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Faith M. Williams – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Metabolism of Aldrin to dieldrin by rat skin following topical application
    Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association, 1991
    Co-Authors: M.j. Graham, Faith M. Williams, M. D. Rawlins

    Abstract:

    Abstract Metabolism of the pesticide Aldrin to dieldrin in the rat was studied following topical and ip administration of 0.1–10 mg Aldrin/kg body weight. When Aldrin was applied topically to the dorsal skin at a dose of 10 mg/kg body weight, absorption was less efficient than after ip administration; lower blood levels of Aldrin and dieldrin were seen and peak dieldrin levels were delayed. After ip administration of 1 or 10 mg Aldrin/kg body weight, dieldrin was found at similar concentrations in the dorsal and ventral skin 7 hr later, whereas 7 hr after topical administration of 10 mg Aldrin/kg, the dieldrin concentration in the skin at the dorsal site of application was four times higher than that at a ventral skin site. Similar differences in dieldrin concentrations between dorsal and ventral skin persisted throughout the 7-hr period following topical application. The results indicate that topically applied Aldrin is metabolized to dieldrin in the skin during absorption, but the overall proportion of metabolism that takes place in the skin is small compared with the contribution of the liver. Dieldrin was not detected in the ventral skin remote from the application site 1 hr after topical application of Aldrin, whereas a dieldrin concentration of 2.2 nmol/g was detected in the skin of the application site at this time; more than 99% of this dieldrin was probably formed locally by dermal metabolism of percutaneously absorbed Aldrin. The efficiency of conversion of applied Aldrin to dieldrin decreased with increasing Aldrin dose in the range 0.1 to 10 mg/kg.

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  • Percutaneous absorption and metabolism of Aldrin by rat skin in diffusion cells.
    Archives of toxicology, 1991
    Co-Authors: Sara E. Macpherson, Robert C. Scott, Faith M. Williams

    Abstract:

    Using a static diffusion cell with varying receptor fluids the viability of isolated rat skin mounted as whole skin or as split thickness skin has been studied. Skin viability decreased with time with phosphate buffer or Eagles MEM and was not supported with ethanol/water as the receptor fluid. The pesticide Aldrin was absorbed through the skin into ethanol/water but not the aqueous receptor fluids. With viable skin preparations Aldrin was metabolised to dieldrin and absorbed Aldrin and the metabolite remained in the skin. Viable skin preparations must be used to assess in vitro, the degree of metabolism of xenobiotics which occurs during percutaneous absorption.

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Ryuichiro Kondo – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • novel metabolic pathways of organochlorine pesticides dieldrin and Aldrin by the white rot fungi of the genus phlebia
    Chemosphere, 2011
    Co-Authors: Pengfei Xiao, Hiromasa Kiyota, Kazuhiro Takagi, Ichiro Kamei, Toshio Mori, Ryuichiro Kondo

    Abstract:

    White rot fungi can degrade a wide spectrum of recalcitrant organic pollutants, including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). In this experiment, 20 white rot fungi, belonging to genus Phlebia, were investigated for their ability to degrade dieldrin. Based on the screening results, we further investigated Phlebia acanthocystis, Phlebia brevispora, and Phlebia aurea to determine their degradation capacity and metabolic products towards dieldrin and Aldrin. The three fungi were able to remove over 50% of dieldrin in a low nitrogen medium, after 42 d of incubation. Three hydroxylated products were detected as metabolites of dieldrin, suggesting that in Phlebia strains, hydroxylation reactions might play an important role in the metabolism of dieldrin. In contrast to dieldrin, Aldrin exhibited higher levels of degradation activity. Over 90% of Aldrin was removed after 28 d of incubation, and several new metabolites of Aldrin in microorganisms, including 9-hydroxyAldrin and two carboxylic acid products, were detected in fungal cultures. These results indicate that the methylene moiety of Aldrin and dieldrin molecules might be prone to enzymatic attack by white rot fungi. In this study, we describe for the first time a new metabolic pathway of both compounds by fungi of genus Phlebia.

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Sara E. Macpherson – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Percutaneous absorption and metabolism of Aldrin by rat skin in diffusion cells.
    Archives of toxicology, 1991
    Co-Authors: Sara E. Macpherson, Robert C. Scott, Faith M. Williams

    Abstract:

    Using a static diffusion cell with varying receptor fluids the viability of isolated rat skin mounted as whole skin or as split thickness skin has been studied. Skin viability decreased with time with phosphate buffer or Eagles MEM and was not supported with ethanol/water as the receptor fluid. The pesticide Aldrin was absorbed through the skin into ethanol/water but not the aqueous receptor fluids. With viable skin preparations Aldrin was metabolised to dieldrin and absorbed Aldrin and the metabolite remained in the skin. Viable skin preparations must be used to assess in vitro, the degree of metabolism of xenobiotics which occurs during percutaneous absorption.

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