budgets/funding, the reputation of the previous teacher, faculty relationships, undergraduate preparation, student motivation, guidance counselors, enrollment numbers, balancing school and home, university relations, special needs students, multi-teacher issues, image of Agricultural Education, financial rewards, and changes in FFA and agriculture.

  • modernizing the Agricultural Education curriculum an analysis of Agricultural Education teachers attitudes knowledge and understanding of biotechnology
    Journal of Agricultural Education, 2006
    Co-Authors: Harry N Boone, Stacy A Gartin, Deborah A Boone, Jason E Hughes

    Abstract:

    In 1917, the Smith-Hughes Act encouraged the development of an Agricultural Education curriculum that spread innovative farming techniques throughout the nation. During the last half of the 20 th century, however, many programs failed to keep pace with rapidly changing technologies. In a major study funded by the National Academy of Sciences (National Research Council, Board on Agriculture, Committee on Agricultural Education in Secondary Schools, 1988), much of the focus and content of many vocational agriculture programs was found to be outdated. The authors challenged the profession to broaden the relevance and scope of the Agricultural Education curriculum to better prepare students for the study of agriculture. One response to this challenge was to infuse more science and technology into the Agricultural Education curriculum. The purpose of this descriptive research study was to provide information on the attitudes and knowledge of biotechnology by Agricultural Education teachers in West Virginia. A major finding of the study was the Agricultural Education teachers possessed a positive attitude towards biotechnology, but lacked the resources and knowledge to incorporate the subject matter into their curriculum. Teachers perceive themselves with more knowledge on biotechnology topics traditionally associated with agriculture (animal reproduction, hybridization) and less knowledge on topics associated with other fields (environmental biotechnology, human genomics).

James E. Dyer – 3rd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • structuring Agricultural Education research using conceptual and theoretical frameworks
    Journal of Agricultural Education, 2003
    Co-Authors: James E. Dyer, Penny S Haasewittler, Shannon G Washburn

    Abstract:

    The purpose of this study was to examine the degree to which Agricultural Education research has adhered to a structured approach over the past decade. Specifically, the study sought to determine the types of research conducted in Agricultural Education, the extent to which researchers used conceptual and theoretical frameworks, the extent to which conclusions addressed conceptual and/or theoretical frameworks, and to assess how the formation and use of conceptual and theoretical frameworks had changed over the past decade. The researchers evaluated all research articles published in the Journal of Agricultural Education from 1990 through 1999. Findings revealed that the majority of the research conducted in Agricultural Education over the past decade has been quantitative, applied survey research. Only 29% of the articles reviewed cited an appropriate theoretical framework. However, over 87% cited an appropriate and clear conceptual framework. It was found that researchers cited a limited number of references in establishing conceptual and theoretical frameworks, and often failed to relate their findings back to those frameworks. Selection and use of theoretical frameworks improved over the decade, although the number of studies with appropriate frameworks was still considered low. Articles accepted to the journal exhibited less well-developed conceptual frameworks as the decade progressed.

  • PERCEPTIONS OF IOWA SECONDARY SCHOOL PRINCIPALS TOWARD Agricultural Education
    Journal of Agricultural Education, 2000
    Co-Authors: Neasa Kalme, James E. Dyer

    Abstract:

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine principals ‘perceptions of secondary Agricultural Education programs in Iowa high schools with Agricultural Education programs. A stratified random sample consisting of 147 principals was selected. Researcher-constructed questionnaires were developed, tested and mailed to a stratified random sample of principals. Strata consisted of Agricultural Education districts as outlined by the State of Iowa Department of Education. Overall, principals expressed favorable perceptions of agriculture programs, courses, and teachers. They expressed perceptions that students enjoy Agricultural Education courses and believed those courses reinforced learning in other subject matter areas. The overall knowledge or familiarity level of Agricultural Education programs by principals was generally positive. Principals believed Agricultural Education teachers were high quality teachers, but did not believe they were more effective than other teachers. Principals tended to support Agricultural Education programs, and disagreed with the statement that Agricultural Education courses provided little for students ‘ intellectual development. They also perceived Agricultural Education programs to be important to their community, and that any high school student could benefit from coursework in Agricultural Education. Recommendations included further research to determine the relationship of principals ‘perceptions to actual practices of support.