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Joseph J Esposito – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Alastrim Smallpox Variola Minor Virus Genome DNA Sequences
    Virology, 2000
    Co-Authors: Sergei N. Shchelkunov, Robert F Massung, Janice C. Knight, A. V. Totmenin, Vladimir N. Loparev, Vladimir E. Chizhikov, Joseph M. Parsons, Joseph J Esposito
    Abstract:

    Abstract Alastrim variola minor virus, which causes mild smallpox, was first recognized in Florida and South America in the late 19th century. Genome linear double-stranded DNA sequences (186,986 bp) of the Alastrim virus Garcia-1966, a laboratory reference strain from an outbreak associated with 0.8% case fatalities in Brazil in 1966, were determined except for a 530-bp fragment of hairpin-loop sequences at each terminus. The DNA sequences (EMBL Accession No. Y16780) showed 206 potential open reading frames for proteins containing ≥60 amino acids. The amino acid sequences of the putative proteins were compared with those reported for vaccinia virus strain Copenhagen and the Asian variola major strains India-1967 and Bangladesh-1975. About one-third of the Alastrim viral proteins were 100% identical to correlates in the variola major strains and the remainder were ≥95% identical. Compared with variola major virus DNA, Alastrim virus DNA has additional segments of 898 and 627 bp, respectively, within the left and right terminal regions. The former segment aligns well with sequences in other orthopoxviruses, particularly cowpox and vaccinia viruses, and the latter is apparently Alastrim-specific.

  • Terminal Region Sequence Variations in Variola Virus DNA
    Virology, 1996
    Co-Authors: Robert F Massung, Janice C. Knight, Sergei N. Shchelkunov, A. V. Totmenin, Vladimir N. Loparev, Vladimir E. Chizhikov, Joseph M. Parsons, Joseph J Esposito
    Abstract:

    Abstract Genome DNA terminal region sequences were determined for a Brazilian Alastrim variola minor virus strain Garcia-1966 that was associated with an 0.8% case-fatality rate and African smallpox strains Congo-1970 and Somalia-1977 associated with variola major (9.6%) and minor (0.4%) mortality rates, respectively. A base sequence identity of ≥98.8% was determined after aligning 30 kb of the left- or right-end region sequences with cognate sequences previously determined for Asian variola major strains India-1967 (31% death rate) and Bangladesh-1975 (18.5% death rate). The deduced amino acid sequences of putative proteins of ≥65 amino acids also showed relatively high identity, although the Asian and African viruses were clearly more related to each other than to Alastrim virus. Alastrim virus contained only 10 of 70 proteins that were 100% identical to homologs in Asian strains, and 7 Alastrim-specific proteins were noted.

  • Topography of variola smallpox virus inverted terminal repeats.
    Virology, 1995
    Co-Authors: Robert F Massung, Janice C. Knight, Joseph J Esposito
    Abstract:

    We examined the nucleotide sequences of the inverted terminal repeat (ITR) regions adjacent to the covalently closed hairpin end sequences of three variola major and four minor strains from smallpox outbreaks in Europe, Asia, Africa, and South America. The ITR regions ranged in size from 581 to 1051 base pairs (bp) and contained no apparent open reading frames. Two nonrepetitive sequence elements, NR1 and NR2, were conserved and resembled nonrepetitive elements in the ITRs of other orthopoxviruses. Depending on strain, the terminally positioned NR1 and the more internal NR2 flanked a direct repeat region containing from none to four copies of a 69-bp sequence and one copy of a 54-bp related sequence partial repeat. A distinctive pattern of ITR topography of NR1 and NR2 flanking a single copy of the 69-bp unit characterized each of three examined Alastrim variola minor strains. A nonAlastrim African minor strain from the last natural case of smallpox in Somalia in 1977 showed the largest ITR region of the examined viruses because of a second direct repeat cluster following NR2.

Robert F Massung – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Alastrim Smallpox Variola Minor Virus Genome DNA Sequences
    Virology, 2000
    Co-Authors: Sergei N. Shchelkunov, Robert F Massung, Janice C. Knight, A. V. Totmenin, Vladimir N. Loparev, Vladimir E. Chizhikov, Joseph M. Parsons, Joseph J Esposito
    Abstract:

    Abstract Alastrim variola minor virus, which causes mild smallpox, was first recognized in Florida and South America in the late 19th century. Genome linear double-stranded DNA sequences (186,986 bp) of the Alastrim virus Garcia-1966, a laboratory reference strain from an outbreak associated with 0.8% case fatalities in Brazil in 1966, were determined except for a 530-bp fragment of hairpin-loop sequences at each terminus. The DNA sequences (EMBL Accession No. Y16780) showed 206 potential open reading frames for proteins containing ≥60 amino acids. The amino acid sequences of the putative proteins were compared with those reported for vaccinia virus strain Copenhagen and the Asian variola major strains India-1967 and Bangladesh-1975. About one-third of the Alastrim viral proteins were 100% identical to correlates in the variola major strains and the remainder were ≥95% identical. Compared with variola major virus DNA, Alastrim virus DNA has additional segments of 898 and 627 bp, respectively, within the left and right terminal regions. The former segment aligns well with sequences in other orthopoxviruses, particularly cowpox and vaccinia viruses, and the latter is apparently Alastrim-specific.

