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Animal Pathology

The Experts below are selected from a list of 234 Experts worldwide ranked by ideXlab platform

Zdenek Hubálek – 1st expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Tick-borne viruses in Europe
    Parasitology Research, 2012
    Co-Authors: Zdenek Hubálek, Ivo Rudolf

    Abstract:

    The aim of this review is to present briefly background information on 27 tick-borne viruses (“tiboviruses”) that have been detected in Europe, viz flaviviruses tick-borne encephalitis (TBEV), louping-ill (LIV), Tyuleniy (TYUV), and Meaban (MEAV); orthobunyaviruses Bahig (BAHV) and Matruh (MTRV); phleboviruses Grand Arbaud (GAV), Ponteves (PTVV), Uukuniemi (UUKV), Zaliv Terpeniya (ZTV), and St. Abb’s Head (SAHV); nairoviruses Soldado (SOLV), Puffin Island (PIV), Avalon (AVAV), Clo Mor (CMV), Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHFV); bunyavirus Bhanja (BHAV); coltivirus Eyach (EYAV); orbiviruses Tribec (TRBV), Okhotskiy (OKHV), Cape Wrath (CWV), Mykines (MYKV), Tindholmur (TDMV), and Bauline (BAUV); two thogotoviruses (Thogoto THOV, Dhori DHOV); and one asfivirus (African swine fever virus ASFV). Emphasis is laid on the taxonomic status of these viruses, range of their ixodid or argasid vectors and vertebrate hosts, pathogenicity for vertebrates including humans, and relevance to public health. In general, three groups of tibovirus diseases can be recognized according to main clinical symptoms produced: (i) febrile illness—usually with a rapid onset, fever, sweating, headache, nausea, weakness, myalgia, arthralgia, sometimes polyarthritis and rash; (ii) the CNS affection—meningitis, meningoencephalitis or encephalomyelitis with pareses, paralysis and other sequelae; (iii) hemorrhagic disease. Several “European” tiboviruses cause very serious human (TBEV, CCHFV) or Animal (LIV, ASFV) diseases. Other arboviruses play definite role in human or Animal Pathology though the disease is usually either less serious or infrequently reported (TYUV, BHAV, AVAV, EYAV, TRBV, DHOV, THOV). The other European arboviruses are “orphans” without a proven medical or veterinary significance (BAHV, MTRV, MEAV, GAV, PTVV, ZTV, SAHV, UUKV, SOLV, PIV, AVAV, CMV, OKHV, CWV, MYKV, TDMV, BAUV). However, certain arbovirus diseases of free-living vertebrates (but also those of domestic Animals and even man) may often pass unnoticed or misdiagnosed and eventually, they might potentially appear as emerging diseases. Active search for new tiboviruses or for new, pathogenic variants of the known tiboviruses in Europe should therefore continue.

  • Mosquito-borne viruses in Europe
    Parasitology Research, 2008
    Co-Authors: Zdenek Hubálek

    Abstract:

    The number of mosquito-borne viruses (‘moboviruses’) occurring in Europe since the twentieth century now stands at ten; they belong to three families— Togaviridae (Sindbis, Chikungunya), Flaviviridae (West Nile, Usutu, Dengue), and Bunyaviridae (Batai, Ťahyňa, Snowshoe hare, Inkoo, Lednice). Several of them play a definite role in human or Animal Pathology (Sindbis, Chikungunya, Dengue, West Nile, Ťahyňa). Mobovirus outbreaks are strictly determined by the presence and/or import of particular competent vectors of the disease. Ecological variables affect moboviruses considerably; the main factors are population density of mosquito vectors and their vertebrate hosts, intense summer precipitations or floods, summer temperatures and drought, and presence of appropriate habitats, e.g., wetlands, small water pools, or intravillan sewage systems. A surveillance for moboviruses and the diseases they cause in Europe is recommendable, because the cases may often pass unnoticed or misdiagnosed not only in free-living vertebrates but also in domestic Animals and even in humans.

Iqbal Hamza – 2nd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • The nematode C. elegans as an Animal model to explore toxicology in vivo: solid and axenic growth culture conditions and compound exposure parameters.
    Current protocols in toxicology, 2020
    Co-Authors: Richard Nass, Iqbal Hamza

    Abstract:

    Significant limitations in vertebrate Animal model systems include the time involved, the expense, the fact that in vitro results may not reflect live Animal Pathology, difficulties in transporting the toxin past the blood brain barrier, and the inability to identify the mechanism of action without some a priori knowledge of the toxin’s target. The availability of the complete genome sequence of the nematode C. elegans, coupled with the worm’s size, growth rate, ease of culturing, and the realization that basic biological mechanisms and disease processes between worms and humans are highly conserved, makes this genetically tractable model a remarkable opportunity to dissect and identify in vivo the cellular processes involved in toxin-induced cell dysregulation and death. This unit includes protocols for culturing worms on solid and axenic media and acute and chronic exposure parameters for Parkinson’s disease-associated toxins and hemin chloride. These methods provide the groundwork for using this powerful model system to further elucidate and understand the molecular mechanisms involved in nutrition as well as toxicological responses relevant to human diseases.

