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Elaine S. Brouillard – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Phosphorus removal in a surface-flow constructed wetland treating Agricultural Runoff.
    Journal of environmental quality, 2014
    Co-Authors: Marc W. Beutel, Matthew R. Morgan, Jonathan J. Erlenmeyer, Elaine S. Brouillard
    Abstract:

    Agricultural Runoff is a leading source of phosphorus (P) pollution to lakes and streams. The objective of this study was to evaluate P removal dynamics in a constructed treatment wetlwetland (CTW) treating Agricultural irrigation return flows. The CTW included a sedimentation basin (SB) followed by two surface-flow wetlands in parallel. Typical retention times and total P (TP) loading were 1.4 d and 50 to 110 g m⁻² yr⁻¹ P, respectively, for the SB and 5 to 6 d and 4 to 10 g m⁻² yr⁻¹ P, respectively, for wetlands. On the basis of this multiyear study, concentration removal efficiency in the SB averaged 21% for TP and 32% for reactive phosphorus (RP). Concentration removal efficiency in wetlands averaged 37 and 43% for TP and 22 and 33% for RP. Areal first-order removal rates for TP averaged 22 and 31 m yr⁻¹ in wetlands. Total P removal in wetlands exhibited a strong seasonal pattern, with minimum removal in the summer when high temperatures likely enhanced P release from decaying plant biomass. The performance of the CTW was stochastic, with removal unpredictably poorer in some years in part as a result of muskrat bioturbation and plant harvesting. In years before muskrat impacts, concentration removal efficiencies in wetlands were 50% for TP and 65% for RP.

  • Fecal coliform removal in a lightly loaded surface-flow constructed treatment wetland polishing Agricultural Runoff.
    Water science and technology : a journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research, 2013
    Co-Authors: Marc W. Beutel, Victoria Whritenour, Elaine S. Brouillard
    Abstract:

    Constructed treatment wetlands can be an effective and sustainable method to remove pathogens that pose health risks from Agricultural Runoff. This study evaluated the removal of fecal coliform (FC) from Agricultural Runoff in a lightly loaded surface-flow treatment wetlwetland prior to discharge to the Yakima River, Washington State, USA. The 1.6 ha system consisted of a sedimentation basin (1.4 d hydraulic retention time) followed by two wetlands (5–6 d hydraulic retention time). FC in inflow ranged from 100 to 1,000 cfu/100 mL. Mean annual FC log-removal in the sedimentation basin was 0.66 ± 0.17 (mean plus/minus standard deviation; n = 7). However, there was a comparable production of FC within the two wetlands where annual log-removal averaged −0.71 ± 0.39 in the north wetland and −0.57 ± 0.17 in the south wetland. FC removal in the sedimentation basin weakly correlated with turbidity removal ( R 2 = 0.13, p n = 61), suggesting that settling was an important FC loss mechanism. FC removal in the wetlands negatively correlated with temperature ( R 2 = 0.27–0.33, p n = 26) indicating that survival and/or reproduction was an important FC production mechanism. Muskrat colonization in the wetlands in 2007 and 2008 corresponded with a marked increase in FC in wetland outflow. Results suggest that, regardless of the presence of muskrats, sedimentation basins alone are more effective than a combined sedimentation basin–wetland system in removing FC from dilute Agricultural Runoff.

  • Nitrate removal in surface-flow constructed wetlands treating dilute Agricultural Runoff in the lower Yakima Basin, Washington
    Ecological Engineering, 2009
    Co-Authors: Marc W. Beutel, Elaine S. Brouillard, Crystal D. Newton, Richard J. Watts
    Abstract:

    Abstract Constructed treatment wetlands (CTWs) have been used effectively to treat a range of wastewaters and non-point sources contaminated with nitrogen (N). But documented long-term case studies of CTWs treating dilute nitrate-dominated Agricultural Runoff are limited. This study presents an analysis of four years of water quality data for a 1.6-ha surface-flow CTW treating irrigation return flows in Yakima Basin in central Washington. The CTW consisted of a sedimentation basin followed by two surface-flow wetlands in parallel, each with three cells. Inflow typically contained 1–3 mg-N/L nitrate and 2 /d. Outflow from the CTW typically contained θ for nitrate loss in the wetlands was 1.05–1.09. The CTW also significantly affected temperature and dissolved oxygen concentration in waters flowing through the system. On average, the sedimentation basin caused an increase in temperature (+1.7 °C) and dissolved oxygen (+1.5 mg/L); in contrast the wetlands caused a decrease in temperature (−1.6 °C) and dissolved oxygen (−5.0 mg/L). Results show that CTWs with surface-flow wetlands can be extremely effective at polishing dilute non-point sources, particularly in semi-arid environments where warm temperatures and low oxygen levels in treatment wetlwetland water promote biological denitrification.

