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Bernhard Schartel – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Synergy between melamine cyanurate, melamine polyphosphate and aluminum diethylphosphinate in flame retarded thermoplastic polyurethane
    Polymer Testing, 2019
    Co-Authors: Aleksandra Sut, Elke Metzsch-zilligen, Michael Großhauser, Rudolf Pfaendner, Bernhard Schartel

    Abstract:

    Abstract The multicomponent flame retardant system of melamine polyphosphate (MPP), melamine cyanurate (MC) and aluminum diethylphosphinate (ALPI) is proposed and investigated for thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU). The synergy between those additives and the resulting superior fire performance are discussed. Systematically varied sets of flame retarded TPU with various MPP/MC/ALPI ratios were investigated in terms of fire behavior, pyrolysis products and mechanical properties. The total amount of the additives was always 30 wt.-%. Further, the influence of various ALPI concentrations was investigated. The optimal MPP:MC ratio was determined while keeping the amount of ALPI constant. The combination of 8 wt.-% MPP, 12 wt.-% MC and 10 wt.-% is proposed as the most promising halogen free flame retardant formulation for TPU, because it yielded a reduction in PHRR from 2660 kW/m2 (TPU) to 452 kW/m2 and enabled V-0 classification in the UL 94 test. Combinations of MPP and MC as well a high concentration of ALPI are beneficial for the mechanical properties e.g. tensile strength and elongation at break of the formulations and could be a strong competitor to commercial flame retarded TPUs.

  • halogen free multicomponent flame retardant thermoplastic styrene ethylene butylene styrene elastomers based on ammonium polyphosphate expandable graphite synergy
    Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 2017
    Co-Authors: Antje Wilke, Kirsten Langfeld, Bernhard Ulmer, Vlad Andrievici, Andreas Horold, Patrick Limbach, Martin Bastian, Bernhard Schartel

    Abstract:

    Developing flame retarded thermoplastic elastomers (TPE-S) based on styrene–ethylene–butylene–styrene, polypropylene, and mineral oil is a challenging task because of their very high fire loads and flammability. A promising approach is the synergistic combination of expandable graphite (EG) and ammonium polyphosphate (APP). Cone calorimetry, oxygen index, and UL 94 classification were applied. The optimal EG:APP ratio is 3:1, due to the most effective fire residue morphology. Exchanging APP with melamine-coated APPm yielded crucial improvement in fire properties, whereas replacing EG/APP with melamine polyphosphate did not. Adjuvants, such as aluminum diethyl phosphinate (ALPI), zinc borate, melamine cyanurate, titanium dioxide, dipentaerylthritol, diphenyl-2-ethyl phosphate, boehmite, SiO2, chalk, and talcum, were tested. All flame retardants reinforced the TPE-S. The combination with ALPI is proposed, because with 30 wt % flame retardants a maximum averaged rate of heat emission below 200 kW m–2 and a V…

  • Halogen-Free Multicomponent Flame Retardant Thermoplastic Styrene–Ethylene–Butylene–Styrene Elastomers Based on Ammonium Polyphosphate–Expandable Graphite Synergy
    Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 2017
    Co-Authors: Antje Wilke, Kirsten Langfeld, Bernhard Ulmer, Vlad Andrievici, Andreas Horold, Patrick Limbach, Martin Bastian, Bernhard Schartel

    Abstract:

    Developing flame retarded thermoplastic elastomers (TPE-S) based on styrene–ethylene–butylene–styrene, polypropylene, and mineral oil is a challenging task because of their very high fire loads and flammability. A promising approach is the synergistic combination of expandable graphite (EG) and ammonium polyphosphate (APP). Cone calorimetry, oxygen index, and UL 94 classification were applied. The optimal EG:APP ratio is 3:1, due to the most effective fire residue morphology. Exchanging APP with melamine-coated APPm yielded crucial improvement in fire properties, whereas replacing EG/APP with melamine polyphosphate did not. Adjuvants, such as aluminum diethyl phosphinate (ALPI), zinc borate, melamine cyanurate, titanium dioxide, dipentaerylthritol, diphenyl-2-ethyl phosphate, boehmite, SiO2, chalk, and talcum, were tested. All flame retardants reinforced the TPE-S. The combination with ALPI is proposed, because with 30 wt % flame retardants a maximum averaged rate of heat emission below 200 kW m–2 and a V…

Giancarlo Molli – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Evidence of Permian magmatism in the ALPI Apuane metamorphic complex (Northern Apennines, Italy): New hints for the geological evolution of the basement of the Adria plate
    Lithos, 2018
    Co-Authors: Simone Vezzoni, Cristian Biagioni, Massimo D'orazio, Diego Pieruccioni, Yuri Galanti, Maurizio Petrelli, Giancarlo Molli

    Abstract:

    Abstract The occurrence of metavolcanic rocks within the Paleozoic basement of the ALPI Apuane metamorphic complex has been known since long time. Among them, some massive porphyritic tourmaline-bearing rocks cropping out in the southern sector of the ALPI Apuane present some distinctive and peculiar features, differing from the better known middle Ordovician metarhyolites of the “Porfiroidi e scisti porfirici” Fm. The porphyritic tourmaline-bearing rocks belong to the recently proposed Fornovolasco Metarhyolite Fm. They are granular to porphyritic, with phenocrysts of quartz (often with magmatic embayment), pseudomorphosed feldspars, and mica (both biotite and muscovite), in a groundmass formed by quartz, white mica, albite, and K-feldspar. Tourmaline (schorl-dravite in composition) is an abundant accessory mineral, in some cases forming cm-sized spots. The studied rocks plot into the rhyolite field of the Total Alkali vs Silica classification diagram. They show a peraluminous nature, having an Alumina Saturation Index ranging from 1.3 and 3.2. Their trace-element signature is that typical of highly evolved orogenic magmas. Laser ablation-ICP-MS U—Pb datings on zircon suggest a Permian crystallization age (weighted average ages of the four samples ranging from 292 and 271 Ma), thus relating these rocks to a post-Variscan magmatism. This new dating represents the very first evidence of a Permian magmatism in the pre-Triassic basement of the Northern Apennines. The potential relationships between Permian felsic magmatism and the ore genesis in the ALPI Apuane metamorphic complex are also discussed.

