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Andrew Parkinson – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Hydroxylation of 5α-Androstane-3β,17β-diol by rat prostate microsomes: Effects of antibodies and chemical inhibitors of cytochrome P450 enzymes☆
    Archives of biochemistry and biophysics, 1992
    Co-Authors: Brian Gemzik, Justin L. Green, Andrew Parkinson
    Abstract:

    The purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that rat prostate microsomes contain a single cytochrome P450 enzyme responsible for the conversion of 5α-Androstane-3β,17β-diol to a series of trihydroxylated products. The three major metabolites formed by in vitro incubation of 5α-[3H]Androstane-3β,17β-diol with rat prostate microsomes were apparently 5α-Androstane-3β,6α,17β-triol, 5α-Androstane-3β,7α,17β-triol, and 5α-Androstane-3β,7β,17β-triol, which were resolved and quantified by reverse-phase HPLC with a flow through radioactivity detector. The ratio of the three metabolites remained constant as a function of incubation time, microsomal protein concentration, ionic strength, and substrate concentration. The ratio of the three metabolites was dependent on pH, apparently because the hydroxylation of 5α-Androstane-3β,17β-diol shifted from the 6α-to the 7α-position with increasing pH (6.8–8.0). The Vmax values were 380, 160, and 60 pmol/mg microsomal protein/min for the rate of 6α-, 7α-, and 7β-hydroxylation, respectively. Similar Km values (0.5–0.7 μm) were measured for enzymatic formation of all three metabolites, which suggests that formation of all three metabolites was catalyzed by a single, high-affinity enzyme. Testosterone, 5α-dihydrotestosterone, and 5α-Androstane-3α,17β-diol did not appreciably inhibit the hydroxylation of 5α-Androstane-3β,17β-diol, suggesting that this enzyme exhibits a high degree of substrate specificity. Formation of all three metabolites was inhibited by antibody against rat liver NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (85%) and by a 9:1 mixture of carbon monoxide and oxygen (60%). Several chemical inhibitors of cytochrome P450 enzymes, especially the antimycotic drug clotrimazole, also inhibited the formation of all three metabolites. Polyclonal antibodies that recognize liver cytochrome P450 1A, 2A, 2B, 2C, and 3A enzymes did not inhibit 5α-Androstane-3β,17β-diol hydroxylase activity. Overall, these results are consistent with the hypothesis that the 6α-, 7α-, and 7β-hydroxylation of 5α-Androstane-3β,17β-diol by rat prostate microsomes is catalyzed by a single, high-affinity P450 enzyme. This cytochrome P450 enzyme appears to be structurally distinct from those in the 1A, 2A, 2B, 2C, and 3A gene families.

  • Species differences in 5α-Androstane-3β,17β-diol hydroxylation by rat, monkey, and human prostate microsomes
    Archives of biochemistry and biophysics, 1992
    Co-Authors: Brian Gemzik, Sera Jacob, Scott Jennings, James Veltman, Andrew Parkinson
    Abstract:

