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Animal Comfort

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H. Xin – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Assessing swine thermal Comfort by image analysis of postural behaviors.
    Journal of animal science, 1999
    Co-Authors: H. Xin
    Abstract:

    Postural behavior is an integral response of Animals to complex environmental factors. Huddling, nearly contacting one another on the side, and spreading are common postural behaviors of group-housed Animals undergoing cold, Comfortable, and warm/hot sensations, respectively. These postural patterns have been routinely used by Animal caretakers to assess thermal Comfort of the Animals and to make according adjustment on the environmental settings or management schemes. This manual adjustment approach, however, has the inherent limitations of daily discontinuity and inconsistency between caretakers in interpretation of the Animal Comfort behavior. The goal of this project was to explore a novel, automated image analysis system that would assess the thermal Comfort of swine and make proper environmental adjustments to enhance Animal wellbeing and production efficiency. This paper describes the progress and on-going work toward the achievement of our proposed goal. The feasibility of classifying the thermal Comfort state of young pigs by neural network (NN) analysis of their postural images was first examined. It included exploration of using certain feature selections of the postural behavioral images as the input to a three-layer NN that was trained to classify the corresponding thermal Comfort state as being cold, Comfortable, or warm. The image feature selections, a critical step for the classification, examined in this study included Fourier coefficient (FC), moment (M), perimeter and area (P&A), and combination of M and P&A of the processed binary postural images. The result was positive, with the combination of M and P&A as the input feature to the NN yielding the highest correct classification rate. Subsequent work included the development of hardware and computational algorithms that enable automatic image segmentation, motion detection, and the selection of the behavioral images suitable for use in the classification. Work is in progress to quantify the relationships of postural behavior and physiological responses of pigs using thermographs. The results are expected to facilitate objective training of NN, hence improving the accuracy of the postural image-based assessment of the thermal Comfort state. Work is also in progress to implement the analysis and assessment algorithms into computer codes for real-time application.

James E. Wells – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Use of wood-based materials in beef bedded manure packs: 1. Effect on ammonia, total reduced sulfide, and greenhouse gas concentrations.
    Journal of environmental quality, 2014
    Co-Authors: Mindy J. Spiehs, Tami M. Brown-brandl, David B. Parker, Daniel N. Miller, Jeffrey P. Jaderborg, Alfredo Dicostanzo, Elaine D. Berry, James E. Wells
    Abstract:

    facilities are increasing in popu-larity among cattle producers in the quad-state region of Iowa, Minnesota, South Dakota, and Nebraska. In these facilities, cattle are raised in complete confinement, sometimes on concrete floors, with bedding added once or twice weekly. Producers may maintain a bedded pack of manure and bedding through one or more groups of cattle, or they may remove the bedded pack on a weekly basis. Most producers use locally avail-able by-products of cereal grain production for bedding, such as corn stover, soybean stover, wheat straw, or corn cobs (Doran et al., 2010). Corn stover is the most common bedding material used in beef confinement facilities (Doran et al., 2010). As the number of local confinement facilities increases, the demand for corn stover may surpass local availability. Selection of an alterna-tive bedding material will likely be based on availability and price of the material and on Animal Comfort, with little consideration for the effects of bedding material on air quality of the confine-ment facility.Previous research has shown that bedding material can greatly influence the air quality of livestock facilities (Jeppsson, 2000; van Vliet et al., 2004; Misselbrook and Powell, 2005; Powell et al., 2008; Garlipp et al., 2011). The chemical and physical properties of chopped wheat straw, sand, kiln-dried pine wood shavings, chopped newspaper, chopped corn stover, and recycled manure solids were evaluated as bedding materials in dairy barns (Misselbrook and Powell, 2005). Ammonia (NH

Mindy J. Spiehs – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Use of wood-based materials in beef bedded manure packs: 1. Effect on ammonia, total reduced sulfide, and greenhouse gas concentrations.
    Journal of environmental quality, 2014
    Co-Authors: Mindy J. Spiehs, Tami M. Brown-brandl, David B. Parker, Daniel N. Miller, Jeffrey P. Jaderborg, Alfredo Dicostanzo, Elaine D. Berry, James E. Wells
    Abstract:

    facilities are increasing in popu-larity among cattle producers in the quad-state region of Iowa, Minnesota, South Dakota, and Nebraska. In these facilities, cattle are raised in complete confinement, sometimes on concrete floors, with bedding added once or twice weekly. Producers may maintain a bedded pack of manure and bedding through one or more groups of cattle, or they may remove the bedded pack on a weekly basis. Most producers use locally avail-able by-products of cereal grain production for bedding, such as corn stover, soybean stover, wheat straw, or corn cobs (Doran et al., 2010). Corn stover is the most common bedding material used in beef confinement facilities (Doran et al., 2010). As the number of local confinement facilities increases, the demand for corn stover may surpass local availability. Selection of an alterna-tive bedding material will likely be based on availability and price of the material and on Animal Comfort, with little consideration for the effects of bedding material on air quality of the confine-ment facility.Previous research has shown that bedding material can greatly influence the air quality of livestock facilities (Jeppsson, 2000; van Vliet et al., 2004; Misselbrook and Powell, 2005; Powell et al., 2008; Garlipp et al., 2011). The chemical and physical properties of chopped wheat straw, sand, kiln-dried pine wood shavings, chopped newspaper, chopped corn stover, and recycled manure solids were evaluated as bedding materials in dairy barns (Misselbrook and Powell, 2005). Ammonia (NH

James R. Bain – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • A New System and Paradigm for Chronic Stimulation of Denervated Rat Muscle.
    Journal of medical and biological engineering, 2011
    Co-Authors: Michael P. Willand, Juan Pablo Lopez, Hubert De Bruin, Margaret Fahnestock, Michael Holmes, James R. Bain
    Abstract:

