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Alpha-Globulins

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J A Franklyn – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Expression and function of thyroid hormone receptor variants in normal and chronically diseased human liver
    Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 1996
    Co-Authors: Anita Chamba, James Neuberger, A. Strain, J Hopkins, M. C. Sheppard, J A Franklyn

    Abstract:

    As the liver represents a major target organ for thyroid hormone action, we compared the expression of thyroid hormone receptor (TR) alpha and beta variants in normal human liver and liver affected by primary biliary cirrhosis, sclerosing cholangitis, cryptogenic cirrhosis, and alcoholic cirrhosis (n = 6 in each group). Western blot analysis using specific polyclonal antibodies to alpha 1 or beta 1 TRs or to the related non-T3-binding c-erbA alpha 2 variant revealed abundant expression of TRs in normal and diseased liver, with no difference in size or abundance of TR proteins. Immunocytochemistry likewise revealed abundant nuclear expression of TR proteins in normal and diseased liver, with similar patterns and intensity of staining. Despite abundant TR protein expression, Northern blot hybridization of polyadenylated ribonucleic acid (RNA; 10 micrograms) to TR complementary DNAs revealed only a weak signal for c-erbA alpha 2 messenger RNA (mRNA). Comparison of the level of expression of the thyroid hormone-regulated mRNAs encoding T4-binding globulin, sex hormone-binding globulin, cortisol-binding globulin, and transthyretin in normal and diseased tissue revealed no significant difference, suggesting that hepatocellular expression of these mRNAs is maintained in chronic liver disease despite a marked reduction in circulating T3 concentrations.

Anita Chamba – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Expression and function of thyroid hormone receptor variants in normal and chronically diseased human liver
    Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 1996
    Co-Authors: Anita Chamba, James Neuberger, A. Strain, J Hopkins, M. C. Sheppard, J A Franklyn

    Abstract:

    As the liver represents a major target organ for thyroid hormone action, we compared the expression of thyroid hormone receptor (TR) alpha and beta variants in normal human liver and liver affected by primary biliary cirrhosis, sclerosing cholangitis, cryptogenic cirrhosis, and alcoholic cirrhosis (n = 6 in each group). Western blot analysis using specific polyclonal antibodies to alpha 1 or beta 1 TRs or to the related non-T3-binding c-erbA alpha 2 variant revealed abundant expression of TRs in normal and diseased liver, with no difference in size or abundance of TR proteins. Immunocytochemistry likewise revealed abundant nuclear expression of TR proteins in normal and diseased liver, with similar patterns and intensity of staining. Despite abundant TR protein expression, Northern blot hybridization of polyadenylated ribonucleic acid (RNA; 10 micrograms) to TR complementary DNAs revealed only a weak signal for c-erbA alpha 2 messenger RNA (mRNA). Comparison of the level of expression of the thyroid hormone-regulated mRNAs encoding T4-binding globulin, sex hormone-binding globulin, cortisol-binding globulin, and transthyretin in normal and diseased tissue revealed no significant difference, suggesting that hepatocellular expression of these mRNAs is maintained in chronic liver disease despite a marked reduction in circulating T3 concentrations.

V. Prakash – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Effect of succinylation on the functional and physicochemical properties of α‐globulin, the major protein fraction from Sesamum indicum L.
    Nahrung-food, 2002
    Co-Authors: Magdy Zaghloul, V. Prakash

    Abstract:

    alpha-Globulin the major protein fraction from Sesamum indicum was succinylated to different levels and the effect of the chemical modification was evaluated both on the functional and physicochemical properties. The results suggest that the pH of minimum solubility shifted to the more acidic side (pH approximately 4.5-5.5) for the succinylated alpha-globulin whereas for control alpha-globulin the pH of minimum solubility was 6.5. Succinylation also increased emulsion activity and emulsion stability of the protein. The emulsion stability increased from a control value of 53 +/- 3 s to a value of 122 +/- 5 s. Bulk density, water absorption capacity, oil absorption capacity, foam capacity and foam stability were evaluated in phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) containing 0.5 M sodium chloride and all these properties showed increased values as a result of succinylation. Ultracentrifugation studies showed that the % composition of 7S component increases with concomitant decrease in that of 11S fraction with the increase in percentage of succinylation. Further increase in succinylation resulted in only 2S component which is a dissociated form of 11S and/or 7S protein fractions. The fluorescence emission studies showed a decrease in the fluorescence emission intensity of alpha-globulin as a result of succinylation. The thermal stability of the protein molecule decreased due to progressive succinylation as indicated by decrease in the apparent thermal denaturation temperature from a control value of 84 to 62 degrees C at a succinylation level of 40%. These results suggest that succinylation improves the functional characteristics of alpha-globulin. Such changes in the functional properties have been attributed partly to the dissociation of the protein molecule at higher levels of succinylation and the increase in the net negative charge on the protein.

  • The nature of the unhydrolysed fraction of alpha-globulin, the major protein component of Sesamum indicum L. hydrolysed by alpha-chymotrypsin.
    Indian Journal of Biochemistry & Biophysics, 1992
    Co-Authors: R Tanseem, V. Prakash

    Abstract:

    : Alpha-globulin, the high molecular weight protein fraction from sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) seed, was hydrolysed by alpha-chymotrypsin. The hydrolysate was resolved into two fractions, the hydrolysed part and the unhydrolysed part of alpha-globulin using gel filtration on Sepharose 6B-100. The unhydrolysed alpha-globulin residue was characterized for its sedimentation coefficient, subunit composition, fluorescence emission spectrum, secondary structure, and other biophysical properties. The results indicated a decrease in the size of the protein molecule upon hydrolysis to a very small extent. The effect of hydrolysis products on hydrolysis of native alpha-globulin as well as on a standard substrate, casein, was also investigated. The results indicated that the hydrolysis products contribute to the resistance of alpha-globulin to proteolysis by alpha-chymotrypsin to the extent of 40%.