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Alliesthesia

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Michel Cabanac – 1st expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Evidence that transient nicotine lowers the body weight set point.
    Physiology & behavior, 2020
    Co-Authors: Michel Cabanac, Patrick Frankham

    Abstract:

    Smokers usually gain weight when they quit smoking. The present work explores the hypothesis according to which such a rise is a behavioral response to a raised body weight set point taking place when nicotine is eliminated from the body.
    The human body weight set point was assessed with classical behavioral and psychophysical methods, from the delay to experience negative Alliesthesia when repeatedly ingesting sweet stimuli. Seven habitual smokers were tested once before lunch, after smoking (nonabstinent) as usual and once again after refraining from smoking (abstinent). Three additional nicotine-naive subjects were tested under the same procedure after receiving at 0730 h in the morning a transdermal nicotine patch (14 mg) or a placebo patch. Two of the subjects also received nicotine (7 mg) for a third session.
    Oral and transdermal administration of nicotine did not decrease the initial pleasure or modify the initial palatability of eating sweet stimuli, but significantly accelerated the following onset of self-reported displeasure (negative Alliesthesia) aroused by repeated ingestion of sweet stimuli.
    These results are understood as an acute lowering of the body weight set point by nicotine. The body weight gain taking place after quitting smoking may, therefore, be explained by the removal of the lowering of the body weight set point induced by nicotine.

  • Antipsychotic drug and body weight set-point.
    Physiology & Behavior, 2008
    Co-Authors: Yasser Khazaal, Anne Chatton, Fabian Claeys, Farfalla Ribordy, Daniele Fabio Zullino, Michel Cabanac

    Abstract:

    OBJECTIVE: Antipsychotic (AP) drugs frequently induce weight gain. The present study aimed at exploring a potential association between antipsychotic-induced weight gain and delayed negative Alliesthesia for sweet stimuli. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: The study aimed at recruiting patients undergoing AP treatment, half of them with stable weight and the other half with documented weight gain. Negative Alliesthesia to sweet stimuli was assessed through a specific procedure. RESULTS: A multivariate regression of the data obtained from the entire sample was performed to establish the relationship between Alliesthesia dependent variables and weight gain as a predictor. The overall F statistic shows that there was a significant association between delayed negative Alliesthesia for sweet stimuli and weight gain. CONCLUSION: Atypical antipsychotic drug-induced weight gain seems to result from a raised body weight set-point.

  • Alliesthesia in visual and auditory sensations from environmental signals
    Physiology & Behavior, 2007
    Co-Authors: Laurent Brondel, Michel Cabanac

    Abstract:

    Abstract ‘Alliesthesia’ describes the fact that sensory stimuli can arouse pleasant or unpleasant sensations according to the internal state of a person. In the present work, the hedonicity aroused by stimuli from the environment in visual and auditory sensations was evaluated in 5 situations: 1) daytime without sensory stimulations (no video-tape); 2) daytime with poor sensory stimulations (uninteresting video-tape film); 3) daytime with rich sensory stimulations (interesting chosen movie on video-tape); 4) night-time without sensory stimulations (no video-tape); 5) night-time with poor sensory stimulations (uninteresting video-tape). During the day, hedonic ratings decreased with time in the no- and uninteresting video-tape film conditions ( p p p p r  = 0.541 and r  = − 0.593; p

Patrick Frankham – 2nd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Evidence that transient nicotine lowers the body weight set point.
    Physiology & behavior, 2020
    Co-Authors: Michel Cabanac, Patrick Frankham

    Abstract:

    Smokers usually gain weight when they quit smoking. The present work explores the hypothesis according to which such a rise is a behavioral response to a raised body weight set point taking place when nicotine is eliminated from the body.
    The human body weight set point was assessed with classical behavioral and psychophysical methods, from the delay to experience negative Alliesthesia when repeatedly ingesting sweet stimuli. Seven habitual smokers were tested once before lunch, after smoking (nonabstinent) as usual and once again after refraining from smoking (abstinent). Three additional nicotine-naive subjects were tested under the same procedure after receiving at 0730 h in the morning a transdermal nicotine patch (14 mg) or a placebo patch. Two of the subjects also received nicotine (7 mg) for a third session.
    Oral and transdermal administration of nicotine did not decrease the initial pleasure or modify the initial palatability of eating sweet stimuli, but significantly accelerated the following onset of self-reported displeasure (negative Alliesthesia) aroused by repeated ingestion of sweet stimuli.
    These results are understood as an acute lowering of the body weight set point by nicotine. The body weight gain taking place after quitting smoking may, therefore, be explained by the removal of the lowering of the body weight set point induced by nicotine.

  • Body Weight and Satiation after Duodenal Switch: 2 Years Later
    Obesity Surgery, 2007
    Co-Authors: Sebastien Paradis, Michel Cabanac, Picard Marceau, Patrick Frankham

    Abstract:

    Background The authors investigated body weight, satiation, and gustative pleasure of obese patients 2 years after a bariatric operation: the biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch (DS). Methods 9 operated patients, 10 unoperated nonobese and 10 unoperated obese persons participated in the “Alliesthesia (food distaste) test– This test is a psychometric assessment of satiation resulting from the pleasure or displeasure following the repeated ingestion of a sweet stimulus. Operated patients also participated in the test before the DS operation. Results 2 years after DS, patients had lost 50% of their body weight and their BMI was rendered similar to that of the non-obese control group. Their satiation was faster than in control and unoperated obese patients. The responses of control and unoperated obese patients were identical to those of pre-surgery operated patients. Conclusion This indicates that at the time of the experiment, patients–actual body weight was higher than their body weight set-point and that they would be likely to continue to lose weight, at least beyond 2 years.

  • Diet induced weight loss accelerates onset of negative Alliesthesia in obese women
    BMC Public Health, 2005
    Co-Authors: Patrick Frankham, Caroline Gosselin, Michel Cabanac

    Abstract:

    Background The physiological and behavioral responses to hypocaloric diet are to increase energy intake to defend a steady body weight. We utilized the method of “negative Alliesthesia” for measuring the hedonic reponse to sweet stimulus before (Initial session) and 3 months after entering a weight loss program. The negative Alliesthesia test is known by physiologists but few clinical data exist. It is based on the observation that repeated pleasant gustatory stimuli turn into unpleasantness in the process of Alliesthesia. At first visit participants repeatedly ingested sweet stimuli until they found them unpleasant and rated quantitatively on a linear analogue scale their hedonic experience. This procedure was repeated every 3 min until participants felt displeasure to end the session. The same protocol was followed after three months of following a weight loss diet. Dieting energy intake was from 1400 – 2000 kcal/d for 8 wk. Energy composition was 50% carb:25% prot: 25% lipid. After 8 wk caloric intake increased by 50 kcal/wk, to reach daily intake of 1800 – 2400 kcal/d. Energy composition was 50% carb:22% prot: 27% lipid. We report results on the effect of slow weight loss on negative Alliesthesia in ten obese female participants enrolled in a commercial diet program based on Canada’s Food Guide (Mincavi^®). Results Results showed that diet lowered the mean BMI (Initial session 36.8 +/- 1.8 vs. 3 mo 34.9 +/- 1.8 kg/m^2). At 3 mo the onset of negative Alliesthesia, time to abandon experimental session, was shortened (Initial session 33 vs. 3 mo 24 min). The same trend was observed in the time to reach indifference (Initial session 21.9 +/- 3.8 vs. 3 mo 16.2 +/-2.4 min). There was no observed difference in maximum (Initial session +79.5 +/- 11.7; 3 mo +94.5 +/- 9.9 mm) and minimum (Initial session -90.0 +/- 14.4; 3 mo -106 +/- 11.1 mm) hedonic rating. Conclusion Earlier onset of negative Alliesthesia, as seen in our participants, is not consistent with previous hedonic studies that showed delayed or absent negative Alliesthesia in participants when below their initial body weight. Therefore, it is hypothesized that the accelerated onset of negative Alliesthesia observed in our obese participants after weight loss is suggestive of a lowered body weight set-point. Factors inherent to the weight loss diet studied here, such as mild energetic restriction, lowered palatability, and diet composition, may have played a role in this experimental outcome.

