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Agricultural Management

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Fuensanta Garciaorenes – 1st expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • changes in soil microbial community structure influenced by Agricultural Management practices in a mediterranean agro ecosystem
    PLOS ONE, 2013
    Co-Authors: Fuensanta Garciaorenes, Raul Zornoza, Alicia Morugancoronado, Kate M Scow

    Abstract:

    Agricultural practices have proven to be unsuitable in many cases, causing considerable reductions in soil quality. Land Management practices can provide solutions to this problem and contribute to get a sustainable agriculture model. The main objective of this work was to assess the effect of different Agricultural Management practices on soil microbial community structure (evaluated as abundance of phospholipid fatty acids, PLFA). Five different treatments were selected, based on the most common practices used by farmers in the study area (eastern Spain): residual herbicides, tillage, tillage with oats and oats straw mulching; these Agricultural practices were evaluated against an abandoned land after farming and an adjacent long term wild forest coverage. The results showed a substantial level of differentiation in the microbial community structure, in terms of Management practices, which was highly associated with soil organic matter content. Addition of oats straw led to a microbial community structure closer to wild forest coverage soil, associated with increases in organic carbon, microbial biomass and fungal abundances. The microbial community composition of the abandoned Agricultural soil was characterised by increases in both fungal abundances and the metabolic quotient (soil respiration per unit of microbial biomass), suggesting an increase in the stability of organic carbon. The ratio of bacteria:fungi was higher in wild forest coverage and land abandoned systems, as well as in the soil treated with oat straw. The most intensively managed soils showed higher abundances of bacteria and actinobacteria. Thus, the application of organic matter, such as oats straw, appears to be a sustainable Management practice that enhances organic carbon, microbial biomass and activity and fungal abundances, thereby changing the microbial community structure to one more similar to those observed in soils under wild forest coverage.

  • soil structural stability and erosion rates influenced by Agricultural Management practices in a semi arid mediterranean agro ecosystem
    Soil Use and Management, 2012
    Co-Authors: Fuensanta Garciaorenes, A Roldan, Jorge Mataixsolera, Artemi Cerda, M Campoy, V Arcenegui, F Caravaca

    Abstract:

    Unsuitable Agricultural practices can cause loss in soil quality and erodibility to thus increase or trigger desertification under Mediterranean conditions. A field experiment was performed at the El Teularet-Sierra de Enguera Experimental Station (eastern Spain) to assess the influence during a 5-yr period of different Agricultural practices on physical and chemical indicators of soil quality (total and water-soluble carbohydrates, glomalin-related soil proteins (GRSP), total organic carbon, aggregate stability (AS), vegetation cover and soil erosion). The Management practices included residual herbicide use, ploughing, ploughing + oats, addition of oat straw mulch and a control (land abandonment). Adjacent soil under natural vegetation was used as a reference for local, high-quality soil and as a control for comparison with the Agricultural soils under different Management practices. Oat straw mulching led to higher levels of water-soluble carbohydrates, GRSP and AS and lower soil erosion rates, resulting in values similar to those in the soil under native vegetation. The lowest levels of carbohydrates and GRSP were for the plots that were treated with herbicide or were ploughed. The maintenance of and increases in stable aggregates promoted by the different Agricultural Management practices over the years were attributed to increases in labile organic fractions such as carbohydrates and to the GRSP content. The results demonstrate that land abandonment (control plot) or the use of a cover (plants or straw) contributes to increases in soil quality and reduces the risk of erosion. The research also shows that sustainable Agricultural Management allows soil to recover and that the use of straw mulching is the most effective Management strategy.

