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Allergic Conjunctivitis

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Hiroshi Fujishima – 1st expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • airborne particulate matter pm2 5 and the prevalence of Allergic Conjunctivitis in japan
    Science of The Total Environment, 2014
    Co-Authors: Tatsuya Mimura, Satoru Yamagami, Hiroshi Fujishima, Takamichi Ichinose, Yuko Kamei, Mari Goto, Sachiko Takada, Masao Matsubara

    Abstract:

    Abstract Objective Exposure to particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5) is associated with asthma and respiratory symptoms, but little is known about the influence of PM2.5 on Allergic Conjunctivitis. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of PM2.5 with outpatient attendance for Allergic Conjunctivitis. Methods We conducted a time-series analysis of the association between outpatient attendance for Allergic Conjunctivitis and PM2.5 levels from May to July (non-pollen season) and from August to October (the autumnal pollen season) in 2012. Air pollution data (including the levels of PM2.5, oxidants, nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, nitrogen oxide, carbon monoxide, methane, non-methane hydrocarbons, and total hydrocarbons) and data on the daily weather conditions (temperature, wind speed, and humidity) were collected at a centrally located monitoring station in Tokyo. We calculated weekly average values for the daily number of outpatient visits, as well as the air pollution and weather data, and used the weekly average values for analysis. Results There was a significant association between the number of outpatient visits for Allergic Conjunctivitis and the PM2.5 level (r = 0.62, p = 0.0177) from May to July, while no correlation was found between the number of outpatient visits and any variable assessed from August to November. Multivariate analysis also showed that PM2.5 was a significant predictor of the number of outpatient visits from May to July (odds ratio = 9.05, p = 0.0463), while there were no significant predictors of the number of outpatient visits from August to October. From May to July, PM2.5 showed a negative correlation with humidity (r = − 0.53, p = 0.0499). Conclusions These findings suggest a possible role of PM2.5 in the development of Allergic Conjunctivitis during the non-pollen season. This association between PM2.5 and Allergic Conjunctivitis may have broad public health implications in relation to Allergic diseases.

  • Measurement of IL-4 in tears of patients with seasonal Allergic Conjunctivitis and vernal keratoConjunctivitis
    Clinical and Experimental Immunology, 2008
    Co-Authors: Hiroshi Fujishima, Ichiro Saito, Tsutomu Takeuchi, Naoshi Shinozaki, Kazuo Tsubota

    Abstract:

    To elucidate the mechanism of ocular surface Allergic disease, we focused on IL-4, which is one of the key factors in regulating IgE production, and thus determined the concentration of IL-4 in tears. IL-4 concentration was determined in the tears of 15 patients with seasonal Allergic Conjunctivitis, 15 vernal keratoConjunctivitis (VKC), 10 giant papillary Conjunctivitis (GPC), 10 patients with non-Allergic Conjunctivitis and post-cataract surgical Conjunctivitis as intermediate Conjunctivitis, and 10 normal subjects using a highly sensitive sandwich ELISA. The mean level of IL-4 in normal controls was low, and seasonal Allergic Conjunctivitis, VKC and GPC showed a significant elevation (P < 0.05), respectively. IL-4 of VKC and GPC were also significantly higher than Allergic Conjunctivitis, and non-Allergic Conjunctivitis and post-cataract surgical Conjunctivitis were not higher than normal. These results raise the possibility that the increased level of IL-4 in tears could play a role in Allergic disease and its severity in patients.

  • The Early Efficacy of Topical Levocabastine in Patients with Allergic Conjunctivitis
    Allergology International, 2006
    Co-Authors: Hiroshi Fujishima, Eiichi Uchio, Atsuki Fukushima, Kazumi Fukagawa, Yoji Takano, Shigeki Okamoto, Yayoi Nakagawa, Norihiko Yokoi, Etsuko Takamura

    Abstract:

    Background: We investigated the early efficacy of topical levocabastine, an H1 histamine-receptor antagonist, in improving the clinical symptoms of Allergic Conjunctivitis. Methods: Thirty-six patients with Allergic Conjunctivitis were enrolled. One drop of levocabastine was instilled in one eye and one drop of artificial tears in the contralateral eye. Clinical examinations were performed before, and 15 and 30 minutes after instillation. Symptoms of itching and signs of injection were assessed at each time point. Results: Both levocabastine and artificial tears resulted in a statistically significant reduction in ocular itching. However, levocabastine was significantly more effective. Conclusions: Although artificial tears had a positive effect in reducing symptoms of Allergic Conjunctivitis, by the washing out of allergens, levocabastine was more effective than artificial tears in controlling acute symptoms of Allergic Conjunctivitis, demonstrating that the selective H1 histamine-receptor antagonist action of levocabastine is rapidly effective in a clinical setting.