    The 6 alpha-, 7 alpha-, and 7 beta-hydroxylation of 5 alpha-Androstane-3 beta,17 beta-diol by rat prostate microsomes appears to be catalyzed by a single, high-affinity cytochrome P450 enzyme. In the present study we have examined the hydroxylation of 5 alpha-Androstane-3 beta,17 beta-diol by prostate microsomes from cynomolgus monkeys and from normal subjects and patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia. Our results suggest that although rat, monkey, and human prostate microsomes catalyze the 6 alpha-, 7 alpha-, and 7 beta-hydroxylation of 5 alpha-Androstane-3 beta,17 beta-diol, these pathways of oxidation in monkeys and humans are not catalyzed by a single cytochrome P450 enzyme. The ratio of the three metabolites was not uniform among prostate microsomal samples from individual humans or monkeys. The 6 alpha-hydroxylation of 5 alpha-Androstane-3 beta,17 beta-diol varied independently of both the 7 alpha- and 7 beta-hydroxylation, which varied in unison. The 6 alpha-, 7 alpha-, and 7 beta-hydroxylation of 5 alpha-Androstane-3 beta,17 beta-diol by monkey prostate microsomes appeared to be differentially affected by in vivo treatment of monkeys with beta-naphthoflavone or dexamethasone. Treatment of a monkey with dexamethasone appeared to cause a 2.5-fold increase in both the 7 alpha- and the 7 beta-hydroxylation of 5 alpha-Androstane-3 beta,17 beta-diol without increasing the 6 alpha-hydroxylation. The 7 alpha- and 7 beta-hydroxylation of 5 alpha-Androstane-3 beta,17 beta-diol by human and monkey prostate microsomes, but not the 6 alpha-hydroxylation, was inhibited by antibody against rat liver NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase. Similarly, the 7 alpha- and 7 beta-hydroxylation of 5 alpha-Androstane-3 beta,17 beta-diol by human prostate microsomes, but not the 6 alpha-hydroxylation, was markedly inhibited (greater than 85%) by equimolar concentrations of the imidazole-containing antimycotic drugs ketoconazole, clotrimazole, and miconazole. These results suggest that the 7 alpha- and 7 beta-hydroxylation of 5 alpha-Androstane-3 beta,17 beta-diol by monkey and human prostate microsomes is catalyzed by a cytochrome P450 enzyme, whereas the 6 alpha-hydroxylation is catalyzed by a different enzyme which may or may not be a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase. The hydroxylation of 5 alpha-Androstane-3 beta,17 beta-diol by prostate microsomes from normal human subjects was quantitatively and qualitatively similar to its hydroxylation by prostate microsomes from patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  • hydroxylation of 5α Androstane 3β 17β diol by rat prostate microsomes potent inhibition by imidazole type antimycotic drugs and lack of inhibition by steroid 5α reductase inhibitors
    Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 1992
    Co-Authors: Brian Gemzik, Andrew Parkinson
    Abstract:

    5 alpha-Dihydrotestosterone, the principal androgen mediating prostate growth and function in the rat, is formed from testosterone by steroid 5 alpha-reductase. The inactivation of 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone involves reversible reduction to 5 alpha-Androstane-3 beta,17 beta-diol by 3 beta-hydroxysteroid oxidoreductase followed by 6 alpha-, 7 alpha-, or 7 beta-hydroxylation. 5 alpha-Androstane-3 beta,17 beta-diol hydroxylation represents the ultimate inactivation step of dihydrotestosterone in rat prostate and is apparently catalyzed by a single, high-affinity (Km approximately 0.5 microM) microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme. The present studies were designed to determine if 5 alpha-Androstane-3 beta,17 beta-diol hydroxylation by rat prostate microsomes is inhibited by agents that are known inhibitors of androgen-metabolizing enzymes. Inhibitors of steroid 5 alpha-reductase (4-azasteroid analogs; 10 microM) or inhibitors of 3 beta-hydroxysteroid oxidoreductase (trilostane, azastene, and cyanoketone; 10 microM) had no appreciable effect on the 6 alpha-, 7 alpha-, or 7 beta-hydroxylation of 5 alpha-Androstane-3 beta,17 beta-diol (10 microM) by rat prostate microsomes. Imidazole-type antimycotic drugs (ketoconazole, clotrimazole, and miconazole; 0.1-10 microM) all markedly inhibited 5 alpha-Androstane-3 beta,17 beta-diol hydroxylation in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas triazole-type antimycotic drugs (fluconazole and itraconazole; 0.1-10 microM) had no inhibitory effect. The rank order of inhibitory potency of the imidazole-type antimycotic drugs was miconazole greater than clotrimazole greater than ketoconazole. In the case of clotrimazole, the inhibition was shown to be competitive in nature, with a Ki of 0.03 microM. The imidazole-type antimycotic drugs inhibited all three pathways of 5 alpha-Androstane-3 beta,17 beta-diol hydroxylation to the same extent, which provides further evidence that, in rat prostate microsomes, a single cytochrome P450 enzyme catalyzes the 6 alpha-, 7 alpha-, and 7 beta-hydroxylation of 5 alpha-Androstane-3 beta,17 beta-diol. These studies demonstrate that certain imidazole-type compounds are potent, competitive inhibitors of 5 alpha-Androstane-3 beta,17 beta-diol hydroxylation by rat prostate microsomes, which is consistent with the effect of these antimycotic drugs on cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in the metabolism of other androgens and steroids.

