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Alpha Chemokine

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Monique Dubois-dalcq – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Differential signalling of the Chemokine receptor CXCR4 by stromal cell-derived factor 1 and the HIV glycoprotein in rat neurons and astrocytes.
    European Journal of Neuroscience, 2008
    Co-Authors: Françoise Lazarini, To Nam Tham, Philippe Casanova, Erik De Clercq, Fernando Arenzana-seisdedos, Françoise Baleux, Monique Dubois-dalcq
    Abstract:

    : CXCR4 is the Gi protein-linked seven-transmembrane receptor for the Alpha Chemokine stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1), a chemoattractant for lymphocytes. This receptor is highly conserved between human and rodent. CXCR4 is also a coreceptor for entry of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in T cells and is expressed in the CNS. To investigate how these CXCR4 ligands influence CNS development and/or function, we have examined the expression and signalling of this Chemokine receptor in rat neurons and astrocytes in vitro. CXCR4 transcripts and protein are synthesized by both cell types and in E15 brain neuronal progenitors. In these progenitors, SDF-1, but not gp120 (the HIV glycoprotein), induced activation of extracellular signal regulated kinases (ERKs) 1/2 and a dose-dependent chemotactic response. This chemotaxis was inhibited by Pertussis toxin, which uncouples Gi proteins and the bicyclam AMD3100, a highly selective CXCR4 antagonist, as well as by an inhibitor of the MAP kinase pathway. In differentiated neurons, both SDF-1 and the glycoprotein of HIV, gp120, triggered activation of ERKs with similar kinetics. These effects were significantly inhibited by Pertussis toxin and the CXCR4 antagonist. Rat astrocytes also responded to SDF-1 signalling by phosphorylation of ERKs but, in contrast to cortical neurons, no kinase activation was induced by gp120. Thus neurons and astrocytes can respond differently to signalling by SDF-1 and/or gp120. As SDF-1 triggers directed migration of neuronal progenitors, this Alpha Chemokine may play a role in cortex development. In differentiated neurons, both natural and viral ligands of CXCR4 activate ERKs and may therefore influence neuronal function.

  • Developmental pattern of expression of the Alpha Chemokine stromal cell‐derived factor 1 in the rat central nervous system
    European Journal of Neuroscience, 2001
    Co-Authors: To Nam Tham, Françoise Lazarini, Isabelle Franceschini, François Lachapelle, Ali Amara, Monique Dubois-dalcq
    Abstract:

    : Stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1) is an AlphaChemokine that stimulates migration of haematopoietic progenitor cells and development of the immune system. SDF-1 is also abundantly and selectively expressed in the developing and mature CNS, as we show here. At embryonic day 15, SDF-1 transcripts were detected in the germinal periventricular zone and in the deep layer of the forming cerebral cortex. At birth, granule cells in the cerebellum and glial cells of the olfactory bulb outer layer showed an SDF-1 in situ hybridization signal that decreased progressively within the next 2 weeks. In other regions such as cortex, thalamus and hippocampus, SDF-1 transcripts detected at birth progressively increased in abundance during the postnatal period. SDF-1 protein was identified by immunoblot and/or immunocytochemistry in most brain regions where these transcripts were detected. SDF-1 was selectively localized in some thalamic nuclei and neurons of the fifth cortical layer as well as in pontine and brainstem nuclei which relay the nociceptive response. The presence of SDF-1 transcripts in cerebellar granule cells was correlated with their migration from the external to the inner granular layers with disappearance of the signal when migration was completed. In contrast, SDF1 mRNA signal increased during formation of the hippocampal dentate gyrus and stayed high in this region throughout life. The selective and regulated expression of SDF-1 in these regions suggests a role in precursor migration, neurogenesis and, possibly, synaptogenesis. Thus this Alpha Chemokine may be as essential to nervous system function as it is to the immune system.

  • Differential signalling of the Chemokine receptor CXCR4 by stromal cell-derived factor 1 and the HIV glycoprotein in rat neurons and astrocytes.
    The European journal of neuroscience, 2000
    Co-Authors: Françoise Lazarini, To Nam Tham, Philippe Casanova, Erik De Clercq, Fernando Arenzana-seisdedos, Françoise Baleux, Monique Dubois-dalcq
    Abstract:

    CXCR4 is the Gi protein-linked seven-transmembrane receptor for the Alpha Chemokine stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1), a chemoattractant for lymphocytes. This receptor is highly conserved between human and rodent. CXCR4 is also a coreceptor for entry of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in T cells and is expressed in the CNS. To investigate how these CXCR4 ligands influence CNS development and/or function, we have examined the expression and signalling of this Chemokine receptor in rat neurons and astrocytes in vitro. CXCR4 transcripts and protein are synthesized by both cell types and in E15 brain neuronal progenitors. In these progenitors, SDF-1, but not gp120 (the HIV glycoprotein), induced activation of extracellular signal regulated kinases (ERKs) 1/2 and a dose-dependent chemotactic response. This chemotaxis was inhibited by Pertussis toxin, which uncouples Gi proteins and the bicyclam AMD3100, a highly selective CXCR4 antagonist, as well as by an inhibitor of the MAP kinase pathway. In differentiated neurons, both SDF-1 and the glycoprotein of HIV, gp120, triggered activation of ERKs with similar kinetics. These effects were significantly inhibited by Pertussis toxin and the CXCR4 antagonist. Rat astrocytes also responded to SDF-1 signalling by phosphorylation of ERKs but, in contrast to cortical neurons, no kinase activation was induced by gp120. Thus neurons and astrocytes can respond differently to signalling by SDF-1 and/or gp120. As SDF-1 triggers directed migration of neuronal progenitors, this Alpha Chemokine may play a role in cortex development. In differentiated neurons, both natural and viral ligands of CXCR4 activate ERKs and may therefore influence neuronal function.

Mariusz Z Ratajczak – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Role of C3a in Regulating Thymocyte Infection by HIV-1.
    , 2017
    Co-Authors: Tomasz Rozmyslowicz, Mariusz Z Ratajczak, Dareus O. Conover, Glen N. Gaulton
    Abstract:

    The primary physiological role of complement proteins lies in augmenting host defense to microorganisms. Among several cascade products, complement components C3 and C5 are cleaved and activated through proteolytic processing during immune activation following exposure to HIV-1. This reaction generates the small peptide anaphylatoxins C3a and C5a, which bind to G-protein coupled membrane receptors that sensitize the response of human T-lymphocytic cells to multiple cytokines including CXCL12/SDF-1. CXCL12 is an Alpha Chemokine that binds to the CXCR4 membrane receptor, which also functions as a co-receptor for X4-tropic HIV-1. Given the importance of complement activation in immune function and the bioactive nature of complement cleavage products we investigated here the role of C3a in HIV-1 infection of human thymocytes. Our data illustrate a potential new link between HIV-1 infection and complement activation in which C3a anaphylatoxin may modulate infectivity by reducing the susceptibility of thymocytes to HIV-1 infection.

  • The role of stromal-derived factor-1–CXCR7 axis in development and cancer.
    European journal of pharmacology, 2009
    Co-Authors: Radoslaw B Maksym, Maciej Tarnowski, Katarzyna Grymula, Joanna Tarnowska, Marcin Wysoczynski, Boguslaw Czerny, Janina Ratajczak, Magda Kucia, Mariusz Z Ratajczak
    Abstract:

    Cancer metastasis is a major clinical problem that contributes to unsuccessful therapy. Augmenting evidence indicates that metastasizing cancer cells employ several mechanisms that are involved in developmental trafficking of normal stem cells. Stromal-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) is an important AlphaChemokine that binds to the G-protein-coupled seven-transmembrane span CXCR4. The SDF-1-CXCR4 axis regulates trafficking of normal and malignant cells. SDF-1 is an important chemoattractant for a variety of cells including hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. For many years, it was believed that CXCR4 was the only receptor for SDF-1. However, several reports recently provided evidence that SDF-1 also binds to another seven-transmembrane span receptor called CXCR7, sharing this receptor with another Chemokine family member called Interferon-inducible T-cell chemoattractant (I-TAC). Thus, with CXCR7 identified as a new receptor for SDF-1, the role of the SDF-1-CXCR4 axis in regulating several biological processes becomes more complex. Based on the available literature, this review addresses the biological significance of SDF-1’s interaction with CXCR7, which may act as a kind of decoy or signaling receptor depending on cell type. Augmenting evidence suggests that CXCR7 is involved in several aspects of tumorogenesis and could become an important target for new anti-metastatic and anti-cancer drugs.

  • Biological role of the CXCR4-SDF-1 axis in normal human hematopoietic cells.
    Methods in molecular biology (Clifton N.J.), 2006
    Co-Authors: Marcin Majka, Mariusz Z Ratajczak
    Abstract:

    Stromal-derived factor (SDF)-1, an AlphaChemokine that binds to G protein-coupled seven transmembrane-spanning receptor, CXCR4, plays an important and unique role in regulating the trafficking of normal hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells and their homing/retention in bone marrow. The same axis also modulates several biological processes in more differentiated cells from the granulocyte-monocytic, erythroid, and megakaryocytic lineages. In this chapter, experimental details are described for the isolation of early human hematopoietic cells, such as CD34+ mononuclear cells, myeloblasts, erythroblasts, and megakaryoblasts. These cells can be used routinely for studying the role of the CXCR4-SDF-1 axis in normal human hematopoiesis.

