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Jon Strand – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • International Willingness to Pay for the Protection of the Amazon Rainforest
    Policy Research Working Papers, 2019
    Co-Authors: Juha Veikko Siikamaki, Jon Strand, Alan Jeff Krupnick, Jeffrey R. Vincent
    Abstract:

    The Amazon Rainforest, the world’s largest tropical Rainforest and an important constituent of the global biosphere, continues degrading by rapid deforestation, which is expected to continue despite policies to prevent it. Current international funding to protect the Amazon Rainforest focuses on benefits from reduced carbon emissions. This paper examines an additional rationale for Amazon protection: the valuation of its biodiversity and forests as natural heritage to the international community. To measure the economic value of this benefit, the paper examines U.S. and Canadian households’ willingness to pay to help finance Amazon Rainforest protection. The analysis finds that mean willingness to pay to avoid forest losses projected to occur by 2050 despite current protective policies is $92 per household per year. Aggregating across all households and considering the area protected, the analysis finds that preserving the Amazon Rainforest is worth $3,168 per hectare (95-percent confidence interval $1,580-$4,756), on average, to households in the United States and Canada. Considering households in other developed countries would generate yet larger estimates of aggregate value, likely comparable to the carbon benefits from Rainforest protection. The results reveal high values of the Amazon Rainforest to people geographically distanced from it, lending support to international efforts to reduce deforestation in the Amazon.

  • Valuing Global Ecosystem Services: What Do European Experts Say? Applying the Delphi Method to Contingent Valuation of the Amazon Rainforest
    Environmental and Resource Economics, 2017
    Co-Authors: Ståle Navrud, Jon Strand
    Abstract:

    Valuing global public goods like the Amazon Rainforest by stated preference surveys of a representative sample of the global population would be very costly and time consuming. We explore the use of the Delphi Method in contingent valuation (CV) by asking a panel of 49 European environmental valuation experts in two rounds what they think would be the result if a European CV survey of Amazon Rainforest protection plans was conducted. The experts’ best guess for the mean willingness-to-pay (WTP) by European households for preserving the current Amazon Rainforest, and thus avoiding a predicted loss in forest area by 2050 from currently 85% to 60% of the original forest in the 1970s, was 28 € per household annually as an additional income tax. Aggregated over all European households this amounts to about 8.4 billion € annually. This preliminary estimate indicate that WTP of distant beneficiaries is substantial, and could justify preservation of global ecosecosystem services where aggregated benefits of the local population often do not exceed the opportunity costs of preservation in terms of lost income from commercial activities. The income elasticity of WTP with respect to per-capita income in the European countries is 0.5–0.6. Recognizing the limitations and assumptions of the Delphi CV method, it could still be a time saving and cost-effective benefit transfer tool for providing international donors with much needed order-of-magnitude estimates of the non-use value of ecosystem services of global significance.

  • using the delphi method to value protection of the Amazon Rainforest
    Ecological Economics, 2017
    Co-Authors: Jon Strand, Ståle Navrud, Richard T. Carson, Ariel Ortizbobea, Jeffrey R. Vincent
    Abstract:

    Valuing global environmental public goods can serve to mobilize international resources for their protection. While stated-preference valuation methods have been applied extensively to public goods valuation in individual countries, applications to global public goods with surveys in multiple countries are scarce due to complex and costly implementation. Benefit transfer is effectively infeasible when there are few existing studies valuing similar goods. The Delphi method, which relies on expert opinion, offers a third alternative. We explore this method for estimating the value of protecting the Amazon Rainforest, by asking more than 200 environmental valuation experts from 37 countries on four continents to predict the outcome of a contingent valuation survey to elicit willingness-to-pay (WTP) for Amazon forest protection by their own countries’ populations. The average annual per-household values of avoiding a 30% forest loss in the Amazon by 2050, assessed by experts, vary from a few dollars in low-income Asian countries, to a high near $100 in Canada, Germany and Norway. The elasticity with respect to average (PPP-adjusted) per-household incomes is close to unity. Results from the Delphi study match remarkably well those from a recent population stated-preference survey in Canada and the United States, using a similar valuation scenario.

