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Pierluigi Della Vecchia – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Fuselage aerodynamic prediction methods
    Aerospace Science and Technology, 2016
    Co-Authors: Fabrizio Nicolosi, Pierluigi Della Vecchia, Danilo Ciliberti, Vincenzo Cusati
    Abstract:

    Abstract A reliable estimation of the aerodynamics of the fuselage of an airplane is crucial in order to carry out a well-designed Aircraft. About 30% of an Aircraft zero-lift drag source is due to the fuselage. Its aerodynamic instability is impacting wing and horizontal tail design, as well as Aircraft directional stability characteristics. This paper proposes methods, developed through CFD analyses, to estimate fuselage aerodynamic drag, pitching, and yawing moment coefficients. These methods are focused on the regional turboprop Aircraft Category. Given the fuselage geometry, several charts allow to evaluate its aerodynamic characteristics. Numerical test cases are shown on several fuselage geometries and a comparison with typical semi-empirical methods is presented.

  • Development of Methodologies for the Aerodynamic Design and Optimization of New Regional Turboprop Aircraft
    , 2013
    Co-Authors: Pierluigi Della Vecchia
    Abstract:

    The Development of Methodologies for the Aerodynamic Design and Optimization of New Regional Turboprop Aircraft is presented proposing innovative procedures and tools to improve the aerodynamic of this Aircraft Category. Nowadays the increase in oil price, the huge growth of air transport traffic and the increasing attention to the Aircraft environmental footprint led to considerable interest of specialists in new configurations of regional transport Aircraft. Airlines and Aircraft industries forecast in the next twenty years about 12000 turboprop Aircraft will be delivered. Of these Aircraft about 7000 will replace the older turboprop which reach their product life-cycle, while the remaining amount of about 6000 Aircraft will be new turboprop Aircrafts to satisfy market needs. The 61% of new turboprop delivered expected to be under 70 seats Category (20% under 50 seats and 41% of 70 seats), while the new 90+ seat segment is a strong percentage of the total, i.e. the 39%. For these reasons this work aims to provide some guidelines in the aerodynamic design of future regional turboprop Aircraft with about 90 or more passengers. Currently there are no configurations on the market of this type, so a typical 70 passengers turboprop Aircraft is taken as reference starting point to put in evidence those Aircraft components which particularly affects the “aerodynamic”, especially in terms of aerodynamic drag. Particular emphasis is posed on Aircraft performance, to highlight how a more accurate aerodynamic design can improve Aircraft performance and so give aerodynamic guidelines in the design of new turboprop Aircraft configurations. Research work can be divided into three main topics:i) airfoil design and optimization, ii) Aircraft components design and optimization and iii) vertical tail design. Airfoil design and optimization is a typical aeronautic topic, which involves several aspects such as parameterization techniques, optimization algorithms and aerodynamic solvers. These aspects have been analyzed and put together into a user friendly code which allows to design and optimize a generic airfoil geometry choosing i) the parameterization technique, ii) the optimization algorithm and iii) the aerodynamic solver. Constraints and multi-objeobjective optimization have been performed, highlighting the crucial features in the design and optimization of a regional turboprop airfoil. The second topic aims to provide an optimization procedure for several Aircraft components, fast to use also in a preliminary design phase. By coupling non uniform rational b-spline (NURBS) and a panel code aerodynamic solver, the geometry of a regional turboprop nose, wing-fuselage junction and undercarriage vane have been optimized to reduce Aircraft aerodynamic drag. Particular emphasis has been also posed on the winglet design, highlighting how an accurate design can give an improvement in the whole regional Aircraft flight envelope. The last topic involves the design of vertical tail plane for turboprop Aircraft. This is a crucial topic for all twin-engine commuter Aircraft because of all the ground performance are strictly related to the minimum control speed (VMC) which mainly depends from the engine failure speed (VEF), clearly related to vertical tail design. As a matter of fact both Part 23 and Part 25 of the Aircraft regulations relates the certification speeds (especially for ground performance) to the VMC; the lower will be the last, the better will be the performance. Moreover a performance improvement also means the commercial success of an Aircraft, given the capability to be more competitive in several scenarios respect to competitors. In this research work, using a Navier-Stokes aerodynamic solver, a new method named VeDSC (Vertical tail Design Stability and Control) to design a vertical tail and a rudder has been carried out. More than 300 Navier-Stokes runs have been performed to accomplish with the objective. Particular care has been posed to the software set-up and several test-cases have been performed to validate the methodology. Finally the new method has been applied to several turboprop and twin-engine commuter Aircraft and compared to typical semi-empirical methodologies to highlight the capabilities and reliability.