Marc W. Beutel – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Phosphorus removal in a surface-flow constructed wetland treating Agricultural Runoff.
    Journal of environmental quality, 2014
    Co-Authors: Marc W. Beutel, Matthew R. Morgan, Jonathan J. Erlenmeyer, Elaine S. Brouillard
    Abstract:

    Agricultural Runoff is a leading source of phosphorus (P) pollution to lakes and streams. The objective of this study was to evaluate P removal dynamics in a constructed treatment wetland (CTW) treating Agricultural irrigation return flows. The CTW included a sedimentation basin (SB) followed by two surface-flow wetlands in parallel. Typical retention times and total P (TP) loading were 1.4 d and 50 to 110 g m⁻² yr⁻¹ P, respectively, for the SB and 5 to 6 d and 4 to 10 g m⁻² yr⁻¹ P, respectively, for wetlands. On the basis of this multiyear study, concentration removal efficiency in the SB averaged 21% for TP and 32% for reactive phosphorus (RP). Concentration removal efficiency in wetlands averaged 37 and 43% for TP and 22 and 33% for RP. Areal first-order removal rates for TP averaged 22 and 31 m yr⁻¹ in wetlands. Total P removal in wetlands exhibited a strong seasonal pattern, with minimum removal in the summer when high temperatures likely enhanced P release from decaying plant biomass. The performance of the CTW was stochastic, with removal unpredictably poorer in some years in part as a result of muskrat bioturbation and plant harvesting. In years before muskrat impacts, concentration removal efficiencies in wetlands were 50% for TP and 65% for RP.

  • Fecal coliform removal in a lightly loaded surface-flow constructed treatment wetland polishing Agricultural Runoff.
    Water science and technology : a journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research, 2013
    Co-Authors: Marc W. Beutel, Victoria Whritenour, Elaine S. Brouillard
    Abstract:

    Constructed treatment wetlands can be an effective and sustainable method to remove pathogens that pose health risks from Agricultural Runoff. This study evaluated the removal of fecal coliform (FC) from Agricultural Runoff in a lightly loaded surface-flow treatment wetland prior to discharge to the Yakima River, Washington State, USA. The 1.6 ha system consisted of a sedimentation basin (1.4 d hydraulic retention time) followed by two wetlands (5–6 d hydraulic retention time). FC in inflow ranged from 100 to 1,000 cfu/100 mL. Mean annual FC log-removal in the sedimentation basin was 0.66 ± 0.17 (mean plus/minus standard deviation; n = 7). However, there was a comparable production of FC within the two wetlands where annual log-removal averaged −0.71 ± 0.39 in the north wetland and −0.57 ± 0.17 in the south wetland. FC removal in the sedimentation basin weakly correlated with turbidity removal ( R 2 = 0.13, p n = 61), suggesting that settling was an important FC loss mechanism. FC removal in the wetlands negatively correlated with temperature ( R 2 = 0.27–0.33, p n = 26) indicating that survival and/or reproduction was an important FC production mechanism. Muskrat colonization in the wetlands in 2007 and 2008 corresponded with a marked increase in FC in wetland outflow. Results suggest that, regardless of the presence of muskrats, sedimentation basins alone are more effective than a combined sedimentation basin–wetland system in removing FC from dilute Agricultural Runoff.

  • Nitrate removal in surface-flow constructed wetlands treating dilute Agricultural Runoff in the lower Yakima Basin, Washington
    Ecological Engineering, 2009
    Co-Authors: Marc W. Beutel, Elaine S. Brouillard, Crystal D. Newton, Richard J. Watts
    Abstract:

    Abstract Constructed treatment wetlands (CTWs) have been used effectively to treat a range of wastewaters and non-point sources contaminated with nitrogen (N). But documented long-term case studies of CTWs treating dilute nitrate-dominated Agricultural Runoff are limited. This study presents an analysis of four years of water quality data for a 1.6-ha surface-flow CTW treating irrigation return flows in Yakima Basin in central Washington. The CTW consisted of a sedimentation basin followed by two surface-flow wetlands in parallel, each with three cells. Inflow typically contained 1–3 mg-N/L nitrate and 2 /d. Outflow from the CTW typically contained θ for nitrate loss in the wetlands was 1.05–1.09. The CTW also significantly affected temperature and dissolved oxygen concentration in waters flowing through the system. On average, the sedimentation basin caused an increase in temperature (+1.7 °C) and dissolved oxygen (+1.5 mg/L); in contrast the wetlands caused a decrease in temperature (−1.6 °C) and dissolved oxygen (−5.0 mg/L). Results show that CTWs with surface-flow wetlands can be extremely effective at polishing dilute non-point sources, particularly in semi-arid environments where warm temperatures and low oxygen levels in treatment wetland water promote biological denitrification.

Joan García – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Evaluation of daily and seasonal variations in a semi-closed photobioreactor for microalgae-based bioremediation of Agricultural Runoff at full-scale
    Algal Research, 2020
    Co-Authors: Rubén Díez-montero, María Jesús García-galán, Enrica Uggetti, Antonio Ortiz, Vojtech Belohlav, Joan García
    Abstract:

    Abstract Microalgae-based treatment systems are a suitable solution for Agricultural wastewater treatment in order to tackle eutrophication. Valuable biomass can be produced in photobioreactors while removing nutrients from Agricultural Runoff. However, little is known about experiences of microalgae systems for bioremediation of Agricultural wastewater. This study evaluated for one year the performance of a full-scale semi-closed photobioreactor treating Agricultural Runoff and partially treated domestic wastewater, located in a coastal area in Barcelona (Spain, 41.288 N and 2.043 E, UTM), characterized by Mediterranean climate. The evaluation of the daily variations highlighted specific features of the photobioreactor, such as the cooling capacity of the lateral open tanks, which avoided the extremely high temperatures that would be reached in closed systems, eventually reporting daily variations of temperature similar to those in open systems. The open tanks also allowed for oxygen release, maintaining the dissolved oxygen concentration below inhibiting levels. In turn, the paddle wheels were able to aerate the mixed liquor during night when the dissolved oxygen concentration was lower than the saturation value. Regarding the dynamics of nitrogen removal, ammonium was rapidly removed after feeding. However, nitrate concentration was reduced after feeding but not completely removed in winter. Regarding orthophosphate, its concentration was practically negligible during the whole experimentation due to the removal in the photobioreactor and the low influent concentration. It can be concluded that during the warm seasons, the nutrients removal capability of the system was underused, and in spite of the satisfactory biomass concentration, biomass growth was likely limited by the low concentration of nutrients in the photobioreactor during most part of the day. On the contrary, biomass growth in winter was limited by phosphorus and the low water temperature. The insight gained in this study may aid to achieve more accurate operational designs of semi-closed photobioreactors for Agricultural Runoff bioremediation.

  • Bioremediation of Agricultural Runoff and biopolymers production from cyanobacteria cultured in demonstrative full-scale photobioreactors
    Process Safety and Environmental Protection, 2020
    Co-Authors: Estel Rueda, María Jesús García-galán, Enrica Uggetti, Joan García, Antonio Ortiz, Javier Carretero, Rubén Díez-montero
    Abstract:

    Abstract The present work evaluated polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) and carbohydrates production by wastewater borne cyanobacteria at demonstrative-scale (three photobioreactors (PBR) of 11.7 m3 each), using Agricultural Runoff as feedstock. Agricultural Runoff was fed to PBR1, which was devoted to cyanobacteria selection and biomass growth. In PBR2, inorganic carbon was added in a feast and famine regime to favour PHB-accumulating microorganisms. Finally, inorganic carbon was continuously added in PBR3 to boost PHB accumulation. A high removal efficiency of 95% and 99% for total nitrogen and phosphorus was obtained, respectively. Cyanobacteria were successfully selected and outcompeted green microalgae. Results suggested that a minimum inorganic carbon concentration was needed to accumulate PHB while carbohydrates were accumulated only with CO2 additions. Maximum concentrations of 4.5%VSS and 69%VSS for PHB and carbohydrates were obtained. Overall, this study shows at demonstrative-scale the potential of cyanobacteria to produce PHB within a wastewater biorefinery concept. And it gives insight on the strategies needed to produce PHB with cyanobacteria at massive scale.