    Traditionally, Animal studies employing electrical stimstimulation hr conditioning denervated muscle rely on 24-hour-based stimulation paradigms, most employing implantable stimulators. While these stimulators provide the necessary current to cause muscular contraction, they have problems with battery life, programmability, and long-term robustness. Continuous 24-hour stimulation, while shown to be effective in Animals, is not easily translatable to a clinical setting. It is also difficult to evaluate Animal Comfort and muscular contraction throughout a 24-hour period. We have developed a system and stimulation paradigm that can stimulate up to five Animals at one time for one hour per day. The constant current stimulator is a USB-powered device that can, under computer control, output trains of pulses with selectable shapes, widths, durations and repetition rates. It is an external device with no implantable parts in the Animal except for the stimulating electrodes. We tested the system on two groups of rats with denervated gastrocnemius muscles. One group was stimulated using a one-hour-per-day, 5-days-per-week stimulation paradigm for one month, while the other group had electrodes implanted but received no stimulation, Muscle weight and twitch force were significantly larger in the stimulated group than the non-stimulated group. Presently, we are using the stimulator to investigate electrical stimstimulation coupled with other therapeutic interventions that can minimize functional deficits after peripheral nerve injuries.

  • A New System and Paradigm for Simultaneous Chronic Stimulation of Denervated Muscle in Multiple Animals
    , 2010
    Co-Authors: Michael P. Willand, James R. Bain, Juan Pablo Lopez, Hubert De Bruin, Michael Holmes, Margaret Fahnestock
    Abstract:

    Traditionally, Animal studies employing electrical muscle stimstimulation for conditioning denervated muscle rely on implantable stimulators and 24 hour based stimulation paradigms. While these stimulators provide the necessary current to cause muscular contraction, they have problems with battery life, programmability, and long term robustness. Continuous 24 hour stimulation, while shown to be effective in Animals, is not easily translatable to a clinical setting. It is also difficult to evaluate Animal Comfort and muscular contraction throughout a 24 hour period. We have developed a system and stimulation paradigm that can stimulate up to five Animals at one time for one hour per day. The constant current stimulator is a USB powered device that can, under computer control, output trains of pulses with selectable shapes, widths, durations and repetition rates. It is an external device with no implantable parts in the Animal except for the stimulating electrodes. We have tested the system on two groups of rats with denervated gastrocnemius muscles. One group was stimulated using a one hour per day stimulation paradigm for one month, while the other group had electrodes implanted but received no stimulation. Muscle weight and twitch force were significantly larger in the stimulated group than the non-stimulated group. Presently, we are using the stimulator to investigate electrical stimstimulation coupled with other therapeutic interventions that can minimize functional deficit after peripheral nerve injuries.

Margaret Fahnestock – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • A New System and Paradigm for Chronic Stimulation of Denervated Rat Muscle.
    Journal of medical and biological engineering, 2011
    Co-Authors: Michael P. Willand, Juan Pablo Lopez, Hubert De Bruin, Margaret Fahnestock, Michael Holmes, James R. Bain
    Abstract:

    Traditionally, Animal studies employing electrical stimulation hr conditioning denervated muscle rely on 24-hour-based stimulation paradigms, most employing implantable stimulators. While these stimulators provide the necessary current to cause muscular contraction, they have problems with battery life, programmability, and long-term robustness. Continuous 24-hour stimulation, while shown to be effective in Animals, is not easily translatable to a clinical setting. It is also difficult to evaluate Animal Comfort and muscular contraction throughout a 24-hour period. We have developed a system and stimulation paradigm that can stimulate up to five Animals at one time for one hour per day. The constant current stimulator is a USB-powered device that can, under computer control, output trains of pulses with selectable shapes, widths, durations and repetition rates. It is an external device with no implantable parts in the Animal except for the stimulating electrodes. We tested the system on two groups of rats with denervated gastrocnemius muscles. One group was stimulated using a one-hour-per-day, 5-days-per-week stimulation paradigm for one month, while the other group had electrodes implanted but received no stimulation, Muscle weight and twitch force were significantly larger in the stimulated group than the non-stimulated group. Presently, we are using the stimulator to investigate electrical stimulation coupled with other therapeutic interventions that can minimize functional deficits after peripheral nerve injuries.

  • A New System and Paradigm for Simultaneous Chronic Stimulation of Denervated Muscle in Multiple Animals
    , 2010
    Co-Authors: Michael P. Willand, James R. Bain, Juan Pablo Lopez, Hubert De Bruin, Michael Holmes, Margaret Fahnestock
    Abstract:

    Traditionally, Animal studies employing electrical muscle stimulation for conditioning denervated muscle rely on implantable stimulators and 24 hour based stimulation paradigms. While these stimulators provide the necessary current to cause muscular contraction, they have problems with battery life, programmability, and long term robustness. Continuous 24 hour stimulation, while shown to be effective in Animals, is not easily translatable to a clinical setting. It is also difficult to evaluate Animal Comfort and muscular contraction throughout a 24 hour period. We have developed a system and stimulation paradigm that can stimulate up to five Animals at one time for one hour per day. The constant current stimulator is a USB powered device that can, under computer control, output trains of pulses with selectable shapes, widths, durations and repetition rates. It is an external device with no implantable parts in the Animal except for the stimulating electrodes. We have tested the system on two groups of rats with denervated gastrocnemius muscles. One group was stimulated using a one hour per day stimulation paradigm for one month, while the other group had electrodes implanted but received no stimulation. Muscle weight and twitch force were significantly larger in the stimulated group than the non-stimulated group. Presently, we are using the stimulator to investigate electrical stimulation coupled with other therapeutic interventions that can minimize functional deficit after peripheral nerve injuries.