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Airborne Particulate

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Giuseppe Valacchi – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Skin damage mechanisms related to Airborne Particulate matter exposure
    Toxicological Sciences, 2016
    Co-Authors: Natalia D. Magnani, Ximena M. Muresan, Giuseppe Belmonte, Franco Cervellati, Claudia Sticozzi, Alessandra Pecorelli, Clelia Miracco, Timoteo Marchini, Pablo Evelson, Giuseppe Valacchi
    Abstract:

    Epidemiological studies suggest a correlation between increased Airborne Particulate matter (PM) and adverse health effects. The mechanisms of PM-health effects are believed to involve oxidative stress and inflammation. To evaluate the ability of PM promoting skin tissue damage, one of the main organs exposed to outdoor pollutants, we analyzed the effect of concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) in a reconstructed human epidermis (RHE) model. RHE tissues were exposed to 25 or 100 µg/ml CAPs for 24 or 48 h. Data showed that RHE seems to be more susceptible to CAPs-induced toxicity after 48 h exposure than after 24 h. We found a local reactive O(2) species (ROS) production increase generated from metals present on the particle, which contributes to lipids oxidation. Furthermore, as a consequence of altered redox status, NFkB nucleus translocation was increase upon CAPs exposure, as well as cyclooxygenase 2 and cytochrome P450 levels, which may be involved in the inflammatory response initiated by PM. CAPs also triggered an apoptotic process in skin. Surprisingly, by transition electron microscopy analysis we showed that CAPs were able to penetrate skin tissues. These findings contribute to the understanding of the cutaneous pathophysiological mechanisms initiated by CAPs exposure, where oxidative stress and inflammation may play predominant roles.

Patricia Ostroskywegman – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • effect of chemical composition on the induction of dna damage by urban Airborne Particulate matter
    Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis, 2006
    Co-Authors: Maria E Gutierrezcastillo, Deborah A Roubicek, Mariano E Cebriangarcia, Andrea De Vizcayaruiz, Monserrat Sordocedeno, Patricia Ostroskywegman
    Abstract:

    Airborne Particulate matter (PM) contains a large number of genotoxic substances capable of endangering human health. In the present study, we have investigated the ability of chemically characterized water-soluble and organic-soluble fractions of two particle sizes (PM2.5 and PM10) from different regions of Mexico City to induce DNA damage in a human lung epithelial cell line. We also evaluated associations between the physicochemical parameters of the PM and its genotoxicity. The Airborne Particulate samples were collected from four regions of the city; a HiVol air sampler was used to collect PM10 on glass fiber filters and a tapered element oscillating system coupled to an automatic cartridge collection unit was used to collect PM2.5 on teflon filters. PM mass was determined by gravimetric analysis of the filters. Filters containing PM2.5 and one section of each PM10 filter were agitated either with deionized water to extract water-soluble compound, or with dichloromethane to prepare organic-soluble compounds. The chemical composition of the extracts was determined by ion and gas chromatography and atomic adsorption spectroscopy. A549 human type II alveolar epithelial cells were exposed to different concentrations of the PM2.5 and PM10 extracts, and alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis or the Comet assay was performed to measure DNA damage and repair. These analyses indicated that soluble transition metals and the organic-soluble PM fractions are crucial factors in the DNA damage induced by PM. PM composition was more important than PM mass for producing gentotoxicity. The results of this study showed that the constituents of the water-soluble PM extract are more likely to induce DNA damage than the organic compounds. Environ. Mol. Mutagen., 2006. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Natalia D. Magnani – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Skin damage mechanisms related to Airborne Particulate matter exposure
    Toxicological Sciences, 2016
    Co-Authors: Natalia D. Magnani, Ximena M. Muresan, Giuseppe Belmonte, Franco Cervellati, Claudia Sticozzi, Alessandra Pecorelli, Clelia Miracco, Timoteo Marchini, Pablo Evelson, Giuseppe Valacchi
    Abstract:

    Epidemiological studies suggest a correlation between increased Airborne Particulate matter (PM) and adverse health effects. The mechanisms of PM-health effects are believed to involve oxidative stress and inflammation. To evaluate the ability of PM promoting skin tissue damage, one of the main organs exposed to outdoor pollutants, we analyzed the effect of concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) in a reconstructed human epidermis (RHE) model. RHE tissues were exposed to 25 or 100 µg/ml CAPs for 24 or 48 h. Data showed that RHE seems to be more susceptible to CAPs-induced toxicity after 48 h exposure than after 24 h. We found a local reactive O(2) species (ROS) production increase generated from metals present on the particle, which contributes to lipids oxidation. Furthermore, as a consequence of altered redox status, NFkB nucleus translocation was increase upon CAPs exposure, as well as cyclooxygenase 2 and cytochrome P450 levels, which may be involved in the inflammatory response initiated by PM. CAPs also triggered an apoptotic process in skin. Surprisingly, by transition electron microscopy analysis we showed that CAPs were able to penetrate skin tissues. These findings contribute to the understanding of the cutaneous pathophysiological mechanisms initiated by CAPs exposure, where oxidative stress and inflammation may play predominant roles.

Jinming Lin – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • solid phase extraction with c30 bonded silica for analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Airborne Particulate matters by gas chromatography mass spectrometry
    Journal of Chromatography A, 2007
    Co-Authors: Libin Liu, Jinming Lin, Yuki Hashi, Tsuneaki Maeda
    Abstract:

    Abstract A solid-phase extraction (SPE) method using triacontyl bonded silica (C 30 ) as sorbent was developed for the determination of 16 US Environmental Protection Agency polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Airborne Particulate matters quantitatively by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). Optimization experiments were conducted using spiked standard aqueous solution of PAHs and real Airborne Particulates samples aiming to obtain highest SPE recoveries and extraction efficiency. Factors were studied in SPE procedures including the concentration of organic modifier, flow rate of sample loading and elution solvents. The ultrasonication time and solvents were also investigated. Recoveries were in the range of 68–107% for standard PAHs aqueous solution and 61–116% for real spiked sample. Limits of detection (LODs) and limits of quantification (LOQs) with standard solution were in the range of 0.0070–0.21 μg L −1 and 0.022–0.67 μg L −1 , respectively. The optimized method was successfully applied to the determination of 16 PAHs in real Airborne Particulate matters.

Dimitra Voutsa – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • size distribution of Airborne Particulate matter and associated heavy metals in the roadside environment
    Chemosphere, 2005
    Co-Authors: C Samara, Dimitra Voutsa
    Abstract:

    Abstract The size distributions of Airborne Particulate matter (PM) and associated heavy metals Pb, Cd, Ni, Cr, V, Mn, Cu and Fe in different inhalable fractions ( 6.7 μm) were determined at a traffic-orientated urban site in the city of Thessaloniki, northern Greece. The Airborne PM displayed a bimodal distribution with most of the mass (52%) contained in the submicron size range ( 6.7 μm). Characteristic size distributions of heavy metals allowed identification of three main behavioral types: (a) metals whose mass was resided mainly within the accumulation mode (Pb, Cd), (b) those which were distributed between fine, intermediate and coarse modes (Ni, Cu, Mn), and (c) those which were mainly found within particles larger than 2.7 μm in diameter (Fe). The mean mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) of PM was found at 0.85 ± 0.71 μm, while the mean MMADs of heavy metals followed the order Pb (0.96 ± 0.71 μm)

  • labile and bioaccessible fractions of heavy metals in the Airborne Particulate matter from urban and industrial areas
    Atmospheric Environment, 2002
    Co-Authors: Dimitra Voutsa, C Samara
    Abstract:

    Abstract Total, labile and bioaccessible concentrations of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) were determined in the Airborne Particulate matter ( d