  • Dataset – Use of full-scale hybrid horizontal tubular photobioreactors to process Agricultural Runoff
    , 2019
    Co-Authors: María Jesús García-galán, Raquel Gutiérrez, Enrica Uggetti, Victor Matamoros, Joan García, Ivet Ferrer
    Abstract:

    The data set attached consists of three excel files where the data from the article “Use of full-scale hybrid horizontal tubular photobioreactors to process Agricultural Runoff”, published in Biosystems Engineering (vol. 166, 4th January 2018, 138-149.), can be found.

Bradley L. Cardinale – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • what determines the public s support for water quality regulations to mitigate Agricultural Runoff
    Environmental Science & Policy, 2019
    Co-Authors: Tian Guo, Devin Gill, Thomas H. Johengen, Bradley L. Cardinale
    Abstract:

    Abstract For many freshwater systems, mitigating Agricultural Runoff of nutrients is a key requirement for curbing eutrophication and reducing subsequent ecological threats. However, defining the best way to achieve reductions in Agricultural Runoff can be a contentious issue. A policy debate is currently unfolding in Ohio focused on whether the state government should introduce regulatory policies on agriculture to reduce nutrient loadings from watersheds in an attempt to also reduce harmful algal blooms in Lake Erie. To inform policy development, we used a survey instrument to gauge public acceptance of regulatory policies and examined the psychological determinants of Ohio residents’ support for a regulatory policy proposal that would introduce fines on excessive Agricultural Runoff. We designed a survey instrument with nine predictors of people’s willingness to support regulations: 1) effectiveness of voluntary programs, 2) risk perception, 3) water quality perception, 4) trust in farmers, 5) trust in state government, 6) belief about fertilizer Runoff as a major cause of HABs, 7) belief that farmers alone should not bear the burden to restore water quality in Lake Erie, 8) belief that regulation is necessary to keep farmers accountable, and 9) belief that regulation harms economy and employment. We also measured variables that represented different levels of self-interests, awareness of reduction goals, political party affiliation, and demographic characteristics. We collected a sample of 1000 respondents, who were representative of Ohio residents by age, gender, race, and education level. Most predictors were significant and in the directions hypothesized, with exception of water quality perception and belief about regulation and jobs. One’s a priori belief that regulations are necessary to keep farmers accountable for their land management practices had the largest enhancing effect for accepting a regulatory policy of fines, while trust for farmers had the largest inhibiting effect. In comparison, water quality perception was not significant in predicting individual policy attitudes. This study informs the public engagement and communication efforts and suggest directions for future research on public policy support.

  • What determines the public’s support for water quality regulations to mitigate Agricultural Runoff?
    Environmental Science & Policy, 2019
    Co-Authors: Tian Guo, Devin Gill, Thomas H. Johengen, Bradley L. Cardinale
    Abstract:

    Abstract For many freshwater systems, mitigating Agricultural Runoff of nutrients is a key requirement for curbing eutrophication and reducing subsequent ecological threats. However, defining the best way to achieve reductions in Agricultural Runoff can be a contentious issue. A policy debate is currently unfolding in Ohio focused on whether the state government should introduce regulatory policies on agriculture to reduce nutrient loadings from watersheds in an attempt to also reduce harmful algal blooms in Lake Erie. To inform policy development, we used a survey instrument to gauge public acceptance of regulatory policies and examined the psychological determinants of Ohio residents’ support for a regulatory policy proposal that would introduce fines on excessive Agricultural Runoff. We designed a survey instrument with nine predictors of people’s willingness to support regulations: 1) effectiveness of voluntary programs, 2) risk perception, 3) water quality perception, 4) trust in farmers, 5) trust in state government, 6) belief about fertilizer Runoff as a major cause of HABs, 7) belief that farmers alone should not bear the burden to restore water quality in Lake Erie, 8) belief that regulation is necessary to keep farmers accountable, and 9) belief that regulation harms economy and employment. We also measured variables that represented different levels of self-interests, awareness of reduction goals, political party affiliation, and demographic characteristics. We collected a sample of 1000 respondents, who were representative of Ohio residents by age, gender, race, and education level. Most predictors were significant and in the directions hypothesized, with exception of water quality perception and belief about regulation and jobs. One’s a priori belief that regulations are necessary to keep farmers accountable for their land management practices had the largest enhancing effect for accepting a regulatory policy of fines, while trust for farmers had the largest inhibiting effect. In comparison, water quality perception was not significant in predicting individual policy attitudes. This study informs the public engagement and communication efforts and suggest directions for future research on public policy support.

