Scan Science and Technology
Contact Leading Edge Experts & Companies
The Experts below are selected from a list of 159 Experts worldwide ranked by ideXlab platform
Anton Reiner – 1st expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform
identification of the anterior nucleus of the Ansa Lenticularis in birds as the homolog of the mammalian subthalamic nucleusThe Journal of Neuroscience, 2000Co-Authors: Yun Jiao, Loreta Medina, Leo C Veenman, Claudio Fabiano Motta Toledo, Luis Puelles, Anton ReinerAbstract:
In mammals, the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is a glutamatergic diencephalic cell group that develops in the caudal hypothalamus and migrates to a position above the cerebral peduncle. By its input from the external pallidal segment and projection to the internal pallidal segment, STN plays a critical role in basal ganglia functions. Although the basal ganglia in birds is well developed, possesses the same major neuron types as in mammals, and plays a role in movement control similar to that in mammals, it has been uncertain whether birds possess an STN. We report here evidence indicating that the so-called anterior nucleus of the Ansa Lenticularis (ALa) is the avian homolog of mammalian STN. First, the avian ALa too develops within the mammillary hypothalamic area and migrates to a position adjacent to the cerebral peduncle. Second, ALa specifically receives input from dorsal pallidal neurons that receive input from enkephalinergic striatal neurons, as is true of STN. Third, ALa projects back to avian dorsal pallidum, as also the case for STN in mammals. Fourth, the neurons of ALa contain glutamate, and the target neurons of ALa in dorsal pallidum possess AMPA-type glutamate receptor profiles resembling those of mammalian pallidal neurons. Fifth, unilateral lesions of ALa yield behavioral disturbances and movement asymmetries resembling those observed in mammals after STN lesions. These various findings indicate that ALa is the avian STN, and they suggest that the output circuitry of the basal ganglia for motor control is similar in birds and mammals.
The efferent projections of the dorsal and ventral pallidal parts of the pigeon basal ganglia, studied with biotinylated dextran amineNeuroscience, 1997Co-Authors: Loreta Medina, Anton ReinerAbstract:
Abstract In the present study we have investigated the efferent projections of both the dorsal and the ventral pallidum of the pigeon basal ganglia, using the sensitive anterograde tracer biotinylated dextran amine [Veenman C. L. et al. (1992) J. Neurosci. Meth. 41, 239–254]. Injections of biotinylated dextran amine in the pigeon dorsal pallidum produced numerous fibers and terminals in specific nuclei of the thalamus, hypothalamus, pretectum and midbrain tegmentum. In the thalamus, labeled fibers and terminals were observed in the avian thalamic reticular nucleus, the proposed motor part of the avian ventral tier (ventrointermediate area), the avian parafascicular nucleus (nucleus dorsointermedius posterior), as well as in the avian nucleus subrotundus (which may be comparable to the posterior intralaminar nuclei of mammals). Labeled fibers and terminals were also observed in the avian subthalamic nucleus (anterior nucleus of the Ansa Lenticularis), in the pretectum (nucleus spiriformis lateralis) and in the avian substantia nigra pars reticulata. Injections of biotinylated dextran amine in the pigeon ventral pallidum produced fibers and terminals in specific centers of the telencephalon, hypothalamus, thalamus, epithalamus, and midbrain and isthmic tegmentum. Labeled fibers and terminals were observed in the lateral septum and a lateral pallial region of the telencephalon. Labeled fibers and terminals were also observed in the avian subthalamic nucleus and the inmediately adjacent lateral hypothalamus, the avian thalamic reticular nucleus, the avian medidorsal nucleus, the avian parafascicular and posterior intralaminar nuclei, and the lateral habenula. Finally, labeled fibers and terminals were found in the ventral tegmental area, the avian substantia nigra pars compacta and the midbrain/isthmic tegmentum, which includes the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus. Our results indicate that both the dorsal and ventral pallida of birds have unique and specific projection patterns, which are very similar to those of their counterparts in mammals. Our study suggests that these avian basal ganglia regions may be related mainly to somatomotor and limbic functions, respectively.
