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Anterior Funiculus

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Sung H Jang – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Three Dimensional Identification of Medial and Lateral Vestibulospinal Tract in the Human Brain: A Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study.
    Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 2018
    Co-Authors: Sung H Jang, Jung W Kwon

    Abstract:

    Purpose: The vestibulospinal tract(VST) is involved in balance control and gait function. No research has identified the VST in the human brain. In the current study, we attempted to identify the medial and lateral VST in the human brain, using diffusion tensor tractography(DTT). Materials and Methods: We recruited 40 healthy volunteers for this study. For reconstruction of the medial VST, a seed region of interest(ROI) was placed on the medial vestibular nuclei in the pons and target ROI on the posteromedial medulla. For reconstruction of the lateral VST, a seed ROI was placed on the lateral vestibular nuclei of pons and the target ROI on the posterolateral medulla. Values of fractional anisotropy(FA), mean diffusivity(MD), and tract volume of the medial and lateral VST were measured. Results: The medial VST, which originated from the medial vestibular nuclei, descended through the posteromedial medulla, and terminated at the Anterior Funiculus of the cervical spinal cord. The lateral VST originated from the lateral vestibular nuclei, and terminated in the Anterior portion of lateral Funiculus, through the posterolateral medulla. The FA value of medial VST was significantly higher than that of lateral VST. In contrast, the MD value and tract volume were significantly lower than those of lateral VST(p

  • three dimensional identification of medial and lateral vestibulospinal tract in the human brain a diffusion tensor imaging study
    Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 2018
    Co-Authors: Sung H Jang, Jung W Kwon

    Abstract:

    Purpose: The vestibulospinal tract(VST) is involved in balance control and gait function. No research has identified the VST in the human brain. In the current study, we attempted to identify the medial and lateral VST in the human brain, using diffusion tensor tractography(DTT). Materials and Methods: We recruited 40 healthy volunteers for this study. For reconstruction of the medial VST, a seed region of interest(ROI) was placed on the medial vestibular nuclei in the pons and target ROI on the posteromedial medulla. For reconstruction of the lateral VST, a seed ROI was placed on the lateral vestibular nuclei of pons and the target ROI on the posterolateral medulla. Values of fractional anisotropy(FA), mean diffusivity(MD), and tract volume of the medial and lateral VST were measured. Results: The medial VST, which originated from the medial vestibular nuclei, descended through the posteromedial medulla, and terminated at the Anterior Funiculus of the cervical spinal cord. The lateral VST originated from the lateral vestibular nuclei, and terminated in the Anterior portion of lateral Funiculus, through the posterolateral medulla. The FA value of medial VST was significantly higher than that of lateral VST. In contrast, the MD value and tract volume were significantly lower than those of lateral VST(p <0.05). Conclusion: We identified the medial and lateral VST in the human brain using DTT and investigated the anatomical characteristics of the medial and lateral VST. The methodology and results of this study could be helpful to both clinicians and researchers in the neuroscience field.

  • Three Dimensional Identification of Medial and Lateral Vestibulospinal Tract in the Human Brain: A Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study
    Frontiers Media S.A., 2018
    Co-Authors: Sung H Jang, Jung W Kwon, Sang S. Yeo

    Abstract:

    Purpose: The vestibulospinal tract (VST) is involved in balance control and gait function. No research has identified the VST in the human brain. In the current study, we attempted to identify the medial and lateral VST in the human brain, using diffusion tensor tractography (DTT).Materials and Methods: We recruited 40 healthy volunteers for this study. For reconstruction of the medial VST, a seed region of interest (ROI) was placed on the medial vestibular nuclei in the pons and target ROI on the posteromedial medulla. For reconstruction of the lateral VST, a seed ROI was placed on the lateral vestibular nuclei of pons and the target ROI on the posterolateral medulla. Values of fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), and tract volume of the medial and lateral VST were measured.Results: The medial VST, which originates from the medial vestibular nuclei, descends through the posteromedial medulla, and terminates at the Anterior Funiculus of the cervical spinal cord. The lateral VST originates from the lateral vestibular nuclei, and terminates in the Anterior portion of lateral Funiculus, through the posterolateral medulla. The FA value of medial VST was significantly higher than that of lateral VST. In contrast, the MD value and tract volume were significantly lower than those of lateral VST (p < 0.05).Conclusion: We identified the medial and lateral VST in the human brain using DTT and investigated the anatomical characteristics of the medial and lateral VST. The methodology and results of this study could be helpful to both clinicians and researchers in the neuroscience field

O Masamune – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Kinesin accumulation in chick spinal axonal swellings with beta,beta’-iminodipropionitrile (IDPN) intoxication.
    Neuroscience letters, 1998
    Co-Authors: I Toyoshima, K Kato, M Sugawara, C Wada, O Masamune

    Abstract:

    Kinesin is a major molecular motor responsible for anterograde axonal transport. Chicks were injected with beta,beta’-iminodipropionitrile (IDPN) to induce axonal swellings in spinal motor neurons and spinal sensory ganglion neurons. Cylindrical swollen axons were found in the Anterior horn and Anterior Funiculus of the spinal cord, Anterior root, and spinal ganglia. All of the axonal swellings were heavily stained with two anti-kinesin monoclonal antibodies. The swellings were mildly stained with an anti-cytoplasmic dynein and anti-tubulin antibodies, and weakly stained with an anti-tau antibody. These suggest the isolated disturbance of kinesin transport with neurofilament accumulation in IDPN intoxication.

