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Osamu Ito – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • fertilizer induced nitrous oxide emissions from vertisols and Alfisols during sweet sorghum cultivation in the indian semi arid tropics
    Science of The Total Environment, 2012
    Co-Authors: Karri Ramu, S P Wani, Takeshi Watanabe, Hiroshi Uchino, K L Sahrawat, Osamu Ito
    Abstract:

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from Vertisols and Alfisols during sweet sorghum cultivation in the Indian semi-arid tropics were determined using a closed chamber technique during the rainy season (June–October) of 2010. The study included two treatments, nitrogen (N) at a rate of 90 kg/ha and a control without N fertilizer application. The N2O emissions strongly coincided with N fertilization and rainfall events. The cumulative N2O–N emission from Alfisols was 1.81 N2O–N kg/ha for 90 N treatment and 0.15 N2O–N kg/ha for the 0 N treatment. Similarly, the N2O–N emission from Vertisols was 0.70 N2O–N kg/ha for 90 N treatment and 0.09 N2O–N kg/ha for the 0 N treatment. The mean N2O–N emission factor for fertilizer induced emissions from the Alfisols was 0.90% as compared to 0.32% for Vertisols. Our results suggest that the N2O emissions are dependent on the soil properties. Therefore, the monitoring of N2O emissions from different agro-ecological regions, having different soil types, rainfall characteristics, cropping systems and crop management practices are necessary to develop comprehensive and accurate green house gas inventories.

  • Characterization of the organic components of an Alfisol and a Vertisol in adjacent locations in Indian semi-arid tropics using optical spectroscopy, 13C NMR spectroscopy, and 14C dating
    Geoderma, 1996
    Co-Authors: Shigemitsu Aral, Tamao Hatta, Ueru Tanaka, Kikuko Hayamizu, Kunihiko Kigoshi, Osamu Ito
    Abstract:

    Abstract Organic components of an Alfisol and a Vertisol in adjacent locations in Indian semi-arid tropics were characterized using chemical analysis, photometric and high resolution solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resoresonance (NMR) spectroscopies, and 14C dating. The organic carbon contents of the Alfisol (0.50-0.25%) were about half the ones of the Vertisol (0.69-0.48%). Among the organic components, fulvic acids were found to be the major constituents, about 80–90% in the Alfisol and 70% in the Vertisol. These figures suggested faster organic decomposition in the Alfisol. The color intensities (K600/C) of humic acids of the Alfisol increased from the surface through deeper layers, while those of the Vertisol remained constant in all the layers. The 13C NMR measurements on the humic acids of both soils suggested the presence of polymethylene-, methyl-, N-methyl-, O-methyl-, dioxygenated-, O-alkyl-, aromatic-, phenolic or quaternary-, and carboxyl carbons. The Alfisol humic acid samples were characterized by a higher content of unsaturated (110-0 ppm) carbons and a lower content of quaternary ( 145-120 ppm) carbons than those of the Vertisol. Radiocarbon dating showed that the humic acids of the Alfisol were of modem (10 cm) through 2520 yr BP (40 cm) years old, while those of the Vertisol were in a narrower range of 4650 yr BP (10 cm) through 5440 yr BP (40 cm). Close relationships among radiocarbon dating, photometric, and NMR spectrometric characteristics of humic acids were suggested.

M. Elayarajan – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

Biswapati Mandal – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • nature of acidity in Alfisols entisols and inceptisols in relation to soil properties
    Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 2017
    Co-Authors: Javid Ahmad Bhat, Manik Chandra Kundu, Biswapati Mandal, Gora Chand Hazra
    Abstract:

    ABSTRACTTwenty acid soils of West Bengal, India, representing Alfisols, Entisols and Inceptisols orders, were studied to characterize their acidity in relation to physicochemical properties. Total potential acidity (TPA), pH-dependent acidity (PDA), total acidity (TA), hydrolytic acidity (HA) and exchange acidity (EA) ranged from 2.02–6.90, 1.75–6.05, 1.18–2.75, 0.98–1.90 and 0.06–0.85 cmol(p+) kg−1, respectively. Relative order for all forms of acidity was: Entisols>Alfisols>Inceptisols. Average contribution of EA to TPA and TA was 9.7% and 19.7%, respectively, and that of PDA to TPA was 90.1%. Contribution of electrostatically bound H+ to EA was highest for Inceptisols followed by Entisols>Alfisols, and reverse was true for electrostatically bound aluminum (Al3+). All forms of acidity showed significant positive correlations with organic carbon (C) forms of Al but negative correlations with pH of soil. They also showed significant correlations with each other. Soil pH, organic C and exchangeable Al caus…

  • long term soil management effects on crop yields and soil quality in a dryland alfisol
    Soil & Tillage Research, 2005
    Co-Authors: K L Sharma, Biswapati Mandal, K. P. R. Vittal, Kusuma J Grace, Uttam Kumar Mandal, K Srinivas, V Ramesh
    Abstract:

    Abstract A long-term experiment was conducted with the objective of selecting the appropriate land management treatments and to identify the key indicators of soil quality for dryland semi-arid tropical Alfisols. The experiment was conducted using a strip split–split plot design on an Alfisol (Typic Haplustalf) in southern India under sorghum (Sorghum vulgare (L))-castor (Ricinus communis (L)) bean rotation. The strip constituted two tillage treatments: conventional tilltillage (CT) and minimum tilltillage (MT); main plots were three residues treatments: sorghum stover (SS), gliricidia loppings (GL), ‘no’ residue (NR) and sub plots were four nitrogen levels: 0 (N0), 30 (N30), 60 (N60), and 90 kg ha−1 (N90). Soil samples were collected after the sixth and seventh year of experimentation and were analyzed for physical, chemical and biological parameters. Sustainable yield index (SYI) based on long-term yield data and soil quality index (SQI) using principal compcomponent analysis (PCA) and linear scoring functions were calculated. Application of gliricidia loppings proved superior to sorghum stover and no residue treatments in maintaining higher SQI values. Further, increasing N levels also helped in maintaining higher SQI. Among the 24 treatments, the SQI ranged from 0.90 to 1.27. The highest SQI was obtained in CTGLN90 (1.27) followed by CTGLN60 (1.19) and MTSSN90 (1.18), while the lowest was under MTNRN30 (0.90) followed by MTNRN0 (0.94), indicating relatively less aggradative effects. The application of 90 kg N ha−1 under minimum tilltillage even without applying any residue (MTNRN90) proved quite effective in maintaining soil quality index as high as 1.10. The key indicators, which contributed considerably towards SQI, were available N, K, S, microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and hydraulic conductivity (HC). On average, the order of relative contribution of these indicators towards SQI was: available N (32%), MBC (31%), available K (17%), HC (16%), and S (4%). Among the various treatments, CTGLN90 not only had the highest SQI, but also the most promising from the viewpoint of sustainability, maintaining higher average yield levels under sorghum–castor rotation. From the view point of SYI, CT approach remained superior to MT. To maintain the yield as well as soil quality in Alfisols, primary tillage along with organic residue and nitrogen application are needed.

  • Nature of Acidity in Soils of West Bengal
    Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science, 2000
    Co-Authors: J.p. Chand, Biswapati Mandal
    Abstract:

    Eighteen acid soils of West Bengal representing Inceptisol, Alfisol and Entisol order s were studied to characterize their nature of acidity in relation to physicochemical properties. Total potential acidity, total acidity, pH-dependent acidity, hydrolytic acidity and exchange acidity ranged from 1.50 to 11.25, 0.93 to 4.75, 1.41 to 10.35, 0.89 to 3.85, and 0.04 to 1.03 cmol (p+ kg−1, respectively. Excepting hydrolytic acidity, all other forms of acidity were highest in Inceptisols followed by Entisols and Alfisols. pH-dependent and hydrolytic acidities contributed 86.9 to 99.2 and 77.4 to 97.6 per cent of the total potential acidity and tota! acidity, respectively, with little (0.8 to 22.6%) contribution of exchange acidity. The contribution of electrostatically bound hydrogen to exchange acidity was highest for Entisols (58.1%) followed by Alfisols (43.6%) and Inceptisols (34.1%); opposite was true for electrostatically bound aluminium. All these ferms of acidity showed significant positive correlations with organic C and forms of Al in soils but negative correlations with soil pH. They also showed significant correlations with each other. Among the soil properties, pH, organic C and exchangeable Al caused most of the variations in different forms of soil acidity.

Hiroshi Uchino – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • fertilizer induced nitrous oxide emissions from vertisols and Alfisols during sweet sorghum cultivation in the indian semi arid tropics
    Science of The Total Environment, 2012
    Co-Authors: Karri Ramu, S P Wani, Takeshi Watanabe, Hiroshi Uchino, K L Sahrawat, Osamu Ito
    Abstract:

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from Vertisols and Alfisols during sweet sorghum cultivation in the Indian semi-arid tropics were determined using a closed chamber technique during the rainy season (June–October) of 2010. The study included two treatments, nitrogen (N) at a rate of 90 kg/ha and a control without N fertilizer application. The N2O emissions strongly coincided with N fertilization and rainfall events. The cumulative N2O–N emission from Alfisols was 1.81 N2O–N kg/ha for 90 N treatment and 0.15 N2O–N kg/ha for the 0 N treatment. Similarly, the N2O–N emission from Vertisols was 0.70 N2O–N kg/ha for 90 N treatment and 0.09 N2O–N kg/ha for the 0 N treatment. The mean N2O–N emission factor for fertilizer induced emissions from the Alfisols was 0.90% as compared to 0.32% for Vertisols. Our results suggest that the N2O emissions are dependent on the soil properties. Therefore, the monitoring of N2O emissions from different agro-ecological regions, having different soil types, rainfall characteristics, cropping systems and crop management practices are necessary to develop comprehensive and accurate green house gas inventories.

Gennaro Brunetti – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Chemical and spectroscopic characteristics of humic acids and dissolved organic matter along two Alfisol profiles.
    Chemosphere, 2014
    Co-Authors: Andreina Traversa, Valeria D'orazio, Giuseppe Natale Mezzapesa, Eleonora Bonifacio, Karam Farrag, Nicola Senesi, Gennaro Brunetti
    Abstract:

    Abstract The aim of this study was to elucidate the heterogeneous structural and functional composition of humic acids (HAs) and dissolved orgaorganic matter (DOM) isolated from two Alfisol profiles with different soil texture, in order to develop a better understanding of the organic matter dynamics. Soil samples were collected at different depths from three (Ap, 2AB and 2Bt) and eight (A1, A2, A3, E1, E2, 2Bt1, 2Bt2 and 2Bt3) soil horizons of two Alfisols located in the south (PR1) and north (PR2) of Italy, with a clay texture and a silt loam to loam ones, respectively. Chemical and spectroscopic methods were used to characterize the HAs and the DOM isolated from different soil horizons, including Ultraviolet–Visible (UV–Vis), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), and Fluorescence spectroscopies. The HAs and the DOM isolated from the two Alfisols apparently showed significant differences in their compositional, structural and functional characteristics. In particular, the HAs isolated from the PR1 featured a higher degree of humification and molecular complexity with respect to those isolated from the PR2. On the contrary, the DOM samples isolated from the PR2 showed a more marked aromatic character and polycondensation degree. Both the HAs and the DOM obtained from the PR1 presented a greater qualitative homogeneity with respect to those obtained from the PR2. These results could be reasonably ascribed to the different texture and horizons of the two Alfisols, and to a greater pedogenesis occurred in the PR1.