Guy Pujolle – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • A new WSN deployment algorithm for water pollution monitoring in Amazon Rainforest rivers
    GLOBECOM – IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference, 2013
    Co-Authors: Zakia Khalfallah, Ilhem Fajjariy, Nadjib Aitsaadiz, Rami Langar, Guy Pujolle
    Abstract:

    In this paper, we study the wireless sensor network deployment for water pollution monitoring in the Amazon Rainforest rivers. Our objective consists in minimising the number of deployed geographical field installations along the river, while ensuring the detection of the substance spilled in the given river regardless of the position of its source. A geographical field installation is formed by a set of barrier coverage underwater sensors which detect the pollutant if its molarity in the water is greater than a predefined threshold. Indeed, the substance molarity is inversely proportional to the moving distance. To generate the best topology, we propose a sub-optimal novel geographic Installation Field Deployment Algorithm based on the Backtracking heuristic named BT-FIDA. Since the river has a several forks, in order to reduce the number of installation fields, BT-FIDA minimises the rate of at least 2-covered river segments. The simulation results obtained show that our proposal minimises the number of field installations (i.e., deployment cost) while minimising the rate of areas which are miss-covered and over-covered.

  • GLOBECOM – A new WSN deployment algorithm for water pollution monitoring in Amazon Rainforest rivers
    2013 IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM), 2013
    Co-Authors: Zakia Khalfallah, Ilhem Fajjariy, Nadjib Aitsaadiz, Rami Langar, Guy Pujolle
    Abstract:

    In this paper, we study the wireless sensor network deployment for water pollution monitoring in the Amazon Rainforest rivers. Our objective consists in minimising the number of deployed geographical field installations along the river, while ensuring the detection of the substance spilled in the given river regardless of the position of its source. A geographical field installation is formed by a set of barrier coverage underwater sensors which detect the pollutant if its molarity in the water is greater than a predefined threshold. Indeed, the substance molarity is inversely proportional to the moving distance. To generate the best topology, we propose a sub-optimal novel geographic Installation Field Deployment Algorithm based on the Backtracking heuristic named BT-FIDA. Since the river has a several forks, in order to reduce the number of installation fields, BT-FIDA minimises the rate of at least 2-covered river segments. The simulation results obtained show that our proposal minimises the number of field installations (i.e., deployment cost) while minimising the rate of areas which are miss-covered and over-covered.

Zakia Khalfallah – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • A new WSN deployment algorithm for water pollution monitoring in Amazon Rainforest rivers
    GLOBECOM – IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference, 2013
    Co-Authors: Zakia Khalfallah, Ilhem Fajjariy, Nadjib Aitsaadiz, Rami Langar, Guy Pujolle
    Abstract:

    In this paper, we study the wireless sensor network deployment for water pollution monitoring in the Amazon Rainforest rivers. Our objective consists in minimising the number of deployed geographical field installations along the river, while ensuring the detection of the substance spilled in the given river regardless of the position of its source. A geographical field installation is formed by a set of barrier coverage underwater sensors which detect the pollutant if its molarity in the water is greater than a predefined threshold. Indeed, the substance molarity is inversely proportional to the moving distance. To generate the best topology, we propose a sub-optimal novel geographic Installation Field Deployment Algorithm based on the Backtracking heuristic named BT-FIDA. Since the river has a several forks, in order to reduce the number of installation fields, BT-FIDA minimises the rate of at least 2-covered river segments. The simulation results obtained show that our proposal minimises the number of field installations (i.e., deployment cost) while minimising the rate of areas which are miss-covered and over-covered.

  • GLOBECOM – A new WSN deployment algorithm for water pollution monitoring in Amazon Rainforest rivers
    2013 IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM), 2013
    Co-Authors: Zakia Khalfallah, Ilhem Fajjariy, Nadjib Aitsaadiz, Rami Langar, Guy Pujolle
    Abstract:

    In this paper, we study the wireless sensor network deployment for water pollution monitoring in the Amazon Rainforest rivers. Our objective consists in minimising the number of deployed geographical field installations along the river, while ensuring the detection of the substance spilled in the given river regardless of the position of its source. A geographical field installation is formed by a set of barrier coverage underwater sensors which detect the pollutant if its molarity in the water is greater than a predefined threshold. Indeed, the substance molarity is inversely proportional to the moving distance. To generate the best topology, we propose a sub-optimal novel geographic Installation Field Deployment Algorithm based on the Backtracking heuristic named BT-FIDA. Since the river has a several forks, in order to reduce the number of installation fields, BT-FIDA minimises the rate of at least 2-covered river segments. The simulation results obtained show that our proposal minimises the number of field installations (i.e., deployment cost) while minimising the rate of areas which are miss-covered and over-covered.