Françoise Lazarini – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Differential signalling of the Chemokine receptor CXCR4 by stromal cell-derived factor 1 and the HIV glycoprotein in rat neurons and astrocytes.
    European Journal of Neuroscience, 2008
    Co-Authors: Françoise Lazarini, To Nam Tham, Philippe Casanova, Erik De Clercq, Fernando Arenzana-seisdedos, Françoise Baleux, Monique Dubois-dalcq
    Abstract:

    : CXCR4 is the Gi protein-linked seven-transmembrane receptor for the Alpha Chemokine stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1), a chemoattractant for lymphocytes. This receptor is highly conserved between human and rodent. CXCR4 is also a coreceptor for entry of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in T cells and is expressed in the CNS. To investigate how these CXCR4 ligands influence CNS development and/or function, we have examined the expression and signalling of this Chemokine receptor in rat neurons and astrocytes in vitro. CXCR4 transcripts and protein are synthesized by both cell types and in E15 brain neuronal progenitors. In these progenitors, SDF-1, but not gp120 (the HIV glycoprotein), induced activation of extracellular signal regulated kinases (ERKs) 1/2 and a dose-dependent chemotactic response. This chemotaxis was inhibited by Pertussis toxin, which uncouples Gi proteins and the bicyclam AMD3100, a highly selective CXCR4 antagonist, as well as by an inhibitor of the MAP kinase pathway. In differentiated neurons, both SDF-1 and the glycoprotein of HIV, gp120, triggered activation of ERKs with similar kinetics. These effects were significantly inhibited by Pertussis toxin and the CXCR4 antagonist. Rat astrocytes also responded to SDF-1 signalling by phosphorylation of ERKs but, in contrast to cortical neurons, no kinase activation was induced by gp120. Thus neurons and astrocytes can respond differently to signalling by SDF-1 and/or gp120. As SDF-1 triggers directed migration of neuronal progenitors, this Alpha Chemokine may play a role in cortex development. In differentiated neurons, both natural and viral ligands of CXCR4 activate ERKs and may therefore influence neuronal function.

  • Developmental pattern of expression of the Alpha Chemokine stromal cell‐derived factor 1 in the rat central nervous system
    European Journal of Neuroscience, 2001
    Co-Authors: To Nam Tham, Françoise Lazarini, Isabelle Franceschini, François Lachapelle, Ali Amara, Monique Dubois-dalcq
    Abstract:

    : Stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1) is an AlphaChemokine that stimulates migration of haematopoietic progenitor cells and development of the immune system. SDF-1 is also abundantly and selectively expressed in the developing and mature CNS, as we show here. At embryonic day 15, SDF-1 transcripts were detected in the germinal periventricular zone and in the deep layer of the forming cerebral cortex. At birth, granule cells in the cerebellum and glial cells of the olfactory bulb outer layer showed an SDF-1 in situ hybridization signal that decreased progressively within the next 2 weeks. In other regions such as cortex, thalamus and hippocampus, SDF-1 transcripts detected at birth progressively increased in abundance during the postnatal period. SDF-1 protein was identified by immunoblot and/or immunocytochemistry in most brain regions where these transcripts were detected. SDF-1 was selectively localized in some thalamic nuclei and neurons of the fifth cortical layer as well as in pontine and brainstem nuclei which relay the nociceptive response. The presence of SDF-1 transcripts in cerebellar granule cells was correlated with their migration from the external to the inner granular layers with disappearance of the signal when migration was completed. In contrast, SDF1 mRNA signal increased during formation of the hippocampal dentate gyrus and stayed high in this region throughout life. The selective and regulated expression of SDF-1 in these regions suggests a role in precursor migration, neurogenesis and, possibly, synaptogenesis. Thus this Alpha Chemokine may be as essential to nervous system function as it is to the immune system.

  • developmental pattern of expression of the Alpha Chemokine stromal cell derived factor 1 in the rat central nervous system
    European Journal of Neuroscience, 2001
    Co-Authors: To Nam Tham, Françoise Lazarini, Isabelle Franceschini, François Lachapelle, Ali Amara, Monique Duboisdalcq
    Abstract:

    Stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1) is an AlphaChemokine that stimulates migration of haematopoietic progenitor cells and development of the immune system. SDF-1 is also abundantly and selectively expressed in the developing and mature CNS, as we show here. At embryonic day 15, SDF-1 transcripts were detected in the germinal periventricular zone and in the deep layer of the forming cerebral cortex. At birth, granule cells in the cerebellum and glial cells of the olfactory bulb outer layer showed an SDF-1 in situ hybridization signal that decreased progressively within the next 2 weeks. In other regions such as cortex, thalamus and hippocampus, SDF-1 transcripts detected at birth progressively increased in abundance during the postnatal period. SDF-1 protein was identified by immunoblot and/or immunocytochemistry in most brain regions where these transcripts were detected. SDF-1 was selectively localized in some thalamic nuclei and neurons of the fifth cortical layer as well as in pontine and brainstem nuclei which relay the nociceptive response. The presence of SDF-1 transcripts in cerebellar granule cells was correlated with their migration from the external to the inner granular layers with disappearance of the signal when migration was completed. In contrast, SDF1 mRNA signal increased during formation of the hippocampal dentate gyrus and stayed high in this region throughout life. The selective and regulated expression of SDF-1 in these regions suggests a role in precursor migration, neurogenesis and, possibly, synaptogenesis. Thus this Alpha Chemokine may be as essential to nervous system function as it is to the immune system.