Kavitha Ratnam – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Human 3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase isoforms (AKR1C1-AKR1C4) of the aldo-keto reductase superfamily: functional plasticity and tissue distribution reveals roles in the inactivation and formation of male and female sex hormones.
    The Biochemical journal, 2000
    Co-Authors: Trevor M. Penning, M E Burczynski, C. F. Hung, H. Ma, M. Moore, N Palackal, Kavitha Ratnam
    Abstract:

    The kinetic parameters, steroid substrate specificity and identities of reaction products were determined for four homogeneous recombinant human 3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3alpha-HSD) isoforms of the aldo-keto redureductase (AKR) superfamily. The enzymes correspond to type 1 3alpha-HSD (AKR1C4), type 2 3alpha(17beta)-HSD (AKR1C3), type 3 3alpha-HSD (AKR1C2) and 20alpha(3alpha)-HSD (AKR1C1), and share at least 84% amino acid sequence identity. All enzymes acted as NAD(P)(H)-dependent 3-, 17- and 20-ketosteroid reductases and as 3alpha-, 17beta- and 20alpha-hydroxysteroid oxidases. The functional plasticity of these isoforms highlights their ability to modulate the levels of active androgens, oestrogens and progestins. Salient features were that AKR1C4 was the most catalytically efficient, with k(cat)/K(m) values for substrates that exceeded those obtained with other isoforms by 10-30-fold. In the reduction direction, all isoforms inactivated 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (17beta-hydroxy-5alpha-androstan-3-one; 5alpha-DHT) to yield 5alpha-Androstane-3alpha,17beta-diol (3alpha-Androstanediol). However, only AKR1C3 reduced Delta(4)-androstene-3,17-dione to produce significant amounts of testosterone. All isoforms reduced oestrone to 17beta-oestradiol, and progesterone to 20alpha-hydroxy-pregn-4-ene-3,20-dione (20alpha-hydroxyprogesterone). In the oxidation direction, only AKR1C2 converted 3alpha-Androstanediol to the active hormone 5alpha-DHT. AKR1C3 and AKR1C4 oxidized testosterone to Delta(4)-androstene-3,17-dione. All isoforms oxidized 17beta-oestradiol to oestrone, and 20alpha-hydroxyprogesterone to progesterone. Discrete tissue distribution of these AKR1C enzymes was observed using isoform-specific reverse trantranscriptase-PCR. AKR1C4 was virtually liver-specific and its high k(cat)/K(m) allows this enzyme to form 5alpha/5beta-tetrahydrosteroids robustly. AKR1C3 was most prominent in the prostate and mammary glands. The ability of AKR1C3 to interconvert testosterone with Delta(4)-androstene-3,17-dione, but to inactivate 5alpha-DHT, is consistent with this enzyme eliminating active androgens from the prostate. In the mammary gland, AKR1C3 will convert Delta(4)-androstene-3,17-dione to testosterone (a substrate aromatizable to 17beta-oestradiol), oestrone to 17beta-oestradiol, and progesterone to 20alpha-hydroxyprogesterone, and this concerted reductive activity may yield a pro-oesterogenic state. AKR1C3 is also the dominant form in the uterus and is responsible for the synthesis of 3alpha-Androstanediol which has been implicated as a parturition hormone. The major isoforms in the brain, capable of synthesizing anxiolytic steroids, are AKR1C1 and AKR1C2. These studies are in stark contrast with those in rat where only a single AKR with positional- and stereo-specificity for 3alpha-hydroxysteroids exists.

  • Human 3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase isoforms (AKR1C1–AKR1C4) of the aldo-keto reductase superfamily: functional plasticity and tissue distribution reveals roles in the inactivation and formation of male and female sex hormones
    Biochemical Journal, 2000
    Co-Authors: Trevor M. Penning, M E Burczynski, C. F. Hung, H. Ma, M. Moore, N Palackal, Kavitha Ratnam
    Abstract:

    The kinetic parameters, steroid substrate specificity and identities of reaction products were determined for four homogeneous recombinant human 3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3alpha-HSD) isoforms of the aldo-keto redureductase (AKR) superfamily. The enzymes correspond to type 1 3alpha-HSD (AKR1C4), type 2 3alpha(17beta)-HSD (AKR1C3), type 3 3alpha-HSD (AKR1C2) and 20alpha(3alpha)-HSD (AKR1C1), and share at least 84% amino acid sequence identity. All enzymes acted as NAD(P)(H)-dependent 3-, 17- and 20-ketosteroid reductases and as 3alpha-, 17beta- and 20alpha-hydroxysteroid oxidases. The functional plasticity of these isoforms highlights their ability to modulate the levels of active androgens, oestrogens and progestins. Salient features were that AKR1C4 was the most catalytically efficient, with k(cat)/K(m) values for substrates that exceeded those obtained with other isoforms by 10-30-fold. In the reduction direction, all isoforms inactivated 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (17beta-hydroxy-5alpha-androstan-3-one; 5alpha-DHT) to yield 5alpha-Androstane-3alpha,17beta-diol (3alpha-Androstanediol). However, only AKR1C3 reduced Delta(4)-androstene-3,17-dione to produce significant amounts of testosterone. All isoforms reduced oestrone to 17beta-oestradiol, and progesterone to 20alpha-hydroxy-pregn-4-ene-3,20-dione (20alpha-hydroxyprogesterone). In the oxidation direction, only AKR1C2 converted 3alpha-Androstanediol to the active hormone 5alpha-DHT. AKR1C3 and AKR1C4 oxidized testosterone to Delta(4)-androstene-3,17-dione. All isoforms oxidized 17beta-oestradiol to oestrone, and 20alpha-hydroxyprogesterone to progesterone. Discrete tissue distribution of these AKR1C enzymes was observed using isoform-specific reverse trantranscriptase-PCR. AKR1C4 was virtually liver-specific and its high k(cat)/K(m) allows this enzyme to form 5alpha/5beta-tetrahydrosteroids robustly. AKR1C3 was most prominent in the prostate and mammary glands. The ability of AKR1C3 to interconvert testosterone with Delta(4)-androstene-3,17-dione, but to inactivate 5alpha-DHT, is consistent with this enzyme eliminating active androgens from the prostate. In the mammary gland, AKR1C3 will convert Delta(4)-androstene-3,17-dione to testosterone (a substrate aromatizable to 17beta-oestradiol), oestrone to 17beta-oestradiol, and progesterone to 20alpha-hydroxyprogesterone, and this concerted reductive activity may yield a pro-oesterogenic state. AKR1C3 is also the dominant form in the uterus and is responsible for the synthesis of 3alpha-Androstanediol which has been implicated as a parturition hormone. The major isoforms in the brain, capable of synthesizing anxiolytic steroids, are AKR1C1 and AKR1C2. These studies are in stark contrast with those in rat where only a single AKR with positional- and stereo-specificity for 3alpha-hydroxysteroids exists.

Cedric H L Shackleton – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Androstanediol and 5 androstenediol profiling for detecting exogenously administered dihydrotestosterone epitestosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone potential use in gas chromatography isotope ratio mass spectrometry
    Steroids, 1997
    Co-Authors: Cedric H L Shackleton, Esther Roitman, Andy Phillips, Tony Chang
    Abstract:

    : The basis of a potential method for confirming intake of four natural androgens (testosterone, epitestosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone is presented. The method relies on isolating from urine a steroid fraction containing androstenediol and Androstanediol metabolites of these natural steroids and analyzing their 13C content by gas chromatography, combustion, isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The steroids were recovered from urine by conjugate hydrolysis with a Helix pomatia preparation (sulfatase and beta-glucuronidase), Girard T reagent separation to obtain a nonketonic fraction, and Sephadex LH-20 chromatography for purification. Metabolites appropriate for all of the natural steroids could be separated (as diacetates) by gas chromatography on a DB-17 capillary column viz.: 5 alpha (and beta)-Androstane-3 alpha,17 alpha-diol (epitestosterone as precursor); 5 alpha (and beta)-Androstane-3 alpha,17 beta-diol (testosterone as precursor); 5-androstene-3 beta,17 beta-diol (dehydroepiandrosterone precursor); and 5 alpha-Androstane-3 alpha,17 beta- (and 17 alpha-) diol (dihydrotestosterone precursor). Measurement of the 13C content of the specific analytes after ingestion of the androgen precursors demonstrated a lowering of delta 13C/1000 value compared to normal values. Typically, in the male individual studied, delta 13C/1000 values for all components were -26 to -27 before drug administration and -29 to -30 at 6 h after, the latter values reflecting those obtaining for commercial synthetic steroid compared to in vivo synthesized steroid. While generally the metabolism of the steroids was as expected, this was not the case for 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone. A major metabolite was 5 alpha-Androstane-3 alpha,17 alpha-diol, which had presumably been formed by 17 beta/17 alpha isomerization, a process previously known for unnatural anabolics but not for natural hormones. The isolation, purification, and isotope ratio mass spectrometry techniques described may form the basis of a general method for confirming natural steroid misuse by sports participants.

