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Jonas Malmsten – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.
Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, 2019Co-Authors: Jonas Malmsten, Anne-marie Dalin, Sara Moutailler, Elodie Devillers, Mathilde Gondard, Annika FeltonAbstract:
Climate change, with warmer temperatures and altered precipitation patterns, has affected the distribution of vectors and vector-borne diseases. In the northern hemisphere, vectors are spreading north, and with them, pathogens of zoonotic and animal health impact. Eurasian moose (Alces Alces Alces) are physiologically and anatomically adapted for cold climate, and are rarely considered ideal hosts of vectors, apart from deer keds (Lipoptena cervi). To investigate the presence of vector-borne pathogens, spleen samples from 615 moose were collected in southern Sweden from 2008 to 2015. The samples were analyzed with a high-throughput PCR method for 24 bacterial, and 12 parasitic pathogens. Anaplasma (82%), Borrelia (3%), Babesia (3%), and Bartonella (1%) DNA was found, showing that moose are exposed to, and can act as hosts of some of these pathogens, which can have an impact of both animal and human health. These results show that Swedish moose are exposed to pathogens that in some instances are more commonly found in regions with warmer climate, and highlights the importance of also considering moose as sentinels of vector-borne pathogens. Further research is needed to understand the effect of these pathogens on the health of individual moose and to elucidate whether climate change and moose population density interact to create the pattern observed.
Journal of wildlife diseases, 2018Co-Authors: Alina L Evans, Jonas Malmsten, Göran Ericsson, Boris Fuchs, Anne Randi Græsli, Wiebke Neumann, Fredrik Stenbacka, Navinder Singh, Jon M ArnemoAbstract:
Postmortem body temperature is used to estimate time of death in humans, but the available models are not validated for most nonhuman species. Here, we report that cooling in an adult female moose (Alces Alces) equipped with a rumen temperature monitor was extremely slow, with a rumen temperature of 27–28 C as late as 40 h postmortem.
Reproductive characteristics in female Swedish moose (Alces Alces), with emphasis on puberty, timing of oestrus, and matingActa veterinaria Scandinavica, 2014Co-Authors: Jonas Malmsten, Lisa Yon, Michael R. Hutchings, Carl-gustaf Thulin, Lennart Söderquist, Dolores Gavier Widén, Anne-marie DalinAbstract:
Background The moose (Alces Alces) is an intensively managed keystone species in Fennoscandia. Several aspects of reproduction in moose have not been fully elucidated, including puberty, timing of mating and oestrus, and the length of the oestrus period. These aspects are relevant for an adaptive management of moose with respect to harvest, population size, demography and environmental conditions. Therefore, an investigation of female moose reproduction was conducted during the moose-hunting period in southern Sweden from 2008 to 2011.
A. M. Dalin – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.
Temporal and spatial variation in Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in Swedish moose ( Alces Alces )Epidemiology and infection, 2013Co-Authors: Jonas Malmsten, D. Gavier Widen, Gustaf Rydevik, Lisa Yon, Michael R. Hutchings, Carl-gustaf Thulin, L. Soderquist, Anna Aspán, S. Stuen, A. M. DalinAbstract:
The occurrence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum was investigated in spleen and serum samples from Swedish moose (Alces Alces) in southern Sweden (island and mainland). Samples were analysed for presence of A. phagocytophilum DNA by real-time PCR (n = 263), and for Anaplasma antibodies with ELISA serology (n = 234). All serum samples had antibodies against A. phagocytophilum. The mean DNA-based prevalence was 26·3%, and significant (P
Arne Skorping – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.
Journal of comparative pathology, 2001Co-Authors: Kjell Handeland, Gudbrand Stuve, Arne SkorpingAbstract:
Five goats aged 4 months were each inoculated with approximately 300 third-stage larvae of Elaphostrongylus Alces, and killed for post-mortem examination after 14-150 days. No clinical signs of disease were observed during the experiment. Pathological examination revealed that the larvae penetrated the walls of the abomasum and small intestine and migrated towards the caudal vertebral canal. However, the great majority of larvae were apparently destroyed along the migratory route, and development to adult parasites in the vertebral canal was not seen. During migration, the larvae caused focal inflammation and necrosis in the gastrointestinal wall, liver, mesentery and lungs. The study suggests that the only effect of E. Alces infection on goats is the formation of focal visceral lesions during abdominal larval migration; it also confirms the infectivity of E. Alces for domestic ruminants.
