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Steven Hodge – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • the role of modelling and simulation in the preparations for flight trials aboard the queen elizabeth class Aircraft Carriers
    Proceedings of the International Naval Engineering Conference and Exhibition (INEC), 2018
    Co-Authors: M F Kelly, Steven Hodge, Neale Watson, I Owen

    Abstract:

    This paper provides a brief overview of how modelling and simulation has been used to inform preparations for First of Class Flight Trials (FOCFT) aboard HMS Queen Elizabeth, the first of the United Kingdom’s two new Queen Elizabeth Class Aircraft Carriers, from the perspective of a collaborative research programme undertaken by industry and academia to develop high-fidelity simulations of the carrier’s ‘airwake’.  Computer modelling of the unsteady air flow over the carrier, and of the Aircraft flight dynamics, have been integrated into high-fidelity flight simulators at BAE Systems Warton, and at the University of Liverpool.  The Queen Elizabeth Class (QEC) Carriers have primarily been designed to operate the Short Take-Off and Vertical Landing (STOVL) variant of the Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II multirole fighter Aircraft and will also operate a range of rotary-wing assets.  Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has been used to compute the time-varying air flow over and around the 280m long ship, along the F-35B landing approach path and up to 400m astern of the ship.  The paper shows a selection of results from the full-scale CFD analysis, and the results from a small-scale experiment that was conducted to provide confidence in the validity of the computed airwakes.  The QEC airwakes have been employed by BAE Systems in its fixed-wing flight simulator at Warton, where test pilots have conducted simulated deck landings for a variety of wind over deck conditions, so providing experience for F-35B test pilots and the ship’s Flying Control (FLYCO) crew ahead of FOCFT, which will be conducted later this year.  Airwakes have also been implemented in the HELIFLIGHT-R flight simulator at the University of Liverpool, where helicopter landings to the QEC have been simulated using a generic medium-weight maritime-helicopter model. A selection of results from the helicopter flight simulator trials is presented in terms of the workload ratings reported by test pilots, and these are related to the characteristics of the computed airwake at the landing spots tested.  The paper demonstrates how modelling and simulation can be used to reduce both the risk and cost of flight trials, by informing the FOCFT planning process, and by highlighting, in advance of the trials, which wind speed and azimuth combinations may require more focus.

  • the development and use of a piloted flight simulation environment for rotary wing operation to the queen elizabeth class Aircraft Carriers
    , 2017
    Co-Authors: M F Kelly, I Owen, Steven Hodge

    Abstract:

    Flight simulation is being used to inform the First of Class Flight Trials for the UK’s new Queen Elizabeth Class (QEC) Aircraft Carriers. The Carriers will operate with the Lockheed Martin F-35B Lightning II fighter Aircraft, i.e. the Advanced Short Take-Off and Vertical Landing variant of the F-35. The rotary wing assets that are expected to operate with QEC include Merlin, Wildcat, Chinook and Apache helicopters. An F-35B flight simulator has been developed and is operated by BAE Systems at Warton Aerodrome. The University of Liverpool is supporting this project by using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to provide the unsteady air flow field that is required in a realistic flight simulation environment. This paper is concerned with a research project that is being conducted using the University’s research simulator, HELIFLIGHT-R, to create a simulation environment for helicopter operations to the QEC. The paper briefly describes how CFD has been used to model the unsteady airflow over the 280m long Aircraft carrier and how this is used to create a realistic flight simulation environment. Results are presented from an initial simulation trial in which test pilots have used the HELIFLIGHT-R simulator to conduct simulated helicopter landings to two landing spots on the carrier, one in a disturbed air flow and the other in clean air. As expected, the landing to the spot in disturbed air flow requires a greater pilot workload, shows greater deviation in its positional accuracy and requires more control activity. This initial trial is the first of a planned series of simulated helicopter deck landings for different wind angles and magnitudes.

