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Joachim Frey – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.
RTX Toxins of Animal Pathogens and Their Role as Antigens in Vaccines and Diagnostics.Toxins, 2019Co-Authors: Joachim FreyAbstract:
Exotoxins play a central role in the pathologies caused by most major bacterial Animal Pathogens. The large variety of vertebrate and invertebrate hosts in the Animal kingdom is reflected by a large variety of bacterial Pathogens and toxins. The group of repeats in the structural toxin (RTX) toxins is particularly abundant among bacterial Pathogens of Animals. Many of these toxins are described as hemolysins due to their capacity to lyse erythrocytes in vitro. Hemolysis by RTX toxins is due to the formation of cation-selective pores in the cell membrane and serves as an important marker for virulence in bacterial diagnostics. However, their physiologic relevant targets are leukocytes expressing β2 integrins, which act as specific receptors for RTX toxins. For various RTX toxins, the binding to the CD18 moiety of β2 integrins has been shown to be host specific, reflecting the molecular basis of the host range of RTX toxins expressed by bacterial Pathogens. Due to the key role of RTX toxins in the pathogenesis of many bacteria, antibodies directed against specific RTX toxins protect against disease, hence, making RTX toxins valuable targets in vaccine research and development. Due to their specificity, several structural genes encoding for RTX toxins have proven to be essential in modern diagnostic applications in veterinary medicine.
identification of Animal pasteurellaceae by maldi tof mass spectrometryJournal of Microbiological Methods, 2012Co-Authors: Peter Kuhnert, Magne Bisgaard, Bozena M Korczak, Sybille Schwendener, Henrik Christensen, Joachim FreyAbstract:
Species of the family Pasteurellaceae play an important role as primary or opportunistic Animal Pathogens. In veterinary diagnostic laboratories identification of this group of bacteria is mainly done by phenotypic assays while genetic identification based on housekeeping genes is mostly used for research and particularly important diagnostic samples. MALDI-TOF MS seems to represent a promising alternative to the currently practiced cumbersome, phenotypic diagnostics carried out in many veterinary diagnostic laboratories. We therefore assessed its application for Animal associated members of the family Pasteurellaceae. The Bruker Biotyper 3.0 database was complemented with reference spectra of clinically relevant as well as commensal Animal Pasteurellaceae species using generally five strains per species or subspecies and tested for its diagnostic potential with additional, well characterized field isolates. About 250 strains comprising 15 genera and more than 40 species and subspecies were included in the study, covering most representatives of the family. A high discrimination at the genus and species level was observed. Problematic discrimination was only observed with some closely related species and subspecies. MALDI-TOF MS was shown to represent a highly potent method for the diagnosis of this group of Animal Pathogens, combining speed, precision and low running costs.
Laurent Poirel – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.
moraxella species as potential sources of mcr like polymyxin resistance determinantsAntimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 2017Co-Authors: Nicolas Kieffer, Laurent Poirel, Patrice NordmannAbstract:
Plasmid-mediated resistance to polymyxins mediated by the MCR-1/2 determinants has been reported in Enterobacteriaceae worldwide. Using PCR-based and cloning strategies, a series of Moraxella spp. were screened for mcr-like genes. Moraxella spp. that are mainly Animal Pathogens but may also be human Pathogens were identified as potential reservoirs of mcr-like genes.
D. L. Swenson – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.
Battling against host phagocytes: the wherefore of the RTX family of toxins?Infectious agents and disease, 1995Co-Authors: Rodney A. Welch, Margaret E. Bauer, Angela D. Kent, J. A. Leeds, Mahtab Moayeri, L. B. Regassa, D. L. SwensonAbstract:
: The RTX family of bacterial exotoxins is a group of related cytolytic proteins produced by a wide variety of gram-negative human and Animal Pathogens. While diverse in their associated diseases and in their target cell specificities, there remain several themes common to RTX toxins, including genetic organization, structural and functional features, and effects on target cells. In this review, we summarize and discuss the genetics, regulation, epidemiology, structure/function relationships, and in vivo and in vitro activities of the best characterized RTX toxins, and speculate on their roles in pathogenesis and their use in immunotherapy.
Dorothée Missé – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.
Update on the proteomics of major arthropod vectors of human and Animal PathogensProteomics, 2012Co-Authors: Sirilaksana Patramool, Valérie Choumet, Pornapat Surasombatpattana, Laurence Sabatier, Frédéric Thomas, Supatra Thongrungkiat, Thierry Rabilloud, Nathalie Boulanger, David G. Biron, Dorothée MisséAbstract:
Vector-borne diseases (VBDs) are defined as infectious diseases of humans and Animals caused by pathogenic agents such as viruses, protists, bacteria, and helminths transmitted by the bite of blood-feeding arthropod (BFA) vectors. VBDs represent a major public health threat in endemic areas, generally subtropical zones, and many are considered to be neglected diseases. Genome sequencing of some arthropod vectors as well as modern proteomic and genomic technologies are expanding our knowledge of arthropod-pathogen interactions. This review describes the proteomic approaches that have been used to investigate diverse biological questions about arthropod vectors, including the interplay between vectors and Pathogens. Proteomic studies have identified proteins and biochemical pathways that may be involved in molecular crosstalk in BFA-pathogen associations. Future work can build upon this promising start and functional analyses coupled with interactome bioassays will be carried out to investigate the role of candidate peptides and proteins in BFA-human pathogen associations. Dissection of the host-pathogen interactome will be key to understanding the strategies and biochemical pathways used by BFAs to cope with Pathogens.
Amr El-sayed – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.
Utilization of herpesviridae as recombinant viral vectors in vaccine development against Animal Pathogens.Virus research, 2019Co-Authors: Mohamed H. Kamel, Amr El-sayedAbstract:
Abstarct Throughout the past few decades, numerous viral species have been generated as vaccine vectors. Every viral vector has its own distinct characteristics. For example, the family herpesviridae encompasses several viruses that have medical and veterinary importance. Attenuated herpesviruses are developed as vectors to convey heterologous immunogens targeting several serious and crucial Pathogens. Some of these vectors have already been licensed for use in the veterinary field. One of their prominent features is their capability to accommodate large amount of foreign DNA, and to stimulate both cell-mediated and humoral immune responses. A better understanding of vector-host interaction builds up a robust foundation for the future development of herpesviruses-based vectors. At the time, many molecular tools are applied to enable the generation of herpesvirus-based recombinant vaccine vectors such as BAC technology, homologous and two-step en passant mutagenesis, codon optimization, and the CRISPR/Cas9 system. This review article highlights the most important techniques applied in constructing recombinant herpesviruses vectors, advantages and disadvantages of each recombinant herpesvirus vector, and the most recent research regarding their use to control major Animal diseases.