  • Geology and tectonic setting of the Fornovolasco area, ALPI Apuane (Tuscany, Italy)
    Journal of Maps, 2018
    Co-Authors: Diego Pieruccioni, Cristian Biagioni, Yuri Galanti, Giancarlo Molli

    Abstract:

    The study area is located in the ALPI Apuane (Tuscany, Italy), and extends between N 44°0′49.883″–E 10°20′23.467″ (SW corner) and N 44°2′53.403″–E 10°23′19.175″ (NE corner). The area shows a pile o…

  • RSCM thermometry in the ALPI Apuane (NW Tuscany, Italy): New constraints for the metamorphic and tectonic history of the inner northern Apennines
    Journal of Structural Geology, 2018
    Co-Authors: Giancarlo Molli, A. Vitale Brovarone, Olivier Beyssac, I. Cinquini

    Abstract:

    Abstract In this study, Raman spectroscopy on carbonaceous material (RSCM) is applied, for the first time, in the Northern Apennines with particular focus on the ALPI Apuane (NW Tuscany, Italy) and surrounding areas in order to constrain peak metamorphic temperatures and their variability in the different continent-derived units of the nappe stack. Peak temperatures in the range of ∼ 530–320 °C were found in the ALPI Apuane, whereas in the nearby metamorphic core of the Monte Pisano and Punta Bianca lower peak temperatures of 305–315 °C and 350 °C were found, respectively. The Tuscan Nappe in La Spezia area (west of ALPI Apuane) shows temperatures in the range of 295–246 °C, whereas the same unit in the Lima Valley (east of the ALPI Apuane) shows temperatures lower than 230 °C. The collected data allowed refining the thermal architecture of the belt and the relationships between deformation (early and late folds and low angle normal detachments) and the metamorphic architecture of the ALPI Apuane core. These results provide new contraints for the thermo-mechanical evolution and exhumation history of the inner Northern Apennine and its geodynamic setting. In particular our data support the interpretation of the ALPI Apuane as a cold metamorphic core complex in which the preserved paleothermal structure and part of the exhumation are related with crustal thickening while the final exhumation stages (depth ≤15 km and at ambient crustal temperature ≤350 °C) are associated with crustal thinning still ongoing in the area.

Antje Wilke – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • halogen free multicomponent flame retardant thermoplastic styrene ethylene butylene styrene elastomers based on ammonium polyphosphate expandable graphite synergy
    Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 2017
    Co-Authors: Antje Wilke, Kirsten Langfeld, Bernhard Ulmer, Vlad Andrievici, Andreas Horold, Patrick Limbach, Martin Bastian, Bernhard Schartel

    Abstract:

    Developing flame retarded thermoplastic elastomers (TPE-S) based on styrene–ethylene–butylene–styrene, polypropylene, and mineral oil is a challenging task because of their very high fire loads and flammability. A promising approach is the synergistic combination of expandable graphite (EG) and ammonium polyphosphate (APP). Cone calorimetry, oxygen index, and UL 94 classification were applied. The optimal EG:APP ratio is 3:1, due to the most effective fire residue morphology. Exchanging APP with melamine-coated APPm yielded crucial improvement in fire properties, whereas replacing EG/APP with melamine polyphosphate did not. Adjuvants, such as aluminum diethyl phosphinate (ALPI), zinc borate, melamine cyanurate, titanium dioxide, dipentaerylthritol, diphenyl-2-ethyl phosphate, boehmite, SiO2, chalk, and talcum, were tested. All flame retardants reinforced the TPE-S. The combination with ALPI is proposed, because with 30 wt % flame retardants a maximum averaged rate of heat emission below 200 kW m–2 and a V…

  • Halogen-Free Multicomponent Flame Retardant Thermoplastic Styrene–Ethylene–Butylene–Styrene Elastomers Based on Ammonium Polyphosphate–Expandable Graphite Synergy
    Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 2017
    Co-Authors: Antje Wilke, Kirsten Langfeld, Bernhard Ulmer, Vlad Andrievici, Andreas Horold, Patrick Limbach, Martin Bastian, Bernhard Schartel

    Abstract:

    Developing flame retarded thermoplastic elastomers (TPE-S) based on styrene–ethylene–butylene–styrene, polypropylene, and mineral oil is a challenging task because of their very high fire loads and flammability. A promising approach is the synergistic combination of expandable graphite (EG) and ammonium polyphosphate (APP). Cone calorimetry, oxygen index, and UL 94 classification were applied. The optimal EG:APP ratio is 3:1, due to the most effective fire residue morphology. Exchanging APP with melamine-coated APPm yielded crucial improvement in fire properties, whereas replacing EG/APP with melamine polyphosphate did not. Adjuvants, such as aluminum diethyl phosphinate (ALPI), zinc borate, melamine cyanurate, titanium dioxide, dipentaerylthritol, diphenyl-2-ethyl phosphate, boehmite, SiO2, chalk, and talcum, were tested. All flame retardants reinforced the TPE-S. The combination with ALPI is proposed, because with 30 wt % flame retardants a maximum averaged rate of heat emission below 200 kW m–2 and a V…