  • Synthesis of deuterium-labeled 5α-Androstane-3α,17β-diol and its 17β-glucuronide
    Steroids, 1992
    Co-Authors: Chung Bong-chul, Mallamo John P, Paul E. Juniewicz, Cedric H L Shackleton
    Abstract:

    Using unlabeled androsterone as starting material, 5 alpha-[16,16-2H2]androstan-3 alpha-ol-17-one was synthesized by exchange using deuterated potassium methoxide. This labeled androsterone product was reduced by sodium borodeuteride, which gave predominantly trideuterated 5 alpha-Androstane-3 alpha, 17 beta-diol. The labeled Androstanediol was conjugated with glucuronide by using the Koenig-Knorr reaction with methyl-1-bromo-1-deoxy-2,3,4-tri-O-acetyl-alpha-D-glucopyranosuronate . The dominant product was identified by thermospray high-performance liquid chrochromatography/mass spectrometry (MS) and electrospray MS as 5 alpha-[16,16,17-2H3]Androstane-3 alpha, 17 beta-diol, 17 beta-glucuronide.

Brian Gemzik – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Hydroxylation of 5α-Androstane-3β,17β-diol by rat prostate microsomes: Effects of antibodies and chemical inhibitors of cytochrome P450 enzymes☆
    Archives of biochemistry and biophysics, 1992
    Co-Authors: Brian Gemzik, Justin L. Green, Andrew Parkinson
    Abstract:

    The purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that rat prostate microsomes contain a single cytochrome P450 enzyme responsible for the conversion of 5α-Androstane-3β,17β-diol to a series of trihydroxylated products. The three major metabolites formed by in vitro incubation of 5α-[3H]Androstane-3β,17β-diol with rat prostate microsomes were apparently 5α-Androstane-3β,6α,17β-triol, 5α-Androstane-3β,7α,17β-triol, and 5α-Androstane-3β,7β,17β-triol, which were resolved and quantified by reverse-phase HPLC with a flow through radioactivity detector. The ratio of the three metabolites remained constant as a function of incubation time, microsomal protein concentration, ionic strength, and substrate concentration. The ratio of the three metabolites was dependent on pH, apparently because the hydroxylation of 5α-Androstane-3β,17β-diol shifted from the 6α-to the 7α-position with increasing pH (6.8–8.0). The Vmax values were 380, 160, and 60 pmol/mg microsomal protein/min for the rate of 6α-, 7α-, and 7β-hydroxylation, respectively. Similar Km values (0.5–0.7 μm) were measured for enzymatic formation of all three metabolites, which suggests that formation of all three metabolites was catalyzed by a single, high-affinity enzyme. Testosterone, 5α-dihydrotestosterone, and 5α-Androstane-3α,17β-diol did not appreciably inhibit the hydroxylation of 5α-Androstane-3β,17β-diol, suggesting that this enzyme exhibits a high degree of substrate specificity. Formation of all three metabolites was inhibited by antibody against rat liver NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (85%) and by a 9:1 mixture of carbon monoxide and oxygen (60%). Several chemical inhibitors of cytochrome P450 enzymes, especially the antimycotic drug clotrimazole, also inhibited the formation of all three metabolites. Polyclonal antibodies that recognize liver cytochrome P450 1A, 2A, 2B, 2C, and 3A enzymes did not inhibit 5α-Androstane-3β,17β-diol hydroxylase activity. Overall, these results are consistent with the hypothesis that the 6α-, 7α-, and 7β-hydroxylation of 5α-Androstane-3β,17β-diol by rat prostate microsomes is catalyzed by a single, high-affinity P450 enzyme. This cytochrome P450 enzyme appears to be structurally distinct from those in the 1A, 2A, 2B, 2C, and 3A gene families.