Distributions of GABAA, GABAB, and benzodiazepine receptors in the forebrain and midbrain of pigeonsThe Journal of Comparative Neurology, 1994Co-Authors: C. Leo Veenman, Roger L. Albin, Eric K. Richfield, Anton ReinerAbstract:
Autoradiographic and immunohistochemical methods were used to study the distributions of GABAA, GABAB and benzodiazepine(BDZ) receptors in the pigeon fore- and midbrain. GABAA, GABAB and BDZ binding sites were found to be abundant although heterogeneously distributed in the telencephalon. The primary sensory areas of the pallium of the avian telencephalon (Wulst and dorsal ventricular ridge) tended to be low in all three binding sites, while the surrounding second order belt regions of the pallium were typically high in all three. Finally, the outermost rind of the pallium (termed the pallium externum by us), which surrounds the belt regions and projects to the striatum of the basal ganglia, was intermediate in all three GABAergic receptors types. Although both GABAA and benzodiazepine receptors were abundant within the basal ganglia, GABAA binding sites were densest in the striatum and BDZ binding sites were densest in the pallidum. Among the brainstem regions receiving GABAergic basal ganglia input, the anterior and posterior nuclei of the Ansa Lenticularis showed very low level of all three receptors, while the lateral spiriform nucleus and the ventral tegmental area/substantia nigra complex contained moderate abundance of the three binding sites. The dorsalmost part of the dorsal thalams (containing nonspecific nuclei) was rich all three binding sites, while the more ventral part of the dorsal thalamus (containig specific sensory nuclei), the ventral thalamus and the hypothalamus were poor in all three binding sites. The pretectum was also generally poor in all three, althrough some nuclei displayed higher level of one or more binding sites. The optic tectum, inferior colliculus, and central gray were rich in all three sites, while among the isthmic nuclei, the parvicellular isthmic was nucleus was conspicuously rich in BDZ sites. The REsults show a strong correlation of the regional abundance of GABA binding sites with previously described distributions of GABAergic fibers and terminals in the avaian forebrain and midbrain. The distribution of these binding sites is also remarkably similar to that in mammals, indicating a conservative evolution of forebrain and midbrain GABA systems systems among amniotes. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
André Parent – 2nd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform
The pallidofugal motor fiber system in primatesParkinsonism & Related Disorders, 2004Co-Authors: Martin Parent, André ParentAbstract:
The organization of the pallidofugal fiber system originating from the internal segment of the globus pallidus (GPi) in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) was studied by means of a single-axon tracing method. The primate GPi is composed of a majority of neurons endowed with a highly collateralized axon that projects to the premotor neurons located in the ventral tier thalamic nuclei, the center-median/parafascicular thalamic complex and the brainstem pedunculopontine nucleus. These axons often follow a long and tortuous course within the GPi and then emerge either through the Ansa Lenticularis (AL) or the lenticular fasciculus (LF), irrespective of the location of their parent cell body in the GPi. Other pallidofugal axons exit through the medial pole of the GPi, at various distances between the AL ventrally and the LF dorsally. Virtually all pallidofugal axons course through Forel’s field H, on their way to the thalamus and brainstem. They emit numerous short collaterals and boutons en passant in this sector of the subthalamic region, which stands out as a major target of GPi axons. Our results indicate that AL and LF do not form separate anatomical entities, each carrying axons originating from distinct functional pallidal territories, as commonly believed. Instead, these two fascicles form the ventral and dorsal borders of a morphological continuum that harbors a multitude of pallidofugal axons arising from all sectors of the GPi. This type of information should be taken into account when interpreting data from deep brain stimulation applied to pallidal and subthalamic regions in Parkinson’s disease.
