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Alpha Chlorohydrin

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V. R. Parshad – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Laboratory acceptance and efficacy of AlphaChlorohydrin against the Indian gerbil, Tatera indica Hardwicke
    International pest control, 2020
    Co-Authors: Neena Singla, V. R. Parshad

    Abstract:

    In a 3 days bi-choice feeding test, the Indian gerbil, Tatera indica ingested 1.41 ± 0.37 g.100g-1 bw 0.5% AlphaChlorohydrin (a-CH) bait which was significantly (P

  • laboratory acceptance and efficacy of Alpha Chlorohydrin against the indian gerbil tatera indica hardwicke
    International pest control, 2009
    Co-Authors: Neena Singla, V. R. Parshad

    Abstract:

    In a 3 days bi-choice feeding test, the Indian gerbil, Tatera indica ingested 1.41 ± 0.37 g.100g-1 bw 0.5% AlphaChlorohydrin (a-CH) bait which was significantly (P<0.01) less than 4.79 ± 0.92 g.100g-1 bw per day of the untreated bait. It caused 50% mortality in gerbils which ingested 249.50 ± 99.12 mg.Kg-1 bw of the active ingredient compared to survivors which ingested 173.0 ± 56.18 mg.K.g-1 bw of the active ingredient. Surviving gerbils on day 30 of treatment, were infertile showing significantly (P<0.05 and 0.01) less weights (g.100g-1 bw) of testes, caput and cauda epididymides and seminal vesicles; reduced sperm concentration (millions.ml-1), sperm motility (%) and live sperm count (%) in the cauda epididymal fluid, as compared to untreated control gerbils. Present studies suggest the potential of 0.5% α-CH for the management of T. indica which is an important crop pest in South Asia.

  • field evaluation of Alpha Chlorohydrin against the indian mole rat studies on toxic and antifertility effects
    Annals of Applied Biology, 1993
    Co-Authors: Manjit S Saini, V. R. Parshad

    Abstract:

    Summary

    Field acceptance and efficacy of a toxicant-sterilant, AlphaChlorohydrin (α-CH), at its 0.5% concentration in bait were evaluated against rodents in sugarcane fields which harboured high populations of the Indian mole rat Bandicota bengalensis (Trap Index (TI) = 53.6 rats/100 traps/24 h) followed by that of the Indian bush rat Golunda ellioti (TI = 28.6) and soft-furred field rat Rattus meltada (TI = 1.8). Acceptance of the α-CH bait by rodents in the fields was evident from complete consumption of the offered bait at most of the baiting points. The treatment (72 h exposure to the poison bait) resulted in 63.7% to 82.9% rodent mortality. Survey of the mature sugarcane crop revealed that the percentage of rodent cut canes in the treated fields (7.6% to 16.2%) was significantly less than that of the reference fields (26.3%). Most of the surviving male B. bengalensis, captured after 15 days of the treatment, had developed sterility as revealed by the functional abnormalities in their testes and epid-idymides. They showed decreased thickness of the seminiferous tubules, lower population of spermatogenic cells, cauda epididymal sperm concentration, live sperm and sperm mortality. A nonsignificant positive correlation between the testicular weight and sperm motility in males from treated fields indicated the effect of α-CH at maturation level in the cauda epididymides. Overall, it was evident that a significant proportion of the surviving B. bengalensis had become permanently sterile as a consequence to the development of spermatocoeles in the caput epididymides and the remaining had significantly low numbers (< 30%) of motile sperm in their cauda epididymides which was, obviously, a handicap for successful fertilisation.

Ramesh N Patel – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • microbial reduction of Alpha chloroketone to Alpha Chlorohydrin
    Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology, 2001
    Co-Authors: Animesh Goswami, K D Mirfakhrae, Michael J Totleben, Shankar Swaminathan, Ramesh N Patel

    Abstract:

    : Microbial reduction of Alpha-chloroketone to AlphaChlorohydrin was studied as one of the approaches for construction of the chiral center of the corresponding epoxide. About 100 microorganisms covering many species of Candida, Pichia, Hansenula, Geotrichum, Rhodococcus and Aureobasidium were screened to reduce the Alpha-chloroketone stereospecifically. Many strains provided the R-AlphaChlorohydrin with 100% enantiomeric excess (ee), e.g., Candida sonorensis SC 16117, Geotrichum candidum SC 5469, Rhodotorula glutinis SC 16293, Sphingomonas paucimobilis SC 16113, Pichia silvicola SC 16159 and Rhodococcus equi SC 15835. Few microorganisms showed preferential formation of S-AlphaChlorohydrin after reduction. Among them, Pichia pinus SC 13864 and two Pichia methanolica strains SC 16116 and SC 13860 were the best, providing the S-AlphaChlorohydrin with ee of 88%, 79% and 78%, respectively. The enantiospecificity of the reduction by these Pichia species can be modified by changing the pH or prior heat treatment of the cells and S-AlphaChlorohydrin with > or =95% ee was obtained by appropriate modification of reaction conditions.