  • Species differences in 5α-Androstane-3β,17β-diol hydroxylation by rat, monkey, and human prostate microsomes
    Archives of biochemistry and biophysics, 1992
    Co-Authors: Brian Gemzik, Sera Jacob, Scott Jennings, James Veltman, Andrew Parkinson
    Abstract:

    The 6 alpha-, 7 alpha-, and 7 beta-hydroxylation of 5 alpha-Androstane-3 beta,17 beta-diol by rat prostate microsomes appears to be catalyzed by a single, high-affinity cytochrome P450 enzyme. In the present study we have examined the hydroxylation of 5 alpha-Androstane-3 beta,17 beta-diol by prostate microsomes from cynomolgus monkeys and from normal subjects and patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia. Our results suggest that although rat, monkey, and human prostate microsomes catalyze the 6 alpha-, 7 alpha-, and 7 beta-hydroxylation of 5 alpha-Androstane-3 beta,17 beta-diol, these pathways of oxidation in monkeys and humans are not catalyzed by a single cytochrome P450 enzyme. The ratio of the three metabolites was not uniform among prostate microsomal samples from individual humans or monkeys. The 6 alpha-hydroxylation of 5 alpha-Androstane-3 beta,17 beta-diol varied independently of both the 7 alpha- and 7 beta-hydroxylation, which varied in unison. The 6 alpha-, 7 alpha-, and 7 beta-hydroxylation of 5 alpha-Androstane-3 beta,17 beta-diol by monkey prostate microsomes appeared to be differentially affected by in vivo treatment of monkeys with beta-naphthoflavone or dexamethasone. Treatment of a monkey with dexamethasone appeared to cause a 2.5-fold increase in both the 7 alpha- and the 7 beta-hydroxylation of 5 alpha-Androstane-3 beta,17 beta-diol without increasing the 6 alpha-hydroxylation. The 7 alpha- and 7 beta-hydroxylation of 5 alpha-Androstane-3 beta,17 beta-diol by human and monkey prostate microsomes, but not the 6 alpha-hydroxylation, was inhibited by antibody against rat liver NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase. Similarly, the 7 alpha- and 7 beta-hydroxylation of 5 alpha-Androstane-3 beta,17 beta-diol by human prostate microsomes, but not the 6 alpha-hydroxylation, was markedly inhibited (greater than 85%) by equimolar concentrations of the imidazole-containing antimycotic drugs ketoconazole, clotrimazole, and miconazole. These results suggest that the 7 alpha- and 7 beta-hydroxylation of 5 alpha-Androstane-3 beta,17 beta-diol by monkey and human prostate microsomes is catalyzed by a cytochrome P450 enzyme, whereas the 6 alpha-hydroxylation is catalyzed by a different enzyme which may or may not be a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase. The hydroxylation of 5 alpha-Androstane-3 beta,17 beta-diol by prostate microsomes from normal human subjects was quantitatively and qualitatively similar to its hydroxylation by prostate microsomes from patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  • hydroxylation of 5α Androstane 3β 17β diol by rat prostate microsomes potent inhibition by imidazole type antimycotic drugs and lack of inhibition by steroid 5α reductase inhibitors
    Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 1992
    Co-Authors: Brian Gemzik, Andrew Parkinson
    Abstract:

    5 alpha-Dihydrotestosterone, the principal androgen mediating prostate growth and function in the rat, is formed from testosterone by steroid 5 alpha-reductase. The inactivation of 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone involves reversible reduction to 5 alpha-Androstane-3 beta,17 beta-diol by 3 beta-hydroxysteroid oxidoreductase followed by 6 alpha-, 7 alpha-, or 7 beta-hydroxylation. 5 alpha-Androstane-3 beta,17 beta-diol hydroxylation represents the ultimate inactivation step of dihydrotestosterone in rat prostate and is apparently catalyzed by a single, high-affinity (Km approximately 0.5 microM) microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme. The present studies were designed to determine if 5 alpha-Androstane-3 beta,17 beta-diol hydroxylation by rat prostate microsomes is inhibited by agents that are known inhibitors of androgen-metabolizing enzymes. Inhibitors of steroid 5 alpha-reductase (4-azasteroid analogs; 10 microM) or inhibitors of 3 beta-hydroxysteroid oxidoreductase (trilostane, azastene, and cyanoketone; 10 microM) had no appreciable effect on the 6 alpha-, 7 alpha-, or 7 beta-hydroxylation of 5 alpha-Androstane-3 beta,17 beta-diol (10 microM) by rat prostate microsomes. Imidazole-type antimycotic drugs (ketoconazole, clotrimazole, and miconazole; 0.1-10 microM) all markedly inhibited 5 alpha-Androstane-3 beta,17 beta-diol hydroxylation in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas triazole-type antimycotic drugs (fluconazole and itraconazole; 0.1-10 microM) had no inhibitory effect. The rank order of inhibitory potency of the imidazole-type antimycotic drugs was miconazole greater than clotrimazole greater than ketoconazole. In the case of clotrimazole, the inhibition was shown to be competitive in nature, with a Ki of 0.03 microM. The imidazole-type antimycotic drugs inhibited all three pathways of 5 alpha-Androstane-3 beta,17 beta-diol hydroxylation to the same extent, which provides further evidence that, in rat prostate microsomes, a single cytochrome P450 enzyme catalyzes the 6 alpha-, 7 alpha-, and 7 beta-hydroxylation of 5 alpha-Androstane-3 beta,17 beta-diol. These studies demonstrate that certain imidazole-type compounds are potent, competitive inhibitors of 5 alpha-Androstane-3 beta,17 beta-diol hydroxylation by rat prostate microsomes, which is consistent with the effect of these antimycotic drugs on cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in the metabolism of other androgens and steroids.

Trevor M. Penning – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Human 3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase isoforms (AKR1C1-AKR1C4) of the aldo-keto reductase superfamily: functional plasticity and tissue distribution reveals roles in the inactivation and formation of male and female sex hormones.
    The Biochemical journal, 2000
    Co-Authors: Trevor M. Penning, M E Burczynski, C. F. Hung, H. Ma, M. Moore, N Palackal, Kavitha Ratnam
    Abstract:

    The kinetic parameters, steroid substrate specificity and identities of reaction products were determined for four homogeneous recombinant human 3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3alpha-HSD) isoforms of the aldo-keto reductase (AKR) superfamily. The enzymes correspond to type 1 3alpha-HSD (AKR1C4), type 2 3alpha(17beta)-HSD (AKR1C3), type 3 3alpha-HSD (AKR1C2) and 20alpha(3alpha)-HSD (AKR1C1), and share at least 84% amino acid sequence identity. All enzymes acted as NAD(P)(H)-dependent 3-, 17- and 20-ketosteroid reductases and as 3alpha-, 17beta- and 20alpha-hydroxysteroid oxidases. The functional plasticity of these isoforms highlights their ability to modulate the levels of active androgens, oestrogens and progestins. Salient features were that AKR1C4 was the most catalytically efficient, with k(cat)/K(m) values for substrates that exceeded those obtained with other isoforms by 10-30-fold. In the reduction direction, all isoforms inactivated 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (17beta-hydroxy-5alpha-androstan-3-one; 5alpha-DHT) to yield 5alpha-Androstane-3alpha,17beta-diol (3alpha-Androstanediol). However, only AKR1C3 reduced Delta(4)-androstene-3,17-dione to produce significant amounts of testosterone. All isoforms reduced oestrone to 17beta-oestradiol, and progesterone to 20alpha-hydroxy-pregn-4-ene-3,20-dione (20alpha-hydroxyprogesterone). In the oxidation direction, only AKR1C2 converted 3alpha-Androstanediol to the active hormone 5alpha-DHT. AKR1C3 and AKR1C4 oxidized testosterone to Delta(4)-androstene-3,17-dione. All isoforms oxidized 17beta-oestradiol to oestrone, and 20alpha-hydroxyprogesterone to progesterone. Discrete tissue distribution of these AKR1C enzymes was observed using isoform-specific reverse transcriptase-PCR. AKR1C4 was virtually liver-specific and its high k(cat)/K(m) allows this enzyme to form 5alpha/5beta-tetrahydrosteroids robustly. AKR1C3 was most prominent in the prostate and mammary glands. The ability of AKR1C3 to interconvert testosterone with Delta(4)-androstene-3,17-dione, but to inactivate 5alpha-DHT, is consistent with this enzyme eliminating active androgens from the prostate. In the mammary gland, AKR1C3 will convert Delta(4)-androstene-3,17-dione to testosterone (a substrate aromatizable to 17beta-oestradiol), oestrone to 17beta-oestradiol, and progesterone to 20alpha-hydroxyprogesterone, and this concerted reductive activity may yield a pro-oesterogenic state. AKR1C3 is also the dominant form in the uterus and is responsible for the synthesis of 3alpha-Androstanediol which has been implicated as a parturition hormone. The major isoforms in the brain, capable of synthesizing anxiolytic steroids, are AKR1C1 and AKR1C2. These studies are in stark contrast with those in rat where only a single AKR with positional- and stereo-specificity for 3alpha-hydroxysteroids exists.