  • Terminal Region Sequence Variations in Variola Virus DNA
    Virology, 1996
    Co-Authors: Robert F Massung, Janice C. Knight, Sergei N. Shchelkunov, A. V. Totmenin, Vladimir N. Loparev, Vladimir E. Chizhikov, Joseph M. Parsons, Joseph J Esposito
    Abstract:

    Abstract Genome DNA terminal region sequences were determined for a Brazilian Alastrim variola minor virus strain Garcia-1966 that was associated with an 0.8% case-fatality rate and African smallpox strains Congo-1970 and Somalia-1977 associated with variola major (9.6%) and minor (0.4%) mortality rates, respectively. A base sequence identity of ≥98.8% was determined after aligning 30 kb of the left- or right-end region sequences with cognate sequences previously determined for Asian variola major strains India-1967 (31% death rate) and Bangladesh-1975 (18.5% death rate). The deduced amino acid sequences of putative proteins of ≥65 amino acids also showed relatively high identity, although the Asian and African viruses were clearly more related to each other than to Alastrim virus. Alastrim virus contained only 10 of 70 proteins that were 100% identical to homologs in Asian strains, and 7 Alastrim-specific proteins were noted.

  • Topography of variola smallpox virus inverted terminal repeats.
    Virology, 1995
    Co-Authors: Robert F Massung, Janice C. Knight, Joseph J Esposito
    Abstract:

    We examined the nucleotide sequences of the inverted terminal repeat (ITR) regions adjacent to the covalently closed hairpin end sequences of three variola major and four minor strains from smallpox outbreaks in Europe, Asia, Africa, and South America. The ITR regions ranged in size from 581 to 1051 base pairs (bp) and contained no apparent open reading frames. Two nonrepetitive sequence elements, NR1 and NR2, were conserved and resembled nonrepetitive elements in the ITRs of other orthopoxviruses. Depending on strain, the terminally positioned NR1 and the more internal NR2 flanked a direct repeat region containing from none to four copies of a 69-bp sequence and one copy of a 54-bp related sequence partial repeat. A distinctive pattern of ITR topography of NR1 and NR2 flanking a single copy of the 69-bp unit characterized each of three examined Alastrim variola minor strains. A nonAlastrim African minor strain from the last natural case of smallpox in Somalia in 1977 showed the largest ITR region of the examined viruses because of a second direct repeat cluster following NR2.

Janice C. Knight – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Alastrim Smallpox Variola Minor Virus Genome DNA Sequences
    Virology, 2000
    Co-Authors: Sergei N. Shchelkunov, Robert F Massung, Janice C. Knight, A. V. Totmenin, Vladimir N. Loparev, Vladimir E. Chizhikov, Joseph M. Parsons, Joseph J Esposito
    Abstract:

    Abstract Alastrim variola minor virus, which causes mild smallpox, was first recognized in Florida and South America in the late 19th century. Genome linear double-stranded DNA sequences (186,986 bp) of the Alastrim virus Garcia-1966, a laboratory reference strain from an outbreak associated with 0.8% case fatalities in Brazil in 1966, were determined except for a 530-bp fragment of hairpin-loop sequences at each terminus. The DNA sequences (EMBL Accession No. Y16780) showed 206 potential open reading frames for proteins containing ≥60 amino acids. The amino acid sequences of the putative proteins were compared with those reported for vaccinia virus strain Copenhagen and the Asian variola major strains India-1967 and Bangladesh-1975. About one-third of the Alastrim viral proteins were 100% identical to correlates in the variola major strains and the remainder were ≥95% identical. Compared with variola major virus DNA, Alastrim virus DNA has additional segments of 898 and 627 bp, respectively, within the left and right terminal regions. The former segment aligns well with sequences in other orthopoxviruses, particularly cowpox and vaccinia viruses, and the latter is apparently Alastrim-specific.