  • flight tests performances and flight certification of a twin engine light Aircraft
    Journal of Aircraft, 2011
    Co-Authors: Fabrizio Nicolosi, Agostino De Marco, Pierluigi Della Vecchia
    Abstract:

    This paper deals with flight test activities performed on P2006T, a twin-engine light Aircraft recently designed and produced by Tecnam. Research activities and flight tests have been conducted during the flight certification of P2006T for the normal Category under CS23. All the acquired data and flight results presented have been focused on both Aircraft certification and on Aircraft performances, stability and flight qualities measurement. The data have been acquired through a light, accurate and reliable flight instrumentation available at DIAS (Department of Aerospace Engineering). Some flight data about Aircraft leveled speed, stall speed, climb characteristics and ground performances (take-off and landing) will be presented. After preliminary flight tests, winglets have been designed and added to the final configuration in order to obtain good climb performances also in OEI (One Engine Inoperative) conditions. Accurate stall tests have been performed in all configurations and influence of both entry-rate and load factor on stall speed have been highlighted. Excellent ground performances have been measured with short take-off and landing distances compared with similar airplanes. All measured flight performances can be considered very good for this Aircraft Category and have been used to demonstrate Aircraft safety and to obtain CS23 certification.

Atul Deshmukh – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Moving Toward an Air Traffic Control Display Standard: Creating a Standardized Target Symbology for Terminal Situation Displays
    , 2010
    Co-Authors: Ferne Friedman-berg, Kenneth R. Allendoerfer, Atul Deshmukh
    Abstract:

    In this study, the authors applied human factors best practices to the design of an enhanced target symbol set for terminal displays. To design new symbols, the authors first identified types of information that would be most operationally useful. Four types of information were selected that would provide the greatest operational benefits and tactical support for the controllers. These included Aircraft Category (Small, Large, Heavy, and Super Heavy), Aircraft heading, Aircraft altitude, and Aircraft conformance to its assigned route or altitude. To evaluate the effectiveness of the symbols, search, sorting, and selection tasks were used that measured symbol preference, reaction time, and symbol identification. The results indicated that the controllers used consistent heuristics for categorizing symbols into different size and conformance categories. For both the heading and Category coding, the authors also found benefits in terms of both increased accuracy and decreased reaction times. No benefits were found for the altitude coding. By using meaningful symbols to convey relevant tactical information, such as Aircraft Category and heading, both visual search speed and target detection accuracy are increased. On the basis of these findings, the authors propose a set of symbols and provide recommendations for creating standardized symbology for terminal situation displays and other safety critical systems.

  • Developing Target Symbicons for the Future Terminal Air Traffic Control Environment
    Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, 2010
    Co-Authors: Ferne Friedman-berg, Kenneth R. Allendoerfer, Atul Deshmukh
    Abstract:

    Current air traffic control target symbols are holdover designs developed for obsolete display technology to depict radar surveillance uncertainty. Given new technological capabilities and new surveillance techniques, it is time to reexamine the target symbology for a new generation of air traffic control displays. Symbicons (Smallman, St. John, Oonk, and Cowen, 2001a, 2001b) are a combination of icons and symbols that code meaningful information using simplified visual coding. This assessment focuses on creating and evaluating novel designs for target symbicons for Terminal Radar Approach Control displays while incorporating human factors standards and best practices. In this study, we evaluated different candidate symbicons that conveyed information such as Aircraft Category and Aircraft conformance. We examined the heuristics controllers use that make certain symbicons better candidates to represent different Aircraft categories. We discuss the almost universal agreement among the controllers for the t…

Jun Chen – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Aircraft taxi time prediction: Feature importance and their implications
    Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, 1
    Co-Authors: Xinwei Wang, Alexander E.i. Brownlee, John R. Woodward, Michal Weiszer, Mahfouf, Jun Chen
    Abstract:

    Abstract Taxiing remains a major bottleneck at many airports. Recently, several approaches to allocating efficient routes for taxiing Aircraft have been proposed. The routing algorithms underpinning these approaches rely on accurate prediction of the time taken to traverse each segment of the taxiways. Many features impact on taxi time, including the route taken, Aircraft Category, operational mode of the airport, traffic congestion information, and local weather conditions. Working with real-world data for several international airports, we compare multiple prediction models and investigate the impact of these features, drawing conclusions on the most important features for accurately modelling taxi times. We show that high accuracy can be achieved with a small subset of the features consisting of those generally important across all airports (departure/arrival, distance, total turns, average speed and numbers of recent Aircraft), and a small number of features specific to particular target airports. Moving from all features to this small subset results in less than a 1 percentage-point drop in movements correctly predicted within 1, 3 and 5 min.