  • Human 3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase isoforms (AKR1C1–AKR1C4) of the aldo-keto reductase superfamily: functional plasticity and tissue distribution reveals roles in the inactivation and formation of male and female sex hormones
    Biochemical Journal, 2000
    Co-Authors: Trevor M. Penning, M E Burczynski, C. F. Hung, H. Ma, M. Moore, N Palackal, Kavitha Ratnam
    Abstract:

    The kinetic parameters, steroid substrate specificity and identities of reaction products were determined for four homogeneous recombinant human 3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3alpha-HSD) isoforms of the aldo-keto reductase (AKR) superfamily. The enzymes correspond to type 1 3alpha-HSD (AKR1C4), type 2 3alpha(17beta)-HSD (AKR1C3), type 3 3alpha-HSD (AKR1C2) and 20alpha(3alpha)-HSD (AKR1C1), and share at least 84% amino acid sequence identity. All enzymes acted as NAD(P)(H)-dependent 3-, 17- and 20-ketosteroid reductases and as 3alpha-, 17beta- and 20alpha-hydroxysteroid oxidases. The functional plasticity of these isoforms highlights their ability to modulate the levels of active androgens, oestrogens and progestins. Salient features were that AKR1C4 was the most catalytically efficient, with k(cat)/K(m) values for substrates that exceeded those obtained with other isoforms by 10-30-fold. In the reduction direction, all isoforms inactivated 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (17beta-hydroxy-5alpha-androstan-3-one; 5alpha-DHT) to yield 5alpha-Androstane-3alpha,17beta-diol (3alpha-Androstanediol). However, only AKR1C3 reduced Delta(4)-androstene-3,17-dione to produce significant amounts of testosterone. All isoforms reduced oestrone to 17beta-oestradiol, and progesterone to 20alpha-hydroxy-pregn-4-ene-3,20-dione (20alpha-hydroxyprogesterone). In the oxidation direction, only AKR1C2 converted 3alpha-Androstanediol to the active hormone 5alpha-DHT. AKR1C3 and AKR1C4 oxidized testosterone to Delta(4)-androstene-3,17-dione. All isoforms oxidized 17beta-oestradiol to oestrone, and 20alpha-hydroxyprogesterone to progesterone. Discrete tissue distribution of these AKR1C enzymes was observed using isoform-specific reverse transcriptase-PCR. AKR1C4 was virtually liver-specific and its high k(cat)/K(m) allows this enzyme to form 5alpha/5beta-tetrahydrosteroids robustly. AKR1C3 was most prominent in the prostate and mammary glands. The ability of AKR1C3 to interconvert testosterone with Delta(4)-androstene-3,17-dione, but to inactivate 5alpha-DHT, is consistent with this enzyme eliminating active androgens from the prostate. In the mammary gland, AKR1C3 will convert Delta(4)-androstene-3,17-dione to testosterone (a substrate aromatizable to 17beta-oestradiol), oestrone to 17beta-oestradiol, and progesterone to 20alpha-hydroxyprogesterone, and this concerted reductive activity may yield a pro-oesterogenic state. AKR1C3 is also the dominant form in the uterus and is responsible for the synthesis of 3alpha-Androstanediol which has been implicated as a parturition hormone. The major isoforms in the brain, capable of synthesizing anxiolytic steroids, are AKR1C1 and AKR1C2. These studies are in stark contrast with those in rat where only a single AKR with positional- and stereo-specificity for 3alpha-hydroxysteroids exists.