Dopaminergic innervation of human basal gangliaJournal of Chemical Neuroanatomy, 2000Co-Authors: Lucía Prensa, Martine Cossette, André ParentAbstract:
Abstract This paper summarises the results of some of our recent tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunohistochemical studies of the dopaminergic innervation of the human basal ganglia. It also reports new findings on the presence of TH-immunoreactive (ir) neurons in the striatum. Our data show the existence of nigrostriatal TH-ir axons that provide collaterals arborizing in the globus pallidus and subthalamic nucleus. These thin and varicose collaterals emerge from thick and smooth axons that course along the main output pathways of the basal ganglia, including the Ansa Lenticularis, the lenticular fasciculus and Wilson’s pencils. We postulate that this extrastriatal innervation, which allows nigral dopaminergic neurons to directly affect the pallidum and subthalamic nucleus, plays a critical role in the functional organisation of human basal ganglia. The TH-ir fibres that reach the striatum arborize according to a highly heterogeneous pattern. At rostral striatal levels, numerous small TH-poor zones embedded in a TH-rich matrix correspond to calbindin-poor striosomes and calbindin-rich extrastriosomal matrix, respectively. At caudal striatal levels, in contrast, striosomes display a TH immunostaining that is more intense than that of the matrix. A significant number of small, oval, aspiny TH-ir neurons scattered throughout the rostrocaudal extent of the caudate nucleus and putamen, together with a few larger, multipolar, spiny TH-ir neurons lying principally within the ventral portion of the putamen, were disclosed in human. This potential source of intrinsic striatal dopamine might play an important role in the functional organisation of the human striatum, particularly in case of Parkinson’s disease.
EXTRASTRIATAL DOPAMINERGIC INNERVATION OF HUMAN BASAL GANGLIANeuroscience Research, 1999Co-Authors: Martine Cossette, Martin Lévesque, André ParentAbstract:
Abstract A tyrosine-hydroxylase immunohistochemical analysis of the brains of normal human individuals has revealed nigrostriatal axons providing collaterals that arborize in the pallidum and subthalamic nucleus. These thin and varicose collaterals emerge from thick and smooth axons that course backward along the main output pathways of the basal ganglia, including the Ansa Lenticularis, the lenticular fasciculus and Wilson’s pencils. Many of these fibers run within pallidal medullary laminae before reaching the putamen, whereas others climb along the reticular thalamic nucleus to reach the caudate nucleus. This extrastriatal innervation, which allows nigral dopaminergic neurons to directly affect the pallidum and subthalamic nucleus, may play a crucial role in the functional organization of human basal ganglia, in both health and disease.
C. A. Pedersen – 3rd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform
Mating alters topography and content of oxytocin immunoreactivity in male mouse brainCell and Tissue Research, 1991Co-Authors: G. F. Jirikowski, H. U. Häussler, J. D. Caldwell, C. A. PedersenAbstract:
Sexual stimulation of males has been reported to affect hypothalamic oxytocinergic systems. In the present study we used radioimmunoassays of micro-dissected forebrain regions and immunocytochemical analysis of Vibratome sections to study the oxytocin systems of naive males, males killed after one mating, and males mated daily with different receptive females for 3 weeks. In males that had mated once, less oxytocin-immunoreactive neurons were observed in the paraventricular (PVN), supraoptic (SON) and periventricular (NPE) nuclei than in naive males. However, after repeated matings, the number of immunoreactive neurons and their staining intensity was increased in these regions. Furthermore, additional oxytocinergic neurons could be found in the lateral subcommissural nucleus, the zona incerta and the Ansa Lenticularis of repeatedly mated males. Oxytocin-immunoreactive neurons were only occasionally seen in these areas in unmated males or in animals that had been killed after initial mating. Radio-immunoassays of microdissected PVN, SON, NPE and the lateral hypothalamus confirmed the reduction in oxytocin-immunoreactive levels after a first mating by a male and the increase after repeated matings. It is likely that oxytocin secretion into peripheral and portal circulation is stimulated by the endocrine conditions associated with initial mating. These immediate effects may be followed by the activation of synthesis in oxytocin neurons in several sites of the basal forebrain.