Ståle Navrud – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Valuing Global Ecosystem Services: What Do European Experts Say? Applying the Delphi Method to Contingent Valuation of the Amazon Rainforest
    Environmental and Resource Economics, 2017
    Co-Authors: Ståle Navrud, Jon Strand
    Abstract:

    Valuing global public goods like the Amazon Rainforest by stated preference surveys of a representative sample of the global population would be very costly and time consuming. We explore the use of the Delphi Method in contingent valuation (CV) by asking a panel of 49 European environmental valuation experts in two rounds what they think would be the result if a European CV survey of Amazon Rainforest protection plans was conducted. The experts’ best guess for the mean willingness-to-pay (WTP) by European households for preserving the current Amazon Rainforest, and thus avoiding a predicted loss in forest area by 2050 from currently 85% to 60% of the original forest in the 1970s, was 28 € per household annually as an additional income tax. Aggregated over all European households this amounts to about 8.4 billion € annually. This preliminary estimate indicate that WTP of distant beneficiaries is substantial, and could justify preservation of global ecosystem services where aggregated benefits of the local population often do not exceed the opportunity costs of preservation in terms of lost income from commercial activities. The income elasticity of WTP with respect to per-capita income in the European countries is 0.5–0.6. Recognizing the limitations and assumptions of the Delphi CV method, it could still be a time saving and cost-effective benefit transfer tool for providing international donors with much needed order-of-magnitude estimates of the non-use value of ecosystem services of global significance.

  • using the delphi method to value protection of the Amazon Rainforest
    Ecological Economics, 2017
    Co-Authors: Jon Strand, Ståle Navrud, Richard T. Carson, Ariel Ortizbobea, Jeffrey R. Vincent
    Abstract:

    Valuing global environmental public goods can serve to mobilize international resources for their protection. While stated-preference valuation methods have been applied extensively to public goods valuation in individual countries, applications to global public goods with surveys in multiple countries are scarce due to complex and costly implementation. Benefit transfer is effectively infeasible when there are few existing studies valuing similar goods. The Delphi method, which relies on expert opinion, offers a third alternative. We explore this method for estimating the value of protecting the Amazon Rainforest, by asking more than 200 environmental valuation experts from 37 countries on four continents to predict the outcome of a contingent valuation survey to elicit willingness-to-pay (WTP) for Amazon forest protection by their own countries’ populations. The average annual per-household values of avoiding a 30% forest loss in the Amazon by 2050, assessed by experts, vary from a few dollars in low-income Asian countries, to a high near $100 in Canada, Germany and Norway. The elasticity with respect to average (PPP-adjusted) per-household incomes is close to unity. Results from the Delphi study match remarkably well those from a recent population stated-preference survey in Canada and the United States, using a similar valuation scenario.

  • A “Delphi Exercise” as a Tool in Amazon Rainforest Valuation – A ‘Delphi Exercise’ As a Tool in Amazon Rainforest Valuation
    Policy Research Working Papers, 2014
    Co-Authors: Jon Strand, Ståle Navrud, Richard T. Carson, Ariel Ortiz-bobea, Jeffrey R. Vincent
    Abstract:

    The Amazon Rainforest, the world’s largest and most biodiverse, represents a global public good of which 15 percent has already been lost. The worldwide value of preserving the remaining forest is today unknown. A”Delphi”exercise was conducted involving more than 200 environmental valuation experts from 36 countries, who were asked to predict the outcome of a survey to elicit willingness to pay for Amazon forest preservation among their own countries’populations. Expert judgments of average willingness-to-pay levels, per household per year, to fund a plan to protect all of the current Amazon Rainforest up to 2050, range from $4 to $36 in 12 Asian countries, to near $100 in Canada, Germany, and Norway, with other high-income countries in between. Somewhat lower willingness-to-pay values were found for a less strict plan that allows a 12 percent further Rainforest area reduction. The elasticity of experts’willingness-to-pay assessments with respect to own-country per capita income is slightly below but not significantly different from unity when results are pooled across countries and income is adjusted for purchasing power parity.