Experimental infection of reindeer, sheep and goats with Elaphostrongylus spp. (Nematoda, Protostrongylidae) from moose and reindeerRangifer, 1998Co-Authors: Margarets Stéen, Ibrahim Warsame, Arne SkorpingAbstract:
Six reindeer (Rangifer tarandus), five sheep and six goats (Ovis ovis and Capra hircus) were experimentally infected with the nematode Elaphostrongylus Alces. Additionally, one sheep was infected with E. rangiferi. Reindeer infected with E. Alces showed no neurological signs. Sheep and goats infected with the same parasite also remained clinically healthy; however, the sheep infected with E. rangiferi showed severe neurological signs and became paralysed. Pathological lesions were minimal in reindeer and domestic ruminants infected with E. Alces, but were prominent in the lamb infected with E. rangiferi. Our results indicate that keeping and transferring sheep and goats into ateas inhabited by moose, which is a natural host of E. Alces may not harm the livestock, while keeping sheep in areas inhabited by reindeer infected with E. rangiferi may result in petiodic outbreaks of cerebrospinal elaphostrongylosis in sheep.
Cross-infection of moose (Alces Alces) and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) with Elaphostrongylus Alces and Elaphostrongylus rangiferi (Nematoda, Protostrongylidae): effects on parasite morphology and prepatent period.Veterinary parasitology, 1997Co-Authors: M. Stéen, C.g.m. Blackmore, Arne SkorpingAbstract:
Moose (Alces Alces) and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) were experimentally cross-infected with Elaphostrongylus rangiferi and Elaphostrongylus Alces, respectively. Both Elaphostrongylus species completed their development in the alternate hosts but produced fewer larvae than in their usual host species. Reindeer infected with Elaphostrongylus Alces developed patent infections after 39-130 days. In moose, the prepatent period of this parasite was 39-73 days. Elaphostrongylus rangiferi infections were patent in moose after 133 days. The male morphological characteristic of E. Alces in moose and reindeer, and E. rangiferi in moose and their migration pattern retained regardless of the host species. These results provide further evidence that E. Alces and E. rangiferi are two distinct species.
Dalius Butkauskas – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.
Parasitology research, 2019Co-Authors: Petras Prakas, Viktorija Kirillova, Rafael Calero-bernal, Muza Kirjušina, Eglė Rudaitytė-lukošienė, Miguel A. Habela, Inese Gavarāne, Dalius ButkauskasAbstract:
Various muscle tissue samples from 60 moose (Alces Alces) in the Baltic region were examined for Sarcocystis species. Sarcocysts were detected in 49 out of 60 (81.7%) moose investigated. Six species, Sarcocystis Alces, Sarcocystis hjorti, Sarcocystis linearis, Sarcocystis silva, Sarcocystis ovalis, and Sarcocystis sp., were identified using light microscopy (LM), and DNA sequence analysis (cox1 and 18S rDNA). Sarcocysts of S. Alces, S. ovalis, and S. hjorti were studied using transmission elecelectron microscopy (TEM); sarcocyst walls of S. Alces, S. ovalis, and S. hjorti were type 25, type 24, and type 7a, respectively. Sarcocystis linearis previously found in roe deer and red deer was also shown to use moose as an intermediate host for the first time. The unknown Sarcocystis sp. was rare and might employ another main intermediate host. Phylogenetic results demonstrated that Sarcocystis sp. was most closely related to Sarcocystis tarandivulpes, using canids as definitive hosts.
Bjorn Gjerde – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.
the red fox vulpes vulpes and the arctic fox vulpes lagopus are definitive hosts of sarcocystis Alces and sarcocystis hjorti from moose Alces AlcesParasitology, 2010Co-Authors: Stina S Dahlgren, Bjorn GjerdeAbstract:
The aim of this study was to determine whether foxes might act as definitive hosts of Sarcocystis Alces in moose. In 2 experiments, 6 silver foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and 6 blue foxes (Vulpes lagopus) were fed muscle tissue from moose containing numerous sarcocysts of S. Alces, and euthanazed 7-28 days post-infection (p.i.). Intestinal mucosal scrapings and faecal samples were screened microscopically for Sarcocystis oocysts/sporocysts, which were identified to species by means of species-specific primers and sequence analysis targeting the ssu rRNA gene. All foxes in both experiments became infected with Sarcocystis; the oocysts were fully sporulated by 14 days p.i., containing sporocysts measuring 14-15 x 10 microm. Molecular identification revealed that the oocysts/sporocysts belonged to 2 species, S. Alces and Sarcocystis hjorti, although sarcocysts of S. hjorti were only identified in moose subsequent to the infection of foxes. In the first experiment, all 8 foxes also became infected with a Hammondia sp. derived from moose, shedding unsporulated, subspherical oocysts, measuring 10-12 microm in diameter, from 6-7 days p.i. onwards. The study proved that canids (the red fox and arctic fox) are definitive hosts for S. Alces and S. hjorti, as had been inferred from the phylogenetic position of these species.