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Janet A. Novotny – 1st expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Anthocyanin kinetics are dependent on Anthocyanin structure
    British Journal of Nutrition, 2011
    Co-Authors: Janet A. Novotny, Beverly A. Clevidence, Anne C. Kurilich


    The kinetics of Anthocyanin metabolism was investigated in a human feeding trial. Volunteers ( n 12) consumed purple carrots containing five Anthocyanin forms: cyanidin-3-(xylose-glucose-galactoside), cyanidin-3-(xylose-galactoside), cyanidin-3-(xylose-sinapoyl-glucose-galactoside), cyanidin-3-(xylose-feruloyl-glucose-galactoside) and cyanidin-3-(xylose-coumuroyl-glucose-galactoside). The purple carrots were served as three different treatments in a crossover design with a 3-week washout between treatments. Purple carrot treatments were 250 g raw carrots, 250 g cooked carrots and 500 g cooked carrots. Serial blood and urine samples were collected for 8 and 24 h after the dose, respectively, and analysed for Anthocyanins. Of the Anthocyanin forms ingested, four were detected in plasma and urine: cyanidin-3-(xylose-glucose-galactoside), cyanidin-3-(xylose-galactoside), cyanidin-3-(xylose-sinapoyl-glucose-galactoside) and cyanidin-3-(xylose-feruloyl-glucose-galactoside). The time courses of plasma and urine Anthocyanin contents were evaluated with compartmental modelling. Results showed that absorption, gastrointestinal transit and plasma elimination are dependent on Anthocyanin structure. Absorption efficiencies of acylated compounds (cyanidin-3-(xylose-sinapoyl-glucose-galactoside) and cyanidin-3-(xylose-feruloyl-glucose-galactoside)) were less than those for non-acylated Anthocyanins (cyanidin-3-(xylose-glucose-galactoside) and cyanidin-3-(xylose-galactoside)). The acylated Anthocyanins exhibited a shorter half-life for gastrointestinal absorption than the non-acylated Anthocyanins. Fractional elimination of non-acylated compounds was slower than that for acylated Anthocyanins. These results provide the first information about the kinetics of individual Anthocyanins in human beings.

  • effect of dose size on bioavailability of acylated and nonacylated Anthocyanins from red cabbage brassica oleracea l var capitata
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2007
    Co-Authors: Craig S. Charron, Beverly A. Clevidence, Steven J. Britz, Janet A. Novotny


    Recent studies indicate that Anthocyanin intake conveys a variety of health benefits, which depend on absorption and metabolic mechanisms that deliver Anthocyanins and their bioactive metabolites to responsive tissues. The Anthocyanin bioavailability of red cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata) was evaluated as reflected by urinary excretion of Anthocyanins and Anthocyanin metabolites. Twelve volunteers consumed 100, 200, and 300 g of steamed red cabbage (containing 1.38 μmol of Anthocyanins/g of cabbage) in a crossover design. Anthocyanin concentration in cabbage extract and urine was measured by HPLC-MS/MS. Six nonacylated and 30 acylated Anthocyanins were detected in red cabbage, and 3 nonacylated Anthocyanins, 8 acylated Anthocyanins, and 4 metabolites were present in urine. Mean 24 h excretion of intact Anthocyanins increased linearly from 45 (100 g dose) to 65 nmol (300 g dose) for acylated Anthocyanins and from 52 (100 g dose) to 79 nmol (300 g dose) for nonacylated Anthocyanins. Urinary rec…

Weiwei Zhai – 2nd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • optimization of microwave assisted extraction of Anthocyanins from purple corn zea mays l cob and identification with hplc ms
    Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies, 2010
    Co-Authors: Zhendong Yang, Weiwei Zhai