  • the queen elizabeth class Aircraft Carriers airwake modelling and validation for astovl flight simulation
    , 2016
    Co-Authors: M F Kelly, I Owen, Steven Hodge

    Abstract:

    This paper outlines progress towards the development of a high-fidelity piloted flight simulation environment for the UK’s Queen Elizabeth Class (QEC) Aircraft Carriers which are currently under construction. It is intended that flight simulation will be used to de-risk the clearance of the F-35B Lightning-II to the ship, helping to identify potential wind-speeds/directions requiring high pilot workload or control margin limitations prior to First of Class Flight Trials. Simulated helicopter launch & recovery trials are also planned for the future. The paper details the work that has been undertaken at the University of Liverpool to support this activity, and which draws upon Liverpool’s considerable research experience into simulated launch and recovery of maritime helicopters to single-spot combat ships. Predicting the unsteady air flow over and around the QEC is essential for the simulation environment; the very large and complex flow field has been modelled using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and will be incorporated into the flight simulators at the University of Liverpool and BAE Systems Warton for use in future piloted simulation trials. The challenges faced when developing airwake models for such a large ship are presented together with details of the experimental setup being prepared to validate the CFD predictions. Finally, the paper describes experimental results produced to date for CFD validation purposes and looks ahead to the piloted simulation trials of Aircraft launch and recovery operations to the carrier.

M F Kelly – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • the role of modelling and simulation in the preparations for flight trials aboard the queen elizabeth class Aircraft Carriers
    Proceedings of the International Naval Engineering Conference and Exhibition (INEC), 2018
    Co-Authors: M F Kelly, Steven Hodge, Neale Watson, I Owen

    Abstract:

    This paper provides a brief overview of how modelling and simulation has been used to inform preparations for First of Class Flight Trials (FOCFT) aboard HMS Queen Elizabeth, the first of the United Kingdom’s two new Queen Elizabeth Class Aircraft Carriers, from the perspective of a collaborative research programme undertaken by industry and academia to develop high-fidelity simulations of the carrier’s ‘airwake’.  Computer modelling of the unsteady air flow over the carrier, and of the Aircraft flight dynamics, have been integrated into high-fidelity flight simulators at BAE Systems Warton, and at the University of Liverpool.  The Queen Elizabeth Class (QEC) Carriers have primarily been designed to operate the Short Take-Off and Vertical Landing (STOVL) variant of the Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II multirole fighter Aircraft and will also operate a range of rotary-wing assets.  Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has been used to compute the time-varying air flow over and around the 280m long ship, along the F-35B landing approach path and up to 400m astern of the ship.  The paper shows a selection of results from the full-scale CFD analysis, and the results from a small-scale experiment that was conducted to provide confidence in the validity of the computed airwakes.  The QEC airwakes have been employed by BAE Systems in its fixed-wing flight simulator at Warton, where test pilots have conducted simulated deck landings for a variety of wind over deck conditions, so providing experience for F-35B test pilots and the ship’s Flying Control (FLYCO) crew ahead of FOCFT, which will be conducted later this year.  Airwakes have also been implemented in the HELIFLIGHT-R flight simulator at the University of Liverpool, where helicopter landings to the QEC have been simulated using a generic medium-weight maritime-helicopter model. A selection of results from the helicopter flight simulator trials is presented in terms of the workload ratings reported by test pilots, and these are related to the characteristics of the computed airwake at the landing spots tested.  The paper demonstrates how modelling and simulation can be used to reduce both the risk and cost of flight trials, by informing the FOCFT planning process, and by highlighting, in advance of the trials, which wind speed and azimuth combinations may require more focus.