Fabrizio Nicolosi – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Fuselage aerodynamic prediction methods
    Aerospace Science and Technology, 2016
    Co-Authors: Fabrizio Nicolosi, Pierluigi Della Vecchia, Danilo Ciliberti, Vincenzo Cusati
    Abstract:

    Abstract A reliable estimation of the aerodynamics of the fuselage of an airplane is crucial in order to carry out a well-designed Aircraft. About 30% of an Aircraft zero-lift drag source is due to the fuselage. Its aerodynamic instability is impacting wing and horizontal tail design, as well as Aircraft directional stability characteristics. This paper proposes methods, developed through CFD analyses, to estimate fuselage aerodynamic drag, pitching, and yawing moment coefficients. These methods are focused on the regional turboprop Aircraft Category. Given the fuselage geometry, several charts allow to evaluate its aerodynamic characteristics. Numerical test cases are shown on several fuselage geometries and a comparison with typical semi-empirical methods is presented.

  • flight tests performances and flight certification of a twin engine light Aircraft
    Journal of Aircraft, 2011
    Co-Authors: Fabrizio Nicolosi, Agostino De Marco, Pierluigi Della Vecchia
    Abstract:

    This paper deals with flight test activities performed on P2006T, a twin-engine light Aircraft recently designed and produced by Tecnam. Research activities and flight tests have been conducted during the flight certification of P2006T for the normal Category under CS23. All the acquired data and flight results presented have been focused on both Aircraft certification and on Aircraft performances, stability and flight qualities measurement. The data have been acquired through a light, accurate and reliable flight instrumentation available at DIAS (Department of Aerospace Engineering). Some flight data about Aircraft leveled speed, stall speed, climb characteristics and ground performances (take-off and landing) will be presented. After preliminary flight tests, winglets have been designed and added to the final configuration in order to obtain good climb performances also in OEI (One Engine Inoperative) conditions. Accurate stall tests have been performed in all configurations and influence of both entry-rate and load factor on stall speed have been highlighted. Excellent ground performances have been measured with short take-off and landing distances compared with similar airplanes. All measured flight performances can be considered very good for this Aircraft Category and have been used to demonstrate Aircraft safety and to obtain CS23 certification.

Ferne Friedman-berg – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Moving Toward an Air Traffic Control Display Standard: Creating a Standardized Target Symbology for Terminal Situation Displays
    , 2010
    Co-Authors: Ferne Friedman-berg, Kenneth R. Allendoerfer, Atul Deshmukh
    Abstract:

    In this study, the authors applied human factors best practices to the design of an enhanced target symbol set for terminal displays. To design new symbols, the authors first identified types of information that would be most operationally useful. Four types of information were selected that would provide the greatest operational benefits and tactical support for the controllers. These included Aircraft Category (Small, Large, Heavy, and Super Heavy), Aircraft heading, Aircraft altitude, and Aircraft conformance to its assigned route or altitude. To evaluate the effectiveness of the symbols, search, sorting, and selection tasks were used that measured symbol preference, reaction time, and symbol identification. The results indicated that the controllers used consistent heuristics for categorizing symbols into different size and conformance categories. For both the heading and Category coding, the authors also found benefits in terms of both increased accuracy and decreased reaction times. No benefits were found for the altitude coding. By using meaningful symbols to convey relevant tactical information, such as Aircraft Category and heading, both visual search speed and target detection accuracy are increased. On the basis of these findings, the authors propose a set of symbols and provide recommendations for creating standardized symbology for terminal situation displays and other safety critical systems.

  • Developing Target Symbicons for the Future Terminal Air Traffic Control Environment
    Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, 2010
    Co-Authors: Ferne Friedman-berg, Kenneth R. Allendoerfer, Atul Deshmukh
    Abstract:

    Current air traffic control target symbols are holdover designs developed for obsolete display technology to depict radar surveillance uncertainty. Given new technological capabilities and new surveillance techniques, it is time to reexamine the target symbology for a new generation of air traffic control displays. Symbicons (Smallman, St. John, Oonk, and Cowen, 2001a, 2001b) are a combination of icons and symbols that code meaningful information using simplified visual coding. This assessment focuses on creating and evaluating novel designs for target symbicons for Terminal Radar Approach Control displays while incorporating human factors standards and best practices. In this study, we evaluated different candidate symbicons that conveyed information such as Aircraft Category and Aircraft conformance. We examined the heuristics controllers use that make certain symbicons better candidates to represent different Aircraft categories. We discuss the almost universal agreement among the controllers for the t…