Randy A. Dahlgren – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Soil carbon cycling and sequestration in a seasonally saturated wetland receiving Agricultural Runoff
    Biogeosciences, 2011
    Co-Authors: Jonathan J. Maynard, Randy A. Dahlgren, Anthony T. O'geen
    Abstract:

    Abstract. The fate of organic carbon (C) lost by erosion is not well understood in Agricultural settings. Recent models suggest that wetlands and other small water bodies may serve as important long-term sinks of eroded C, receiving ~30 % of all eroded material in the US. To better understand the role of seasonally-saturated wetlands in sequestering eroded C, we examined the spatial and temporal dynamics of C and sediment accumulation in a 13-year-old constructed wetland used to treat Agricultural Runoff. The fate of C sequestered within deposited sediment was modeled using point-sampling, remote sensing, and geostatistics. Using a spatially-explicit sampling design, annual net rates of sedimentation and above-ground biombiomass were measured during two contrasting years (vegetated (2004) vs. non-vegetated (2005)), followed by collection of sediment cores to the antecedent soil layer, representing 13 years of sediment and C accumulation. We documented high annual variation in the relative contribution of endogenous and exogenous C sources, as well as absolute rates of sediment and C deposition. This annual variation, however, was muted in the long-term (13 yr) sediment record, which showed consistent vertical patterns of uniform C distribution (~14 g kg–1) and δ13C signatures in high depositional environments. This was in contrast to low depositional environments which had high levels of surface C enrichment (20–35 g kg–1) underlain by C depleted (5–10 g kg–1) sediments and an increasing δ13C signature with depth indicating increased decomposition. These results highlight the importance of sedimentation in physically protecting soil organic carbon and its role in controlling the long-term C concentration of seasonally-saturated wetland soils. While significant enrichment of surface sediments with endogenous C occurred in newly deposited sediment (i.e., 125 kg m2 in 2004), fluctuating cycles of flooding and drying maintained the long-term C concentration at the same level as inflowing sediment (i.e., 14 g kg–1), indicating no additional long-term storage of endogenous C. These results demonstrate that constructed flow-through wetlands can serve as important sinks for eroded C and sediment in Agricultural landscapes, however, additional C sequestration via enrichment from endogenous sources may be limited in seasonally-saturated wetlands due to rapid decomposition during drying cycles.

  • Bioavailability and fate of phosphorus in constructed wetlands receiving Agricultural Runoff in the San Joaquin Valley, California.
    Journal of environmental quality, 2009
    Co-Authors: Jonathan J. Maynard, Anthony T. O'geen, Randy A. Dahlgren
    Abstract:

    Elevated nutrient concentrations in Agricultural Runoff contribute to seasonal eutrophication and hypoxia in the lower portion of the San Joaquin River, California. Interception and filtration of Agricultural Runoff by constructed wetlands may improve water quality of return flows ultimately destined for major water bodies. This study evaluated the efficacy of two small flow-through wetlands (2.3 and 7.3 ha; hydraulic residence time = 11 and 31 h) for attenuating various forms of P from irrigation tailwaters during the 2005 irrigation season (May to September). Our goal was to examine transformations and removal efficiencies for bioavailable P in constructed wetlands. Inflow and outflow water volumes were monitored continuously and weekly water samples were collected to measure total P (TP), dissolved-reactive P (DRP), and bioavailable P (BAP). Suspended sediment was characterized and fractionated into five operationally-defined P fractions (i.e., NH4Cl, bicarbonate-dithionite, NaOH, HCl, residual) to evaluate particulate P (PP) transformations. DRP was the major source of BAP with the particulate fraction contributing from 11 to 26%. On a seasonal basis, wetlands removed 55 to 65% of PP, 61 to 63% of DRP, 57 to 62% of BAP, and 88 to 91% of TSS. Sequential fractionation indicated that the bioavailable fraction of PP was largely associated with clay-sized particles that remain in suspension, while less labile P forms preferentially settle with coarser sediment. Thus, removal of potentially bioavailable PP is dependent on factors that promote particle settling and allow for the removal of colloids. This study suggests that treatment of tailwaters in small, flow-through wetlands can effectively remove BAP. Wetland design and management strategies that enhance sedimentation of colloids can improve BAP retention efficiency.