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Russell L Jones – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

Paul C Bethke – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • the arabidopsis Aleurone layer responds to nitric oxide gibberellin and abscisic acid and is sufficient and necessary for seed dormancy
    Plant Physiology, 2007
    Co-Authors: Paul C Bethke, Igor G L Libourel, Natsuyo Aoyaman Aoyama, Yongyoon Chung, David W Still, Russell L Jones
    Abstract:

    Seed dormancy is a common phase of the plant life cycle, and several parts of the seed can contribute to dormancy. Whole seeds, seeds lacking the testa, embryos, and isolated Aleurone layers of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) were used in experiments designed to identify components of the Arabidopsis seed that contribute to seed dormancy and to learn more about how dormancy and germination are regulated in this species. The Aleurone layer was found to be the primary determinant of seed dormancy. Embryos from dormant seeds, however, had a lesser growth potential than those from nondormant seeds. Arabidopsis Aleurone cells were examined by light and electron microscopy, and cell ultrastructure was similar to that of cereal Aleurone cells. Arabidopsis Aleurone cells responded to nitric oxide (NO), gibberellin (GA), and abscisic acid, with NO being upstream of GA in a signaling pathway that leads to vacuolation of protein storage vacuoles and abscisic acid inhibiting vacuolation. Molecular changes that occurred in embryos and Aleurone layers prior to germination were measured, and these data show that both the Aleurone layer and the embryo expressed the NO-associated gene AtNOS1, but only the embryo expressed genes for the GA biosynthetic enzyme GA3 oxidase.

  • cprg hcl a potential h cl symporter prevents acidification of storage vacuoles in Aleurone cells and inhibits ga dependent hydrolysis of storage protein and phytate
    Plant Journal, 2003
    Co-Authors: Yong-sic Hwang, Paul C Bethke, Frank Gubler, Russell L Jones
    Abstract:

    Summary The putative H+/Cl− symporter cycloprodigiosin-HCl (cPrG-HCl) was used to investigate the role of vacuole acidification in cereal Aleurone cell function. The protein storage vacuole (PSV) becomes acidified rapidly when Aleurone cells are treated with gibberellic acid (GA) but not abscisic acid (ABA). We show that cPrG prevents PSV acidification in Aleurone layers and prevents synthesis of secretory proteins such as α-amylase. Our data support the hypothesis that decreased hydrolase synthesis is a consequence of decreased hydrolysis of storage proteins in PSV. Support for this hypothesis comes from experiments showing that breakdown of barley 7S globulins and phytate is inhibited by cPrG in GA-treated Aleurone layers. Decreased mobilization of PSV reserves is accompanied by reductions in the free amino acid pool size and in the amount of ions released from the Aleurone layer. Vacuolation of the Aleurone cell is a diagnostic feature of the response to GA, and vacuolation is also inhibited by cPrG. Evidence that cPrG acts as a potential H+/Cl− symporter in Aleurone is presented. We show that cPrG does not inhibit the synthesis and secretion of α-amylase when Cl− ions are omitted from the incubation medium. Although cPrG blocks many GA-induced responses of Aleurone layers, it does not affect early steps in GA signaling. The SLN1 protein, a negative regulator of GA signaling, is turned over in GA-treated cells in the presence and absence of cPrG. Similarly, synthesis of the transcriptional activator GAMYB is unaffected by the presence of cPrG in GA-treated cells.

  • cPrG-HCl a potential H+/Cl- symporter prevents acidification of storage vacuoles in Aleurone cells and inhibits GA-dependent hydrolysis of storage protein and phytate.
    The Plant journal : for cell and molecular biology, 2003
    Co-Authors: Yong-sic Hwang, Paul C Bethke, Frank Gubler, Russell L Jones
    Abstract:

    Summary The putative H+/Cl− symporter cycloprodigiosin-HCl (cPrG-HCl) was used to investigate the role of vacuole acidification in cereal Aleurone cell function. The protein storage vacuole (PSV) becomes acidified rapidly when Aleurone cells are treated with gibberellic acid (GA) but not abscisic acid (ABA). We show that cPrG prevents PSV acidification in Aleurone layers and prevents synthesis of secretory proteins such as α-amylase. Our data support the hypothesis that decreased hydrolase synthesis is a consequence of decreased hydrolysis of storage proteins in PSV. Support for this hypothesis comes from experiments showing that breakdown of barley 7S globulins and phytate is inhibited by cPrG in GA-treated Aleurone layers. Decreased mobilization of PSV reserves is accompanied by reductions in the free amino acid pool size and in the amount of ions released from the Aleurone layer. Vacuolation of the Aleurone cell is a diagnostic feature of the response to GA, and vacuolation is also inhibited by cPrG. Evidence that cPrG acts as a potential H+/Cl− symporter in Aleurone is presented. We show that cPrG does not inhibit the synthesis and secretion of α-amylase when Cl− ions are omitted from the incubation medium. Although cPrG blocks many GA-induced responses of Aleurone layers, it does not affect early steps in GA signaling. The SLN1 protein, a negative regulator of GA signaling, is turned over in GA-treated cells in the presence and absence of cPrG. Similarly, synthesis of the transcriptional activator GAMYB is unaffected by the presence of cPrG in GA-treated cells.

Valérie Micard – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

Azar Shahpiri – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

Roger M. Spanswick – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Isolation of ripening rice (Oryza sativa L.) Aleurone protoplasts for uptake studies
    Plant Science, 2007
    Co-Authors: Jordan O. Hay, Roger M. Spanswick
    Abstract:

    The Aleurone layer of the developing rice (Oryza sativa L.) caryopsis is the first filial tissue in a position to take up sucrose released into the endosperm apoplast by the maternal nucellus. Adhesion of the Aleurone layer to the nucellus during ripening makes it difficult to characterize sucrose transport by the Aleurone layer. As an alternative, Aleurone protoplasts were isolated enzymatically in a two-step process in which the cells were released from the caryopsis before the protoplasts were isolated. The procedure prevented the formation of maternal and giant (fused) Aleurone protoplasts. Low protoplast yield (10% of the number of cells) was correlated with the low viability of the isolated cells. To test the utility of the protoplast system, sucrose uptake by the protoplasts was investigated using the silicone oil centrifugation technique. The concentration-dependence of the influx was biphasic and could be fitted by a function that depended on three parameters to describe the saturable and non-saturable components of the influx. These results demonstrate that it is possible to isolate protoplasts rapidly from the Aleurone layer in high enough yield for protoplast uptake studies and are consistent with the Aleurone layer having a saturable and a non-saturable component of sucrose influx.