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Wolfgang Kummer – 1st expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform
sympathetic noradrenergic fibers as the source of immunoreactive Alpha Neoendorphin and dynorphin in the guinea pig heartCells Tissues Organs, 1994Co-Authors: K Wegener, Wolfgang KummerAbstract:
Dynorphin and α-Neoendorphin bind to the K subtype of opioid receptors and have been shown to inhibit the release of noradrenaline from cardiac sympathetic axons. The purpose of this study was to eluc
Rafael Coveñas – 2nd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform
Distribution of Alpha‐Neoendorphin, ACTH (18–39) and beta‐endorphin (1–27) in the alpaca brainstemAnatomia Histologia Embryologia, 2018Co-Authors: Manuel Lisardo Sánchez, Eliana De Souza, L.a. Aguilar, Rafael CoveñasAbstract:
Using an immunocytochemical technique, we have studied in the alpaca brainstem the distribution of immunoreactive structures containing prodynorphin (Alpha–Neoendorphin)- and pro-opiomelanocortin (adrenocorticotrophin hormone (18-39) (ACTH), beta-endorphin (1-27))-derived peptides. No peptidergic-immunoreactive cell body was observed. Immunoreactive fibres were widely distributed, although in most of the brainstem nuclei the density of the peptidergic fibres was low or very low. In general, the distribution of the immunoreactive fibres containing the peptides studied was very similar. A close anatomical relationship occurred among the fibres containing Alpha–Neoendorphin, ACTH or beta-endorphin (1-27), suggesting a functional interaction among the three peptides in many of the brainstem nuclei. The number of fibres belonging to the prodynorphin system was higher than that of the pro-opiomelanocortin system. A moderate/low density of immunoreactive fibres was observed in 65.11% (for Alpha–Neoendorphin (1-27)), 18.18% (for ACTH) and 13.95% (for beta-endorphin) of the brainstem nuclei/tracts. In the alpaca brainstem, a high density of immunoreactive fibres was not observed. The neuroanatomical distribution of the immunoreactive fibres suggests that the peptides studied are involved in auditory, motor, gastric, feeding, vigilance, stress, respiratory and cardiovascular mechanisms, taste response, sleep-waking cycle and the control of pain transmission.
distribution of Alpha Neoendorphin immunoreactivity in the diencephalon and the brainstem of the dogJournal of Chemical Neuroanatomy, 2002Co-Authors: P Pesini, R Pegoreigosa, G Tramu, Rafael CoveñasAbstract:
Abstract Alpha–Neoendorphin (α-NE) is an opiate decapeptide derived from the prodynorphin protein. Its anatomical distribution in the brain of mammals other than the rat, particularly in carnivores, is less well known than for other opiate peptides. In the present work, we have charted the distribution of α-NE immunoreactive fibers and perikarya in the diencephalon and the brainstem of the dog. The highest densities of labeled fibers were found in the substantia nigra and in patches within the nucleus of the solitary tract. Moderate densities appeared in the arcuate nucleus (Ar), median eminence, entopeduncular nucleus, ventral tegmental area, retrorubral area, periaqueductal central gray, interpeduncular nucleus and lateral parabrachial nucleus. Groups of numerous labeled perikarya were localized in the magnocellular hypothalamic nuclei, Ar and in the central superior and incertus nuclei in the metencephalon. Moreover, less densely packed fibers and cells appeared widely distributed throughout many nuclei in the region studied. These results are discussed with regard to the pattern described in other species. In addition, the present results were compared with the distribution of met-enkephalin immunoreactivity in the diencephalon and the brainstem of the dog that we have recently described. Although the distributions of these two peptides overlap in many areas, the existence of numerous differences suggest that they form separate opiate systems in the dog.