  • the development and use of a piloted flight simulation environment for rotary wing operation to the queen elizabeth class Aircraft Carriers
    , 2017
    Co-Authors: M F Kelly, I Owen, Steven Hodge

    Abstract:

    Flight simulation is being used to inform the First of Class Flight Trials for the UK’s new Queen Elizabeth Class (QEC) Aircraft Carriers. The Carriers will operate with the Lockheed Martin F-35B Lightning II fighter Aircraft, i.e. the Advanced Short Take-Off and Vertical Landing variant of the F-35. The rotary wing assets that are expected to operate with QEC include Merlin, Wildcat, Chinook and Apache helicopters. An F-35B flight simulator has been developed and is operated by BAE Systems at Warton Aerodrome. The University of Liverpool is supporting this project by using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to provide the unsteady air flow field that is required in a realistic flight simulation environment. This paper is concerned with a research project that is being conducted using the University’s research simulator, HELIFLIGHT-R, to create a simulation environment for helicopter operations to the QEC. The paper briefly describes how CFD has been used to model the unsteady airflow over the 280m long Aircraft carrier and how this is used to create a realistic flight simulation environment. Results are presented from an initial simulation trial in which test pilots have used the HELIFLIGHT-R simulator to conduct simulated helicopter landings to two landing spots on the carrier, one in a disturbed air flow and the other in clean air. As expected, the landing to the spot in disturbed air flow requires a greater pilot workload, shows greater deviation in its positional accuracy and requires more control activity. This initial trial is the first of a planned series of simulated helicopter deck landings for different wind angles and magnitudes.

  • the queen elizabeth class Aircraft Carriers airwake modelling and validation for astovl flight simulation
    , 2016
    Co-Authors: M F Kelly, I Owen, Steven Hodge

    Abstract:

    This paper outlines progress towards the development of a high-fidelity piloted flight simulation environment for the UK’s Queen Elizabeth Class (QEC) Aircraft Carriers which are currently under construction. It is intended that flight simulation will be used to de-risk the clearance of the F-35B Lightning-II to the ship, helping to identify potential wind-speeds/directions requiring high pilot workload or control margin limitations prior to First of Class Flight Trials. Simulated helicopter launch & recovery trials are also planned for the future. The paper details the work that has been undertaken at the University of Liverpool to support this activity, and which draws upon Liverpool’s considerable research experience into simulated launch and recovery of maritime helicopters to single-spot combat ships. Predicting the unsteady air flow over and around the QEC is essential for the simulation environment; the very large and complex flow field has been modelled using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and will be incorporated into the flight simulators at the University of Liverpool and BAE Systems Warton for use in future piloted simulation trials. The challenges faced when developing airwake models for such a large ship are presented together with details of the experimental setup being prepared to validate the CFD predictions. Finally, the paper describes experimental results produced to date for CFD validation purposes and looks ahead to the piloted simulation trials of Aircraft launch and recovery operations to the carrier.

I Owen – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • the role of modelling and simulation in the preparations for flight trials aboard the queen elizabeth class Aircraft Carriers
    Proceedings of the International Naval Engineering Conference and Exhibition (INEC), 2018
    Co-Authors: M F Kelly, Steven Hodge, Neale Watson, I Owen

    Abstract:

    This paper provides a brief overview of how modelling and simulation has been used to inform preparations for First of Class Flight Trials (FOCFT) aboard HMS Queen Elizabeth, the first of the United Kingdom’s two new Queen Elizabeth Class Aircraft Carriers, from the perspective of a collaborative research programme undertaken by industry and academia to develop high-fidelity simulations of the carrier’s ‘airwake’.  Computer modelling of the unsteady air flow over the carrier, and of the Aircraft flight dynamics, have been integrated into high-fidelity flight simulators at BAE Systems Warton, and at the University of Liverpool.  The Queen Elizabeth Class (QEC) Carriers have primarily been designed to operate the Short Take-Off and Vertical Landing (STOVL) variant of the Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II multirole fighter Aircraft and will also operate a range of rotary-wing assets.  Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has been used to compute the time-varying air flow over and around the 280m long ship, along the F-35B landing approach path and up to 400m astern of the ship.  The paper shows a selection of results from the full-scale CFD analysis, and the results from a small-scale experiment that was conducted to provide confidence in the validity of the computed airwakes.  The QEC airwakes have been employed by BAE Systems in its fixed-wing flight simulator at Warton, where test pilots have conducted simulated deck landings for a variety of wind over deck conditions, so providing experience for F-35B test pilots and the ship’s Flying Control (FLYCO) crew ahead of FOCFT, which will be conducted later this year.  Airwakes have also been implemented in the HELIFLIGHT-R flight simulator at the University of Liverpool, where helicopter landings to the QEC have been simulated using a generic medium-weight maritime-helicopter model. A selection of results from the helicopter flight simulator trials is presented in terms of the workload ratings reported by test pilots, and these are related to the characteristics of the computed airwake at the landing spots tested.  The paper demonstrates how modelling and simulation can be used to reduce both the risk and cost of flight trials, by informing the FOCFT planning process, and by highlighting, in advance of the trials, which wind speed and azimuth combinations may require more focus.

