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Air Impingement

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Hong-wei Xiao – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

Zhenjiang Gao – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

Arun S. Mujumdar – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • high humidity hot Air Impingement blanching hhaib efficiently inactivates enzymes enhances extraction of phytochemicals and mitigates brown actions of chili pepper
    Food Control, 2020
    Co-Authors: Hui Wang, Qian Zhang, Arun S. Mujumdar, Xiaoming Fang, Wei Wu, Magdalena Zielińska, Hong-wei Xiao
    Abstract:

    Abstract In current work, high-humidity hot Air Impingement blanching (HHAIB) was employed to inactivate peroxidase enzymes (POD) of chili pepper under three independent variables, namely blanching temperature (105, 110, and 115 °C), relative humidity (20%, 30%, and 40%), and blanching time (30, 60, and 90 s). Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the blanching conditions based on product POD residual activity and browning index. Results indicated that blanching temperature of 110 °C, relative humidity of 40% and blanching time of 38 s were the optimum blanching conditions, which resulted in the minimum POD residual activity (0.52%) and browning index difference (7.09). Validation test showed that the predicted data had good agreement with the experimental data. Results also indicated that compared with the non-blanched samples, the extraction content of ascorbic acid and red pigment from blanched pepper under optimal blanching conditions increased by 42.85% and 8.20%, respectively. Ultrastructural observations explained why moderate blanching can promote the extraction of phytochemicals. The findings in current work indicate that HHAIB can efficiently inactivate enzymes, enhance extraction of phytochemicals and at the meantime mitigate brown actions under optimal conditions.

  • Hot Air Impingement drying kinetics and quality attributes of orange peel
    Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, 2019
    Co-Authors: Li-zhen Deng, Qian Zhang, Arun S. Mujumdar, Zhian Zheng, Wen-xia Yang, Hong-wei Xiao
    Abstract:

    In the recent work, hot Air Impingement drying was employed to orange peel processing under different temperatures and its effects on drying kinetics and quality attributes of the orange peel were investigated. Results showed that the drying time of peels decreased from 150 to 75 min as the temperature increased from 50 to 70°C, and the Weibull model precisely described the drying kinetics. The total polyphenols, flavonoids, ascorbic acid (AA), and antioxidant capacity markedly decreased after drying. The total polyphenols, flavonoids, ascorbic acid (AA), and antioxidant capacity of the orange peel markedly decreased after drying. In the case of total flavonoids and color, no significant effect (p > .05) was observed for different drying temperatures. While, the water retention capacity decreased with increasing of drying temperature. The findings contribute to a better understanding of Air Impingement drying characteristics of orange peel and help to optimize drying conditions for the maximum preservation of its phytochemicals and antioxidant capacity. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: As the primary by‐product of orange juice processing, orange peel is an excellent source of physiochemical compounds, which take an important role in health promoting. However, it is often discarded as garbage as it rots easily and hard to preserve due to its high moisture content. Drying is an essential step for the preservation and utilization of peel waste. Several drying techniques have been applied for the dehydration of citrus by‐products, such as sun drying, hot Air drying, freezing drying, etc. But they are difficult to achieve the rapid and reliable industrial processing of peel waste. The findings of this work indicate that hot Air Impingement drying is a promising drying technique for orange peel and drying temperature of 65°C allowed the best preservation of polyphenols and ascorbic acid as well as the antioxidant capacity.

  • experimental and simulation studies of heat transfer in high humidity hot Air Impingement blanching hhaib of carrot
    Food and Bioproducts Processing, 2019
    Co-Authors: Xianlong Yu, Arun S. Mujumdar, Jun Wang, Zhian Zheng, Li-zhen Deng, Haoyu Ju, Hong-wei Xiao
    Abstract:

    Abstract A mathematical model was presented to characterise heat transfer in high-humidity hot Air Impingement blanching (HHAIB) of cuboid carrots. The model accounts for condensation heat transfer and predicts the sample’s core temperature evolution with time. The simulation was performed at different relative humidity of 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% with constant temperature of 383 K. Results showed that the heat transfer process of HHAIB is divided into two stages based on vapor–liquid phase transition, namely a condensing heat transfer segment and a non-condensing heat transfer segment. In the initial stage of HHAIB, a comprehensive and intense condensation occurred on the sample surface leading to high heat transfer coefficient and greatly enhancing heat transfer, but at the same time creating a huge temperature gradient in the sample. The relative humidity of 40%–60% at 383 K could not only enhance the heat transfer rate but also improve the homogeneity of temperature distribution in the sample. Simulated core temperatures were compared with experimental measurements, showing good agreement with a coefficient of determination R2 of 0.991. The findings of current work provide theoretical basis to better design and control of the process conditions of HHAIB as it elucidates the heat transfer characteristic taking account condensation phenomenon and illustrates the temperature distribution and evolution profiles.