Kazuo Tsubota – 2nd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Measurement of IL-4 in tears of patients with seasonal Allergic Conjunctivitis and vernal keratoConjunctivitis
    Clinical and Experimental Immunology, 2008
    Co-Authors: Hiroshi Fujishima, Ichiro Saito, Tsutomu Takeuchi, Naoshi Shinozaki, Kazuo Tsubota

    Abstract:

    To elucidate the mechanism of ocular surface Allergic disease, we focused on IL-4, which is one of the key factors in regulating IgE production, and thus determined the concentration of IL-4 in tears. IL-4 concentration was determined in the tears of 15 patients with seasonal Allergic Conjunctivitis, 15 vernal keratoConjunctivitis (VKC), 10 giant papillary Conjunctivitis (GPC), 10 patients with non-Allergic Conjunctivitis and post-cataract surgical Conjunctivitis as intermediate Conjunctivitis, and 10 normal subjects using a highly sensitive sandwich ELISA. The mean level of IL-4 in normal controls was low, and seasonal Allergic Conjunctivitis, VKC and GPC showed a significant elevation (P < 0.05), respectively. IL-4 of VKC and GPC were also significantly higher than Allergic Conjunctivitis, and non-Allergic Conjunctivitis and post-cataract surgical Conjunctivitis were not higher than normal. These results raise the possibility that the increased level of IL-4 in tears could play a role in Allergic disease and its severity in patients.

  • Allergic Conjunctivitis and dry eye
    British Journal of Ophthalmology, 1996
    Co-Authors: Hiroshi Fujishima, Ikuko Toda, Jun Shimazaki, Kazuo Tsubota

    Abstract:

    AIMS: Differential diagnosis of Allergic Conjunctivitis or dry eye is sometimes very difficult to diagnose by symptoms and clinical examination alone, especially in older patients. It was hypothesised that clinically Allergic patients who were serum antigen specific IgE negative were candidates for dry eye. METHODS: Sixty patients were studied prospectively who were clinically diagnosed with Allergic Conjunctivitis by their itchy sensation and papilla formation of conjunctiva. They consisted of 30 serum antigen specific IgE positive and 30 IgE negative patients, with no significant differences in age. Dry eye examination and serum total IgE were performed on these two groups. RESULTS: No significant differences were seen between the two groups with regard to age (p = 0.76) and sex ratio. The antibody negative group had lower Schirmer’s test scores (p = 0.002), lower tear clearance (p = 0.0001), lower tear function index (p = 0.0001), and lower serum total IgE (p = 0.04) than the antibody positive group. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that the evaluation of serum antigen specific IgE and tear dynamics are important for the differential diagnosis of patients with Allergic Conjunctivitis and dry eye. Clinically diagnosed Allergic Conjunctivitis with negative serum antigen specific and total IgE can be one form of dry eye.

  • Respiratory syncytial virus and Allergic Conjunctivitis.
    The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 1995
    Co-Authors: Hiroshi Fujishima, Yoshitaka Okamoto, Ichiro Saito, Kazuo Tsubota

    Abstract:

    Abstract The pathogenesis of Allergic Conjunctivitis is largely conjectural. We investigated the possible involvement of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), a ubiquitous respiratory pathogen, in the development of Allergic Conjunctivitis through immune mechanisms. A new technique of brush cytology was used to obtain conjunctival cells from 30 patients with Allergic Conjunctivitis and 20 control subjects. Samples were assayed for the presence of RSV sequences with the reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and the nested polymerase chain reaction. Specific primers and inner primers were synthesized on the basis of RNA sequences previously identified. RSV sequences were detected in 7 of 30 (23%) patient samples and 1 of 20 (5%) control samples. Our results proved that polymerase chain reaction could detect RSV sequences in conjunctival samples. RSV may be a significant pathogenic factor in Allergic Conjunctivitis. (J ALLERGY CLIN IMMUNOL 1995;95:663-7.)

Leonard Bielory – 3rd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • an algorithm for the management of Allergic Conjunctivitis
    Allergy and Asthma Proceedings, 2013
    Co-Authors: Leonard Bielory, Eli O Meltzer, Kelly K Nichols, Ron Melton, Randall K Thomas, Jimmy D Bartlett

    Abstract:

    Abstract Allergic Conjunctivitis has been reported to be increasing in prevalence in the United States. It significantly impacts patient quality of life and reduces their productivity. It has been noted that nasal and ocular symptoms are equally bothersome in the majority of patients. Despite the development of new therapeutic interventions, ocular allergy is often underdiagnosed and undertreated. This article outlines current best practices regarding diagnosis and treatment of Allergic Conjunctivitis; suggests criteria for referral to a colleague with different expertise; and provides an algorithm for step recommendations including treatment with antihistamines, mast cell stabilizers, corticosteroids, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and immunotherapy.

  • Epidemiology of Allergic Conjunctivitis.
    Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 2011
    Co-Authors: Nelson Rosario, Leonard Bielory

    Abstract:

    Purpose of reviewTo describe currently available epidemiological data on the prevalence of Allergic Conjunctivitis. Allergic Conjunctivitis is often underdiagnosed and consequently undertreated except when it is severe and the chief complaint of a consultation in a specialty clinic. Use of healthcar

  • Treatment of seasonal Allergic Conjunctivitis with ophthalmic corticosteroids: in search of the perfect ocular corticosteroids in the treatment of Allergic Conjunctivitis.
    Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 2010
    Co-Authors: Brett P. Bielory, Victor L. Perez, Leonard Bielory

    Abstract:

    Purpose of reviewCorticosteroids are an effective short-term treatment option for seasonal Allergic Conjunctivitis (SAC). Their use has been limited due to their side effects and has led to the development of modified ‘soft’, ‘smart’ ophthalmic corticosteroid formulations that retain their anti-infl