  • the nematode c elegans as an Animal model to explore toxicology in vivo solid and axenic growth culture conditions and compound exposure parameters
    Current protocols in immunology, 2007
    Co-Authors: Richard Nass, Iqbal Hamza

    Abstract:

    Significant limitations in vertebrate Animal model systems include the time involved, the expense, the fact that in vitro results may not reflect live Animal Pathology, difficulties in transporting the toxin past the blood brain barrier, and the inability to identify the mechanism of action without some a priori knowledge of the toxin’s target. The availability of the complete genome sequence of the nematode C. elegans, coupled with the worm’s size, growth rate, ease of culturing, and the realization that basic biological mechanisms and disease processes between worms and humans are highly conserved, makes this genetically tractable model a remarkable opportunity to dissect and identify in vivo the cellular processes involved in toxin-induced cell dysregulation and death. This unit includes protocols for culturing worms on solid and axenic media and acute and chronic exposure parameters for Parkinson’s disease–associated toxins and hemin chloride. These methods provide the groundwork for using this powerful model system to further elucidate and understand the molecular mechanisms involved in nutrition as well as toxicological responses relevant to human diseases.

    Keywords:

    liquid media;
    6-OHDA;
    Parkinson’s Disease;
    high-throughput;
    metal;
    nutrition

Ivo Rudolf – 3rd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Tick-borne viruses in Europe
    Parasitology Research, 2012
    Co-Authors: Zdenek Hubálek, Ivo Rudolf

    Abstract:

    The aim of this review is to present briefly background information on 27 tick-borne viruses (“tiboviruses”) that have been detected in Europe, viz flaviviruses tick-borne encephalitis (TBEV), louping-ill (LIV), Tyuleniy (TYUV), and Meaban (MEAV); orthobunyaviruses Bahig (BAHV) and Matruh (MTRV); phleboviruses Grand Arbaud (GAV), Ponteves (PTVV), Uukuniemi (UUKV), Zaliv Terpeniya (ZTV), and St. Abb’s Head (SAHV); nairoviruses Soldado (SOLV), Puffin Island (PIV), Avalon (AVAV), Clo Mor (CMV), Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHFV); bunyavirus Bhanja (BHAV); coltivirus Eyach (EYAV); orbiviruses Tribec (TRBV), Okhotskiy (OKHV), Cape Wrath (CWV), Mykines (MYKV), Tindholmur (TDMV), and Bauline (BAUV); two thogotoviruses (Thogoto THOV, Dhori DHOV); and one asfivirus (African swine fever virus ASFV). Emphasis is laid on the taxonomic status of these viruses, range of their ixodid or argasid vectors and vertebrate hosts, pathogenicity for vertebrates including humans, and relevance to public health. In general, three groups of tibovirus diseases can be recognized according to main clinical symptoms produced: (i) febrile illness—usually with a rapid onset, fever, sweating, headache, nausea, weakness, myalgia, arthralgia, sometimes polyarthritis and rash; (ii) the CNS affection—meningitis, meningoencephalitis or encephalomyelitis with pareses, paralysis and other sequelae; (iii) hemorrhagic disease. Several “European” tiboviruses cause very serious human (TBEV, CCHFV) or Animal (LIV, ASFV) diseases. Other arboviruses play definite role in human or Animal Pathology though the disease is usually either less serious or infrequently reported (TYUV, BHAV, AVAV, EYAV, TRBV, DHOV, THOV). The other European arboviruses are “orphans” without a proven medical or veterinary significance (BAHV, MTRV, MEAV, GAV, PTVV, ZTV, SAHV, UUKV, SOLV, PIV, AVAV, CMV, OKHV, CWV, MYKV, TDMV, BAUV). However, certain arbovirus diseases of free-living vertebrates (but also those of domestic Animals and even man) may often pass unnoticed or misdiagnosed and eventually, they might potentially appear as emerging diseases. Active search for new tiboviruses or for new, pathogenic variants of the known tiboviruses in Europe should therefore continue.