  • Kinesin accumulation in chick spinal axonal swellings with β,β′-iminodipropionitrile (IDPN) intoxication
    Neuroscience Letters, 1998
    Co-Authors: I Toyoshima, K Kato, M Sugawara, C Wada, O Masamune

    Abstract:

    Abstract Kinesin is a major molecular motor responsible for anterograde axonal transport. Chicks were injected with β , β ′-iminodipropionitrile (IDPN) to induce axonal swellings in spinal motor neurons and spinal sensory ganglion neurons. Cylindrical swollen axons were found in the Anterior horn and Anterior Funiculus of the spinal cord, Anterior root, and spinal ganglia. All of the axonal swellings were heavily stained with two anti-kinesin monoclonal antibodies. The swellings were mildly stained with an anti-cytoplasmic dynein and anti-tubulin antibodies, and weakly stained with an anti-tau antibody. These suggest the isolated disturbance of kinesin transport with neurofilament accumulation in IDPN intoxication.

Sobue – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Widespread spinal cord involvement in progressive supranuclear palsy
    Neuropathology, 2007
    Co-Authors: Yasushi Iwasaki, Mari Yoshida, Yoshio Hashizume, Manabu Hattori, Ikuko Aiba, Sobue

    Abstract:

    We describe the histopathologic features of spinal cord lesions in 10 cases of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and review the literature. Histologic examination revealed atrophy with myelin pallor in the Anterior Funiculus and anterolateral Funiculus in the cervical and thoracic segments in eight of the 10 cases, whereas the posterior Funiculus was well preserved. The degrees of atrophy of the Anterior Funiculus and the anterolateral Funiculus correlated with that of the tegmentum of the medulla oblongata. Myelin pallor of the lateral corticospinal tract was observed in two of the 10 cases. Microscopic observation of the spinal white matter, particularly the cervical segment, revealed a few to several neuropil threads, particularly in the white matter surrounding the Anterior horn after Gallyas-Braak (GB) staining or AT-8 tau immunostaining. However, the posterior Funiculus was completely preserved from the presence of argyrophilic or tau-positive structures. In the spinal gray matter, widespread distribution of neurons with cytoplasmic inclusions and neuropil threads was observed, particularly in the medial division of the Anterior horn and intermediate gray matter, especially in the cervical segment. Globose-type neurofibrillary tangles and pretangles were found. The distribution of GB- or AT-8 tau-positive small neurons and neuropil threads resembled that of the spinal interneurons. In conclusion, the spinal cord, especially the cervical segment, is constantly involved in the pathologic process of PSP. We speculate that spinal interneurons and their neuronal processes, particularly in the medial division of the Anterior horn and intermediate gray matter of the cervical segment, are most severely damaged in the PSP spinal cord.

  • Widespread spinal cord involvement in corticobasal degeneration
    Acta Neuropathologica, 2005
    Co-Authors: Yasushi Iwasaki, Mari Yoshida, Yoshio Hashizume, Manabu Hattori, Sobue

    Abstract:

    We examined spinal cord lesions in eight patients with a pathological diagnosis of corticobasal degeneration (CBD). Using Gallyas-Braak (G-B) staining or AT-8 tau immunostaining, a few neuropil threads were identified in the white matter of the CBD spinal cords, mainly in the Anterior Funiculus, whereas the posterior Funiculus was well preserved without threads. In the gray matter of the CBD spinal cords, particularly in the intermediate gray matter, there were widespread neuropil threads and neuronal inclusions. Large motor neurons in the Anterior horn, neurons in the intermediolateral column, and Clarke’s column were relatively well preserved from neuronal loss and gliosis. Neuronal inclusions were of the globose type, suggestive of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), or showed diffuse granular accumulations of cytoplasmic tau, suggestive of pretangles. No typical NFTs, recognized by Bodian silver staining, were identified. The distribution of neuropil threads and G-B- or AT-8 tau-positive small neurons resembled that of interneurons. No astrocytic plaques were present in any of the CBD spinal cords, and only a few coiled bodies were seen. Neuropil threads in the white and gray matter and neuronal inclusions in the gray matter were prominent in cervical segments, and their density decreased caudally. We suggest that the presence of neuropil threads, particularly in the cervical intermediate gray matter, and the presence of neuronal inclusions, particularly in cervical interneurons, is an essential pathological feature of CBD.