Jeffrey R. Vincent – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • International Willingness to Pay for the Protection of the Amazon Rainforest
    Policy Research Working Papers, 2019
    Co-Authors: Juha Veikko Siikamaki, Jon Strand, Alan Jeff Krupnick, Jeffrey R. Vincent
    Abstract:

    The Amazon Rainforest, the world’s largest tropical Rainforest and an important constituent of the global biosphere, continues degrading by rapid deforestation, which is expected to continue despite policies to prevent it. Current international funding to protect the Amazon Rainforest focuses on benefits from reduced carbon emissions. This paper examines an additional rationale for Amazon protection: the valuation of its biodiversity and forests as natural heritage to the international community. To measure the economic value of this benefit, the paper examines U.S. and Canadian households’ willingness to pay to help finance Amazon Rainforest protection. The analysis finds that mean willingness to pay to avoid forest losses projected to occur by 2050 despite current protective policies is $92 per household per year. Aggregating across all households and considering the area protected, the analysis finds that preserving the Amazon Rainforest is worth $3,168 per hectare (95-percent confidence interval $1,580-$4,756), on average, to households in the United States and Canada. Considering households in other developed countries would generate yet larger estimates of aggregate value, likely comparable to the carbon benefits from Rainforest protection. The results reveal high values of the Amazon Rainforest to people geographically distanced from it, lending support to international efforts to reduce deforestation in the Amazon.

  • using the delphi method to value protection of the Amazon Rainforest
    Ecological Economics, 2017
    Co-Authors: Jon Strand, Ståle Navrud, Richard T. Carson, Ariel Ortizbobea, Jeffrey R. Vincent
    Abstract:

    Valuing global environmental public goods can serve to mobilize international resources for their protection. While stated-preference valuation methods have been applied extensively to public goods valuation in individual countries, applications to global public goods with surveys in multiple countries are scarce due to complex and costly implementation. Benefit transfer is effectively infeasible when there are few existing studies valuing similar goods. The Delphi method, which relies on expert opinion, offers a third alternative. We explore this method for estimating the value of protecting the Amazon Rainforest, by asking more than 200 environmental valuation experts from 37 countries on four continents to predict the outcome of a contingent valuation survey to elicit willingness-to-pay (WTP) for Amazon forest protection by their own countries’ populations. The average annual per-household values of avoiding a 30% forest loss in the Amazon by 2050, assessed by experts, vary from a few dollars in low-income Asian countries, to a high near $100 in Canada, Germany and Norway. The elasticity with respect to average (PPP-adjusted) per-household incomes is close to unity. Results from the Delphi study match remarkably well those from a recent population stated-preference survey in Canada and the United States, using a similar valuation scenario.

  • A “Delphi Exercise” as a Tool in Amazon Rainforest Valuation – A ‘Delphi Exercise’ As a Tool in Amazon Rainforest Valuation
    Policy Research Working Papers, 2014
    Co-Authors: Jon Strand, Ståle Navrud, Richard T. Carson, Ariel Ortiz-bobea, Jeffrey R. Vincent
    Abstract:

    The Amazon Rainforest, the world’s largest and most biodiverse, represents a global public good of which 15 percent has already been lost. The worldwide value of preserving the remaining forest is today unknown. A”Delphi”exercise was conducted involving more than 200 environmental valuation experts from 36 countries, who were asked to predict the outcome of a survey to elicit willingness to pay for Amazon forest preservation among their own countries’populations. Expert judgments of average willingness-to-pay levels, per household per year, to fund a plan to protect all of the current Amazon Rainforest up to 2050, range from $4 to $36 in 12 Asian countries, to near $100 in Canada, Germany, and Norway, with other high-income countries in between. Somewhat lower willingness-to-pay values were found for a less strict plan that allows a 12 percent further Rainforest area reduction. The elasticity of experts’willingness-to-pay assessments with respect to own-country per capita income is slightly below but not significantly different from unity when results are pooled across countries and income is adjusted for purchasing power parity.