  • soil microbial biomass and activity under different Agricultural Management systems in a semiarid mediterranean agroecosystem
    Soil & Tillage Research, 2010
    Co-Authors: Fuensanta Garciaorenes, A Roldan, Jorge Mataixsolera, Artemi Cerda, M Campoy, C Guerrero, Raul Zornoza, G M Barcenas, F Caravaca

    Abstract:

    Abstract A field experiment was carried out in a semiarid Agricultural Mediterranean area located at the “El Teularet” experimental field in the Enguera Sierra (Valencia, southeast Spain) to assess the influence of different Agricultural Management systems on indicators of soil biological quality and activity (microbial biomass C, basal respiration, C mineralization coefficients, metabolic quotient (qCO2), respiratory quotient (RQ: moles CO2 evolved/moles O2 consumed), soluble C and dehydrogenase, urease, protease-BAA, phosphatase and β-glucosidase activities), one year after treatment establishment. The Management practices assayed were as follows: application of the herbicides paraquat, glyphosate or oxyfluorfen, addition of olive tree pruning residues, ploughing, sowing of oats + addition of crop residues + ploughing, sowing of Medicago sativa, sowing of oats and vetch + addition of crop residues and addition of oat straw. A non-treated plot was used as control soil and a plot under natural vegetation was used as a standard of local, high quality soil. The plots with addition of oat straw had higher values of enzymatic activity, microbial biomass and respiration, reaching similar values to soil under native vegetation. The lowest levels of soil biological quality indicators were observed in the plots with application of some type of herbicide. Low RQ values were observed in these plots as consequence of the scarce-null inputs of organic matter, suggesting an increase in organic matter recalcitrance. The addition of oat straw to soil can be considered an effective technology, due to the rapid improvement of soil quality, for carrying out sustainable agriculture in semiarid Mediterranean agroecosystems.

Raul Zornoza – 2nd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • changes in soil microbial community structure influenced by Agricultural Management practices in a mediterranean agro ecosystem
    PLOS ONE, 2013
    Co-Authors: Fuensanta Garciaorenes, Raul Zornoza, Alicia Morugancoronado, Kate M Scow

    Abstract:

    Agricultural practices have proven to be unsuitable in many cases, causing considerable reductions in soil quality. Land Management practices can provide solutions to this problem and contribute to get a sustainable agriculture model. The main objective of this work was to assess the effect of different Agricultural Management practices on soil microbial community structure (evaluated as abundance of phospholipid fatty acids, PLFA). Five different treatments were selected, based on the most common practices used by farmers in the study area (eastern Spain): residual herbicides, tillage, tillage with oats and oats straw mulching; these Agricultural practices were evaluated against an abandoned land after farming and an adjacent long term wild forest coverage. The results showed a substantial level of differentiation in the microbial community structure, in terms of Management practices, which was highly associated with soil organic matter content. Addition of oats straw led to a microbial community structure closer to wild forest coverage soil, associated with increases in organic carbon, microbial biomass and fungal abundances. The microbial community composition of the abandoned Agricultural soil was characterised by increases in both fungal abundances and the metabolic quotient (soil respiration per unit of microbial biomass), suggesting an increase in the stability of organic carbon. The ratio of bacteria:fungi was higher in wild forest coverage and land abandoned systems, as well as in the soil treated with oat straw. The most intensively managed soils showed higher abundances of bacteria and actinobacteria. Thus, the application of organic matter, such as oats straw, appears to be a sustainable Management practice that enhances organic carbon, microbial biomass and activity and fungal abundances, thereby changing the microbial community structure to one more similar to those observed in soils under wild forest coverage.

  • soil microbial biomass and activity under different Agricultural Management systems in a semiarid mediterranean agroecosystem
    Soil & Tillage Research, 2010
    Co-Authors: Fuensanta Garciaorenes, A Roldan, Jorge Mataixsolera, Artemi Cerda, M Campoy, C Guerrero, Raul Zornoza, G M Barcenas, F Caravaca

    Abstract:

    Abstract A field experiment was carried out in a semiarid Agricultural Mediterranean area located at the “El Teularet” experimental field in the Enguera Sierra (Valencia, southeast Spain) to assess the influence of different Agricultural Management systems on indicators of soil biological quality and activity (microbial biomass C, basal respiration, C mineralization coefficients, metabolic quotient (qCO2), respiratory quotient (RQ: moles CO2 evolved/moles O2 consumed), soluble C and dehydrogenase, urease, protease-BAA, phosphatase and β-glucosidase activities), one year after treatment establishment. The Management practices assayed were as follows: application of the herbicides paraquat, glyphosate or oxyfluorfen, addition of olive tree pruning residues, ploughing, sowing of oats + addition of crop residues + ploughing, sowing of Medicago sativa, sowing of oats and vetch + addition of crop residues and addition of oat straw. A non-treated plot was used as control soil and a plot under natural vegetation was used as a standard of local, high quality soil. The plots with addition of oat straw had higher values of enzymatic activity, microbial biomass and respiration, reaching similar values to soil under native vegetation. The lowest levels of soil biological quality indicators were observed in the plots with application of some type of herbicide. Low RQ values were observed in these plots as consequence of the scarce-null inputs of organic matter, suggesting an increase in organic matter recalcitrance. The addition of oat straw to soil can be considered an effective technology, due to the rapid improvement of soil quality, for carrying out sustainable agriculture in semiarid Mediterranean agroecosystems.