  • Microbial reduction of ?-chloroketone to ?-Chlorohydrin
    Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology, 2001
    Co-Authors: Animesh Goswami, K D Mirfakhrae, Michael J Totleben, Shankar Swaminathan, Ramesh N Patel

    Abstract:

    : Microbial reduction of Alpha-chloroketone to AlphaChlorohydrin was studied as one of the approaches for construction of the chiral center of the corresponding epoxide. About 100 microorganisms covering many species of Candida, Pichia, Hansenula, Geotrichum, Rhodococcus and Aureobasidium were screened to reduce the Alpha-chloroketone stereospecifically. Many strains provided the R-AlphaChlorohydrin with 100% enantiomeric excess (ee), e.g., Candida sonorensis SC 16117, Geotrichum candidum SC 5469, Rhodotorula glutinis SC 16293, Sphingomonas paucimobilis SC 16113, Pichia silvicola SC 16159 and Rhodococcus equi SC 15835. Few microorganisms showed preferential formation of S-AlphaChlorohydrin after reduction. Among them, Pichia pinus SC 13864 and two Pichia methanolica strains SC 16116 and SC 13860 were the best, providing the S-AlphaChlorohydrin with ee of 88%, 79% and 78%, respectively. The enantiospecificity of the reduction by these Pichia species can be modified by changing the pH or prior heat treatment of the cells and S-AlphaChlorohydrin with > or =95% ee was obtained by appropriate modification of reaction conditions.

Manjit S Saini – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • field evaluation of Alpha Chlorohydrin against the indian mole rat studies on toxic and antifertility effects
    Annals of Applied Biology, 1993
    Co-Authors: Manjit S Saini, V. R. Parshad

    Abstract:

    Summary

    Field acceptance and efficacy of a toxicant-sterilant, AlphaChlorohydrin (α-CH), at its 0.5% concentration in bait were evaluated against rodents in sugarcane fields which harboured high populations of the Indian mole rat Bandicota bengalensis (Trap Index (TI) = 53.6 rats/100 traps/24 h) followed by that of the Indian bush rat Golunda ellioti (TI = 28.6) and soft-furred field rat Rattus meltada (TI = 1.8). Acceptance of the α-CH bait by rodents in the fields was evident from complete consumption of the offered bait at most of the baiting points. The treatment (72 h exposure to the poison bait) resulted in 63.7% to 82.9% rodent mortality. Survey of the mature sugarcane crop revealed that the percentage of rodent cut canes in the treated fields (7.6% to 16.2%) was significantly less than that of the reference fields (26.3%). Most of the surviving male B. bengalensis, captured after 15 days of the treatment, had developed sterility as revealed by the functional abnormalities in their testes and epid-idymides. They showed decreased thickness of the seminiferous tubules, lower population of spermatogenic cells, cauda epididymal sperm concentration, live sperm and sperm mortality. A nonsignificant positive correlation between the testicular weight and sperm motility in males from treated fields indicated the effect of α-CH at maturation level in the cauda epididymides. Overall, it was evident that a significant proportion of the surviving B. bengalensis had become permanently sterile as a consequence to the development of spermatocoeles in the caput epididymides and the remaining had significantly low numbers (< 30%) of motile sperm in their cauda epididymides which was, obviously, a handicap for successful fertilisation.

  • Field evaluation of AlphaChlorohydrin against the Indian mole rat: studies on toxic and antifertility effects
    Annals of Applied Biology, 1993
    Co-Authors: Manjit S Saini, V. R. Parshad

    Abstract:

    Summary

    Field acceptance and efficacy of a toxicant-sterilant, AlphaChlorohydrin (α-CH), at its 0.5% concentration in bait were evaluated against rodents in sugarcane fields which harboured high populations of the Indian mole rat Bandicota bengalensis (Trap Index (TI) = 53.6 rats/100 traps/24 h) followed by that of the Indian bush rat Golunda ellioti (TI = 28.6) and soft-furred field rat Rattus meltada (TI = 1.8). Acceptance of the α-CH bait by rodents in the fields was evident from complete consumption of the offered bait at most of the baiting points. The treatment (72 h exposure to the poison bait) resulted in 63.7% to 82.9% rodent mortality. Survey of the mature sugarcane crop revealed that the percentage of rodent cut canes in the treated fields (7.6% to 16.2%) was significantly less than that of the reference fields (26.3%). Most of the surviving male B. bengalensis, captured after 15 days of the treatment, had developed sterility as revealed by the functional abnormalities in their testes and epid-idymides. They showed decreased thickness of the seminiferous tubules, lower population of spermatogenic cells, cauda epididymal sperm concentration, live sperm and sperm mortality. A nonsignificant positive correlation between the testicular weight and sperm motility in males from treated fields indicated the effect of α-CH at maturation level in the cauda epididymides. Overall, it was evident that a significant proportion of the surviving B. bengalensis had become permanently sterile as a consequence to the development of spermatocoeles in the caput epididymides and the remaining had significantly low numbers (< 30%) of motile sperm in their cauda epididymides which was, obviously, a handicap for successful fertilisation.

  • control of the indian mole rat with Alpha Chlorohydrin laboratory studies on bait acceptance and antifertility effects
    Annals of Applied Biology, 1991
    Co-Authors: Manjit S Saini, V. R. Parshad

    Abstract:

    Summary

    Toxic and antifertility effects of feeding poison baits of a toxicant-sterilant, AlphaChlorohydrin, were studied against the Indian mole rat Bandicota bengalensis. It was found that 0.5% AlphaChlorohydrin bait was the most palatable formulation which delivered the amount of active ingredient equal to or more than MLD (82 mg/kg) to B. bengalensis in a single day’s feeding. The rats suffered maximum mortality with this bait concentration both in no-choice and bi-choice feeding trials. Male survivors of 0.5% and 1.0% AlphaChlorohydrin baits showed functional abnormalities of their testes as revealed by loss in testicular weight, decrease in the diameter of seminiferous tubules and thickness of seminiferous epithelium and abnormally low levels of spermatogenic cells. Effect of the poison on epididymis became apparent by the presence of epididymal lesions in caput epididymides and low levels of sperm concentration, live sperms and sperm motility in the cauda epididymal fluid. Our findings on the acceptance and toxiccum-antifertility effects of feeding AlphaChlorohydrin baits suggest field evaluation of this poison for the management of B. bengalensis would be appropriate.