Malin Andersson – 3rd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform
MALDI Imaging Mass Spectrometry of Neuropeptides in Parkinson’s DiseaseJournal of Visualized Experiments, 2012Co-Authors: Jörg Hanrieder, Anna Ljungdahl, Malin AnderssonAbstract:
MALDI imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) is a powerful approach that facilitates the spatial analysis of molecular species in biological tissue samples2 (Fig.1). A 12 μm thin tissue section is covered with a MALDI matrix, which facilitates desorption and ionization of intact peptides and proteins that can be detected with a mass analyzer, typically using a MALDI TOF/TOF mass spectrometer. Generally hundreds of peaks can be assessed in a single rat brain tissue section. In contrast to commonly used imaging techniques, this approach does not require prior knowledge of the molecules of interest and allows for unsupervised and comprehensive analysis of multiple molecular species while maintaining high molecular specificity and sensitivity2. Here we describe a MALDI IMS based approach for elucidating region-specific distribution profiles of neuropeptides in the rat brain of an animal model Parkinson’s disease (PD). PD is a common neurodegenerative disease with a prevalence of 1% for people over 65 of age3,4. The most common symptomatic treatment is based on dopamine replacement using L-DOPA5. However this is accompanied by severe side effects including involuntary abnormal movements, termed L-DOPA-induced dyskinesias (LID)1,3,6. One of the most prominent molecular change in LID is an upregulation of the opioid precursor prodynorphin mRNA7. The dynorphin peptides modulate neurotransmission in brain areas that are essentially involved in movement control7,8. However, to date the exact opioid peptides that originate from processing of the neuropeptide precursor have not been characterized. Therefore, we utilized MALDI IMS in an animal model of experimental Parkinson’s disease and L-DOPA induced dyskinesia. MALDI imaging mass spectrometry proved to be particularly advantageous with respect to neuropeptide characterization, since commonly used antibody based approaches targets known peptide sequences and previously observed post-translational modifications. By contrast MALDI IMS can unravel novel peptide processing products and thus reveal new molecular mechanisms of neuropeptide modulation of neuronal transmission. While the absolute amount of neuropeptides cannot be determined by MALDI IMS, the relative abundance of peptide ions can be delineated from the mass spectra, giving insights about changing levels in health and disease. In the examples presented here, the peak intensities of dynorphin B, Alpha–Neoendorphin and substance P were found to be significantly increased in the dorsolateral, but not the dorsomedial, striatum of animals with severe dyskinesia involving facial, trunk and orolingual muscles (Fig. 5). Furthermore, MALDI IMS revealed a correlation between dyskinesia severity and levels of des-tyrosine Alpha–Neoendorphin, representing a previously unknown mechanism of functional inactivation of dynorphins in the striatum as the removal of N-terminal tyrosine reduces the dynorphin’s opioid-receptor binding capacity9. This is the first study on neuropeptide characterization in LID using MALDI IMS and the results highlight the potential of the technique for application in all fields of biomedical research.
Imaging Mass Spectrometry Reveals Elevated Nigral Levels of Dynorphin Neuropeptides in L-DOPA-Induced Dyskinesia in Rat Model of Parkinson’s DiseasePLOS ONE, 2011Co-Authors: Anna Ljungdahl, Jörg Hanrieder, Maria Fälth, Jonas Bergquist, Malin AnderssonAbstract:
L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia is a troublesome complication of L-DOPA pharmacotherapy of Parkinson’s disease and has been associated with disturbed brain opioid transmission. However, so far the results of clinical and preclinical studies on the effects of opioids agonists and antagonists have been contradictory at best. Prodynorphin mRNA levels correlate well with the severity of dyskinesia in animal models of Parkinson’s disease; however the identities of the actual neuroactive opioid effectors in their target basal ganglia output structures have not yet been determined. For the first time MALDI-TOF imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) was used for unbiased assessment and topographical elucidation of prodynorphin-derived peptides in the substantia nigra of a unilateral rat model of Parkinson’s disease and L-DOPA induced dyskinesia. Nigral levels of dynorphin B and Alpha–Neoendorphin strongly correlated with the severity of dyskinesia. Even if dynorphin peptide levels were elevated in both the medial and lateral part of the substantia nigra, MALDI IMS analysis revealed that the most prominent changes were localized to the lateral part of the substantia nigra. MALDI IMS is advantageous compared with traditional molecular methods, such as radioimmunoassay, in that neither the molecular identity analyzed, nor the specific localization needs to be predetermined. Indeed, MALDI IMS revealed that the bioconverted metabolite leu-enkephalin-arg also correlated positively with severity of dyskinesia. Multiplexing DynB and leu-enkephalin-arg ion images revealed small (0.25 by 0.5 mm) nigral subregions with complementing ion intensities, indicating localized peptide release followed by bioconversion. The nigral dynorphins associated with L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia were not those with high affinity to kappa opioid receptors, but consisted of shorter peptides, mainly dynorphin B and Alpha–Neoendorphin that are known to bind and activate mu and delta opioid receptors. This suggests that mu and/or delta subtype-selective opioid receptor antagonists may be clinically relevant for reducing L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia in Parkinson’s disease.