  • Terminal Region Sequence Variations in Variola Virus DNA
    Virology, 1996
    Co-Authors: Robert F Massung, Janice C. Knight, Sergei N. Shchelkunov, A. V. Totmenin, Vladimir N. Loparev, Vladimir E. Chizhikov, Joseph M. Parsons, Joseph J Esposito
    Abstract:

    Abstract Genome DNA terminal region sequences were determined for a Brazilian Alastrim variola minor virus strain Garcia-1966 that was associated with an 0.8% case-fatality rate and African smallpox strains Congo-1970 and Somalia-1977 associated with variola major (9.6%) and minor (0.4%) mortality rates, respectively. A base sequence identity of ≥98.8% was determined after aligning 30 kb of the left- or right-end region sequences with cognate sequences previously determined for Asian variola major strains India-1967 (31% death rate) and Bangladesh-1975 (18.5% death rate). The deduced amino acid sequences of putative proteins of ≥65 amino acids also showed relatively high identity, although the Asian and African viruses were clearly more related to each other than to Alastrim virus. Alastrim virus contained only 10 of 70 proteins that were 100% identical to homologs in Asian strains, and 7 Alastrim-specific proteins were noted.

  • Topography of variola smallpox virus inverted terminal repeats.
    Virology, 1995
    Co-Authors: Robert F Massung, Janice C. Knight, Joseph J Esposito
    Abstract:

    We examined the nucleotide sequences of the inverted terminal repeat (ITR) regions adjacent to the covalently closed hairpin end sequences of three variola major and four minor strains from smallpox outbreaks in Europe, Asia, Africa, and South America. The ITR regions ranged in size from 581 to 1051 base pairs (bp) and contained no apparent open reading frames. Two nonrepetitive sequence elements, NR1 and NR2, were conserved and resembled nonrepetitive elements in the ITRs of other orthopoxviruses. Depending on strain, the terminally positioned NR1 and the more internal NR2 flanked a direct repeat region containing from none to four copies of a 69-bp sequence and one copy of a 54-bp related sequence partial repeat. A distinctive pattern of ITR topography of NR1 and NR2 flanking a single copy of the 69-bp unit characterized each of three examined Alastrim variola minor strains. A nonAlastrim African minor strain from the last natural case of smallpox in Somalia in 1977 showed the largest ITR region of the examined viruses because of a second direct repeat cluster following NR2.

A. V. Totmenin – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Alastrim Smallpox Variola Minor Virus Genome DNA Sequences
    Virology, 2000
    Co-Authors: Sergei N. Shchelkunov, Robert F Massung, Janice C. Knight, A. V. Totmenin, Vladimir N. Loparev, Vladimir E. Chizhikov, Joseph M. Parsons, Joseph J Esposito
    Abstract:

    Abstract Alastrim variola minor virus, which causes mild smallpox, was first recognized in Florida and South America in the late 19th century. Genome linear double-stranded DNA sequences (186,986 bp) of the Alastrim virus Garcia-1966, a laboratory reference strain from an outbreak associated with 0.8% case fatalities in Brazil in 1966, were determined except for a 530-bp fragment of hairpin-loop sequences at each terminus. The DNA sequences (EMBL Accession No. Y16780) showed 206 potential open reading frames for proteins containing ≥60 amino acids. The amino acid sequences of the putative proteins were compared with those reported for vaccinia virus strain Copenhagen and the Asian variola major strains India-1967 and Bangladesh-1975. About one-third of the Alastrim viral proteins were 100% identical to correlates in the variola major strains and the remainder were ≥95% identical. Compared with variola major virus DNA, Alastrim virus DNA has additional segments of 898 and 627 bp, respectively, within the left and right terminal regions. The former segment aligns well with sequences in other orthopoxviruses, particularly cowpox and vaccinia viruses, and the latter is apparently Alastrim-specific.

  • the genomic sequence analysis of the left and right species specific terminal region of a cowpox virus strain reveals unique sequences and a cluster of intact orfs for immunomodulatory and host range proteins
    Virology, 1998
    Co-Authors: S. N. Shchelkunov, A. V. Totmenin, P F Safronov, N A Petrov, O I Ryazankina, V V Gutorov, Girish J Kotwal
    Abstract:

    Abstract Sequencing and computer analysis of the left (52,283 bp) and right (49,649 bp) variable DNA regions of the cowpox virus strain GRI-90 (CPV-GRI) has revealed 51 and 37 potential open reading frames (ORFs), respectively. Comparison of the structure–function organization of these DNA regions of CPV-GRI with those previously published for corresponding regions of genomes of vaccinia virus, strains Copenhagen (VAC-COP) and Western Reserve (VAC-WR); and variola major virus, strains India-1967 (VAR-IND), Bangladesh-1975 (VAR-BSH); and Alastrim variola minor virus, strain Garcia-1966 (VAR-GAR), was performed. Within the left terminal region under study, an extended DNA sequence (14,171 bp), unique to CPV, has been found. Within the right region of the CPV-GRI genome two segments, which are unique to CPV DNA (1579 and 3585 bp) have been found. Numerous differences have been revealed in the genetic structure of CPV-GRI DNA regions, homologous to fragments of the genomes of the above-mentioned orthopoxvirus strains. A cluster of ORFs with structural similarity to immunomodulatory and host range function of other poxviruses have also been detected. A comparison of the sequences of ORF B, crmA, crmB, crmC, IMP, and CHO hr genes of CPV Brighton strain (CPV-BRI) with the corresponding genes in strain GRI-90 have revealed an identity at the amino acid level ranging from 82 to 96% between the two strains. The findings are significant in light of the recent demonstration of CPV as an important poxvirus model system to probe the precise in vivo role(s) of the unique virally encoded immunomodulatory proteins. Also, the presence of a complete and intact repertoire of immunomodulatory proteins, ring canal proteins family, and host range genes indicates that CPV may have been the most ancient of all studied orthopoxviruses.

  • Terminal Region Sequence Variations in Variola Virus DNA
    Virology, 1996
    Co-Authors: Robert F Massung, Janice C. Knight, Sergei N. Shchelkunov, A. V. Totmenin, Vladimir N. Loparev, Vladimir E. Chizhikov, Joseph M. Parsons, Joseph J Esposito
    Abstract:

    Abstract Genome DNA terminal region sequences were determined for a Brazilian Alastrim variola minor virus strain Garcia-1966 that was associated with an 0.8% case-fatality rate and African smallpox strains Congo-1970 and Somalia-1977 associated with variola major (9.6%) and minor (0.4%) mortality rates, respectively. A base sequence identity of ≥98.8% was determined after aligning 30 kb of the left- or right-end region sequences with cognate sequences previously determined for Asian variola major strains India-1967 (31% death rate) and Bangladesh-1975 (18.5% death rate). The deduced amino acid sequences of putative proteins of ≥65 amino acids also showed relatively high identity, although the Asian and African viruses were clearly more related to each other than to Alastrim virus. Alastrim virus contained only 10 of 70 proteins that were 100% identical to homologs in Asian strains, and 7 Alastrim-specific proteins were noted.

Sergei N. Shchelkunov – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Alastrim Smallpox Variola Minor Virus Genome DNA Sequences
    Virology, 2000
    Co-Authors: Sergei N. Shchelkunov, Robert F Massung, Janice C. Knight, A. V. Totmenin, Vladimir N. Loparev, Vladimir E. Chizhikov, Joseph M. Parsons, Joseph J Esposito
    Abstract:

    Abstract Alastrim variola minor virus, which causes mild smallpox, was first recognized in Florida and South America in the late 19th century. Genome linear double-stranded DNA sequences (186,986 bp) of the Alastrim virus Garcia-1966, a laboratory reference strain from an outbreak associated with 0.8% case fatalities in Brazil in 1966, were determined except for a 530-bp fragment of hairpin-loop sequences at each terminus. The DNA sequences (EMBL Accession No. Y16780) showed 206 potential open reading frames for proteins containing ≥60 amino acids. The amino acid sequences of the putative proteins were compared with those reported for vaccinia virus strain Copenhagen and the Asian variola major strains India-1967 and Bangladesh-1975. About one-third of the Alastrim viral proteins were 100% identical to correlates in the variola major strains and the remainder were ≥95% identical. Compared with variola major virus DNA, Alastrim virus DNA has additional segments of 898 and 627 bp, respectively, within the left and right terminal regions. The former segment aligns well with sequences in other orthopoxviruses, particularly cowpox and vaccinia viruses, and the latter is apparently Alastrim-specific.

  • Terminal Region Sequence Variations in Variola Virus DNA
    Virology, 1996
    Co-Authors: Robert F Massung, Janice C. Knight, Sergei N. Shchelkunov, A. V. Totmenin, Vladimir N. Loparev, Vladimir E. Chizhikov, Joseph M. Parsons, Joseph J Esposito
    Abstract:

    Abstract Genome DNA terminal region sequences were determined for a Brazilian Alastrim variola minor virus strain Garcia-1966 that was associated with an 0.8% case-fatality rate and African smallpox strains Congo-1970 and Somalia-1977 associated with variola major (9.6%) and minor (0.4%) mortality rates, respectively. A base sequence identity of ≥98.8% was determined after aligning 30 kb of the left- or right-end region sequences with cognate sequences previously determined for Asian variola major strains India-1967 (31% death rate) and Bangladesh-1975 (18.5% death rate). The deduced amino acid sequences of putative proteins of ≥65 amino acids also showed relatively high identity, although the Asian and African viruses were clearly more related to each other than to Alastrim virus. Alastrim virus contained only 10 of 70 proteins that were 100% identical to homologs in Asian strains, and 7 Alastrim-specific proteins were noted.