  • effects of Agricultural Management on surface soil properties and soil water losses in eastern spain
    Soil & Tillage Research, 2009
    Co-Authors: Fuensanta Garciaorenes, Jorge Mataixsolera, Artemi Cerda, V Arcenegui, C Guerrero, Raul Zornoza, Merche B Bodi, J G Sempere

    Abstract:

    Abstract In Spain, agriculture triggers soil degradation and erosion processes. New strategies have to be developed to reduce soil losses and recover or maintain soil functionality in order to achieve a sustainable agriculture. An experiment was designed to evaluate the effect of different Agricultural Management on soil properties and soil erosion. Five different treatments (ploughing, herbicide, control, straw mulch and chipped pruned branches) were established in “El Teularet experimental station” located in the Sierra de Enguera (Valencia, Spain). Soil sampling was conducted prior to treatment establishment, and again after 16 months, to determine soil organic matter content (OM), aggregate stability (AS), and microbial biomass carbon content (C mic ). Fifty rainfall simulations tests (55 mm during one hour, 5-year return period) were applied to measure soil and water losses under each treatment. The highest values of OM, AS and C mic were observed in the straw-covered plot, where soil and water losses were negligible. On the contrary, the plot treated with herbicides had the highest soil losses and a slight reduction in C mic . Soil erosion control was effective after 16 months on the plots where vegetation was present while on the ploughed and herbicide-treated plots, the practices were not sustainable due to large water and soil losses. Except for the straw mulch plot, soil properties (OM, AS, C mic ) were not enhanced by the new land Managements, but soil erosion control was achieved on three of the five plots used (weeds, weeds plus straw and weeds plus chipped pruned branches). Erosion control strategies such as weeds, weeds plus straw mulch and weeds plus chipped branches mulch are highly efficient in reducing soil losses on traditional herbicide-treated and ploughed Agricultural land. However, it takes longer to recover other soil properties such as OM, AS, and C mic .

Regis R Simard – 3rd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Integrating Soil Phosphorus Testing into Environmentally Based Agricultural Management Practices
    Journal of Environment Quality, 2010
    Co-Authors: J. T. Sims, A C Edwards, Oscar F. Schoumans, Regis R Simard

    Abstract:

    Soil testing has been an accepted Agricultural Management practice for decades. Interpretations and fertility recommendations based on soil analyses and the information obtained with soil samples on cropping systems, tillage practices, soil types, manure use, and other parameters have contributed to the increased efficiency of Agricultural production. Recently, however, analyses of long-term trends in soil test P values have shown that soil P in many areas of the world is now excessive, relative to crop P requirements. The role of P in the eutrophication of surface waters and emerging concerns about the human health impacts of toxic algal/dinoflagellate blooms have heightened public awareness of nonpoint source pollution by Agricultural P. The greatest concerns are with animal-based agriculture, where farm and watershed-scale P surpluses and over-application of P to soils are common. The need for nutrient-Management plans based on N and P is now an issue of intense debate in the U.S. and Canada. This paper addresses three issues: Should the applications of organic wastes and fertilizers be based on soil P and, if so, what is the most appropriate testing method to assess environmental risk? How can our knowledge of soil P chemistry be integrated with the expertise of hydrologists, agronomists, aquatic ecologists, and others to assess the risks that P in Agricultural soils poses to surface waters? And, finally, how can we use soil P testing to evaluate new best Management practices (BMPs) now being developed to reduce P transport from soil to water?