M Cabanac – 3rd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Water intake, pleasure and water temperature in humans
    Physiology & Behavior, 2003
    Co-Authors: D. Boulze, P. Montastruc, M Cabanac

    Abstract:

    Abstract The influence of water temperature on intake and affective ratings was explored in human subjects. Dehydration whether by profuse sweating (body weight loss: 289±11 g, N=20) or mountain climbing (body weight loss: 1660±58 g, N=20) resulted in the same intake. Maximal intake was observed for water at 15°C with respectively 199.0±17.0 ml and 222.7±17.4 ml. Colder and warmer water was ingested to a lesser extent. When 20 subjects were allowed to mix water to their preferred temperature, they chose 14.9±1°C and drunk 211.0±19.5 ml. Votes on a pleasure/displeasure scale increased from 50°C to 0°C. Cold water was therefore both more pleasureable and less drunk. Dehydration resulted in a negative Alliesthesia for warm water. Positive Alliesthesia for cold water was probably the result of hyperthermia rather than dehydration.

  • postingestive Alliesthesia produced by exogenous cholecystokinin and blocked by abdominal vagotomy
    American Journal of Physiology-regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology, 1994
    Co-Authors: M Cabanac, Chenqi Zhao

    Abstract:

    Facial consummatory responses reflecting ingestive and aversive perceptions were studied and quantified in rats chronically implanted with oral catheters. A gustatory stimulus of 50 microliters of 1.75 M sucrose was injected into the mouth every 5 min during 65 min. At 5 min, 2 micrograms/kg exogenous cholecystokinin (CCK) was injected intraperitoneally. Typical ingestive facial consummatory responses were observed in response to sweet stimuli before the load. Aversive consummatory responses were observed in response to sweet stimuli after the intraperitoneal exogenous CCK (negative Alliesthesia). Control intraperitoneal injection of saline was not followed by negative Alliesthesia in response to sweet oral stimuli. In the last part of the experiment rats were vagotomized or underwent sham operation. When the vagotomized rats were again subjected to the same gustatory sessions, the intraperitoneal exogenous CCK was not followed by negative Alliesthesia in response to sweet stimuli, whereas sham-operated rats presented a strong negative Alliesthesia. These results in rats suggest that CCK mediates duodenal preabsorptive signal for alimentary Alliesthesia. They also suggest that the effect is peripheral, with the vagus nerve as afferent pathway.

  • duodenal preabsorptive origin of gustatory Alliesthesia in rats
    American Journal of Physiology-regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology, 1992
    Co-Authors: M Cabanac, L Lafrance

    Abstract:

    Facial consummatory responses reflecting ingestive and aversive perceptions were studied and quantified in rats chronically implanted with gastric, duodenal, and oral catheters. A gustatory stimulus of 50 microliters of 1.75 mol/l sucrose was injected into the mouth every 5 min for 65 min. At time 0, 0.5 ml containing 0.3 g glucose was injected into the stomach or into the duodenum. Typical ingestive facial consummatory responses were observed in response to sweet stimuli prior to the load. Aversive consummatory responses were observed in response to sweet stimuli after the glucose duodenal load (negative Alliesthesia). The gastric load of glucose was not followed by negative Alliesthesia in response to sweet oral stimuli. In the last part of the experiment the rats were vagotomized. When the rats were subjected again to the same gustatory sessions, the duodenal load was followed by weak and delayed negative Alliesthesia in response to sweet stimuli. These results in rats parallel results obtained in human subjects and reinforce the hypothesis of the existence of a duodenal preabsorptive signal for alimentary Alliesthesia. They also suggest that the vagus nerve plays a part in the perception of satiety.