  • the development and use of a piloted flight simulation environment for rotary wing operation to the queen elizabeth class Aircraft Carriers
    , 2017
    Co-Authors: M F Kelly, I Owen, Steven Hodge

    Abstract:

    Flight simulation is being used to inform the First of Class Flight Trials for the UK’s new Queen Elizabeth Class (QEC) Aircraft Carriers. The Carriers will operate with the Lockheed Martin F-35B Lightning II fighter Aircraft, i.e. the Advanced Short Take-Off and Vertical Landing variant of the F-35. The rotary wing assets that are expected to operate with QEC include Merlin, Wildcat, Chinook and Apache helicopters. An F-35B flight simulator has been developed and is operated by BAE Systems at Warton Aerodrome. The University of Liverpool is supporting this project by using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to provide the unsteady air flow field that is required in a realistic flight simulation environment. This paper is concerned with a research project that is being conducted using the University’s research simulator, HELIFLIGHT-R, to create a simulation environment for helicopter operations to the QEC. The paper briefly describes how CFD has been used to model the unsteady airflow over the 280m long Aircraft carrier and how this is used to create a realistic flight simulation environment. Results are presented from an initial simulation trial in which test pilots have used the HELIFLIGHT-R simulator to conduct simulated helicopter landings to two landing spots on the carrier, one in a disturbed air flow and the other in clean air. As expected, the landing to the spot in disturbed air flow requires a greater pilot workload, shows greater deviation in its positional accuracy and requires more control activity. This initial trial is the first of a planned series of simulated helicopter deck landings for different wind angles and magnitudes.

  • the queen elizabeth class Aircraft Carriers airwake modelling and validation for astovl flight simulation
    , 2016
    Co-Authors: M F Kelly, I Owen, Steven Hodge

    Abstract:

    This paper outlines progress towards the development of a high-fidelity piloted flight simulation environment for the UK’s Queen Elizabeth Class (QEC) Aircraft Carriers which are currently under construction. It is intended that flight simulation will be used to de-risk the clearance of the F-35B Lightning-II to the ship, helping to identify potential wind-speeds/directions requiring high pilot workload or control margin limitations prior to First of Class Flight Trials. Simulated helicopter launch & recovery trials are also planned for the future. The paper details the work that has been undertaken at the University of Liverpool to support this activity, and which draws upon Liverpool’s considerable research experience into simulated launch and recovery of maritime helicopters to single-spot combat ships. Predicting the unsteady air flow over and around the QEC is essential for the simulation environment; the very large and complex flow field has been modelled using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and will be incorporated into the flight simulators at the University of Liverpool and BAE Systems Warton for use in future piloted simulation trials. The challenges faced when developing airwake models for such a large ship are presented together with details of the experimental setup being prepared to validate the CFD predictions. Finally, the paper describes experimental results produced to date for CFD validation purposes and looks ahead to the piloted simulation trials of Aircraft launch and recovery operations to the carrier.