Rosana G. Moreira – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

R. Paul Singh – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • AirImpingement cooling of boiled eggs: Analysis of flow visualization and heat transfer
    Journal of Food Engineering, 2007
    Co-Authors: Ferruh Erdogdu, Maria Ferrua, Samrendra K. Singh, R. Paul Singh
    Abstract:

    Abstract Production of ready-to-eat boiled eggs is a rapidly expanding process. Cooling of the boiled eggs, before peeling, is therefore a significant part of the production. Use of water immeimmersion for cooling purposes is traditional way to accomplish a faster cooling process. However, the utilization of water brings the waste water problem with itself, and there also might be a cross-contamination problem after a longer use. Since the AirImpingement processes are to produce higher heat fluxes over the product surface, cooling of boiled eggs by a slot Air (24 °C) Impingement system ( H / D of 3-jet exit to object distance over hydraulic diameter of the jet, Reynolds number of ≈7000) was investigated in this study. Continuity, conservation of momentum and conservation of energy equations were solved using Fluent 6.0 (Lebanon, NH). In order to model the turbulent Air flow, the κ – e turbulence model was applied. The model results were validated by comparing them with the experimental flow (the particle image velocimetry-PIV data) and temperature data (obtained at different locations of the egg). Different cooling conditions (0 °C impinged Air and 0 °C water-for immersion type of cooling) were also simulated, and the results were compared with each other to show the effectiveness of the AirImpingement systems. The results of this study showed the potential of AirImpingement systems for an effective use in cooling of boiled eggs. However, it would also be valuable to show the effects of different Impingement parameters (e.g., H / D , d / D , different nozzle arrangements and effects of higher Reynolds numbers) to compare the results with different cooling systems (e.g., use of spray water).

  • Effective heat transfer coefficient measurement during Air Impingement thawing using an inverse method
    International Journal of Refrigeration, 2006
    Co-Authors: Brent A. Anderson, R. Paul Singh
    Abstract:

    Convective heat transfer coefficient is a critical parameter in analyzing heating systems. When Air Impingement technology is applied to the thawing of frozen foods, the resulting effective heat transfer coefficient becomes quite complicated. The Airflow from Impingement jets result in heat transfer coefficient that varies with position. In addition, transient thawing results in effective heat transfer coefficient that varies with time and surface temperature. Effective heat transfer coefficients as a function of position and surface temperature were determined using an inverse method for thawing from a single Impingement jet. Regularization parameters used in this inverse method were determined using simulated data. Effective heat transfer coefficients tended to increase with time as thawing progressed. Heat transfer coefficients decreased radially, but exhibited secondary maxima at radial distances approximately equal to the nozzle diameter. This inverse method enables estimation of heat transfer coefficient as a function of both time and position.

  • Modeling the thawing of frozen foods using Air Impingement technology
    International Journal of Refrigeration, 2006
    Co-Authors: Brent A. Anderson, R. Paul Singh
    Abstract:

    With the continual growth in the use of frozen foods both in retail and in food service, there is a need to develop improved thawing methods. Current methods are often undesirably slow (still Air) or are very expensive and cause uneven thawing (microwave). Air Impingement technology is one possible method to improve the thawing of frozen foods. The objectives of this research were to develop a two-dimensional model for Air Impingement thawing frozen foods and to verify the model experimentally. Frozen products were thawed using a laboratory Impingement system with a single Impingement jet. A simulated meat product (Tylose gel) was used as the test material. Thawing of a Tylose disk (12.7 cm diameter, 1.98 cm thickness) with Air at 6 °C without Impingement required more than 12 h, while thawing under a single Impingement jet took less than 3 h, over four times faster. Results from the finite difference model gave good agreement with experimental data. Moisture loss during thawing was typically over-predicted because moisture gain due to condensation was not modeled.