    Abstract A Box–Behnken design was used to obtain the optimal conditions of microwave-assisted extraction (MAE). The effects of operating conditions, such as extraction time, solid–liquid ratio, and microwave irradiation power, on the extraction yield of Anthocyanins were studied through a response surface methodology (RSM). The highest total anthocyainin content (TAC) from purple corn cob (185.1 mg/100 g) was obtained at an extraction time of 19 min, a solid–liquid ratio of 1:20, and a microwave irradiation power of 555 W. Six major kinds of Anthocyanins were detected and identified as cyanidin-3-glucoside, pelargonidin-3-glucoside, peonidin-3-glucoside, and their respective malonated counterparts. In comparison with the conventional solvent extraction, MAE was highly efficient and rapid in extracting Anthocyanins from Chinese purple corn cob. Industrial relevance In the last decades, the interest in Anthocyanin pigments has increased because of their possible utilization as natural food colorants and especially as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agents. Purple corn cob was the byproduct during the corn processing. Purple corn cob is dark purple to almost black color due to its high content of Anthocyanins, which makes this byproduct a good source of Anthocyanins.

Monica M Giusti – 3rd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Quantification of Purple Corn (Zea mays L.) Anthocyanins Using Spectrophotometric and HPLC Approaches: Method Comparison and Correlation
    Food Analytical Methods, 2016
    Co-Authors: Fei Lao, Monica M Giusti


    Purple corncob is a rich source of Anthocyanins with great potential as food colorant. Accurate quantification of Anthocyanin content in cereals such as purple corn is critical to evaluate their nutritional value and facilitate their application in foods. Our objective was to determine the advantages and disadvantages of four common spectrophotometric and chromatographic methods to quantify cereal Anthocyanins. Anthocyanins from 14 purple corncob samples were extracted, identified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-PDA-MS, and quantified different methods commonly cited in the literature or used by analytical laboratories: total Anthocyanins, pH differential, and HPLC methods with intact or acid hydrolyzed pigments. Polymeric color was also determined as it affects color quality. Among the four methods, the total Anthocyanin method produced the highest value, followed by the pH differential method and HPLC with intact pigments, which produced very similar results, while the HPLC with hydrolyzed pigments produced the lowest values. The quantitative differences among the four methods are likely due to the differences in their specificity. Despite the differences in quantitative results, three of the methods, pH differential and both HPLC methods, showed good linear correlation ( R ^2 ≥ 0.98). In addition, the effect of wavelength selection and the criteria for HPLC integration were also evaluated. In summary, Anthocyanin quantification results were dependent on the method chosen to quantify the pigments in the material. So, reporting methodology is critical and recommended when interpreting the Anthocyanin quantification results for better inter-literature comparison.

  • High-purity isolation of Anthocyanins mixtures from fruits and vegetables – A novel solid-phase extraction method using mixed mode cation-exchange chromatography
    Journal of Chromatography A, 2011
    Co-Authors: Jian He, Monica M Giusti


    Research on biological activity of Anthocyanins requires the availability of high purity materials. However, current methods to isolate Anthocyanins or Anthocyanin mixtures are tedious and expensive or insufficient for complete isolation. We applied a novel cation-exchange/reversed-phase combination solid-phase extraction (SPE) technique, and optimized the use of water/organic buffer mobile phases to selectively separate Anthocyanins. Crude extracts of various representative Anthocyanin sources were purified with this technique and compared to 3 commonly used SPE techniques: C18, HLB, and LH-20. Purified Anthocyanin fractions were analyzed with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to photodiode array (PDA) and mass spectrometry (MS) detectors and by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The UV-visible chromatograms quantitatively demonstrated that our novel technique achieved significantly higher (P

  • electrospray and tandem mass spectroscopy as tools for Anthocyanin characterization
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 1999
    Co-Authors: Monica M Giusti, Luis E Rodriguezsaona, Donald Griffin, Ronald E. Wrolstad


    The utility of electrospray and tandem mass spectroscopy (ES-MS and MS-MS) in Anthocyanin characterization was tested using different Anthocyanin extracts. Anthocyanins were semipurified by using a C-18 resin, washed with acidified water followed by ethyl acetate, and recovered with acidified methanol. Samples were directly injected into a mass spectrometer in either aqueous or methanolic solutions. The positive charge of Anthocyanins favored fast and effective ES-MS detection of intact molecular ions. Little interference from other compounds was observed when the ethyl acetate cleaning procedure was used. Tandem mass spectroscopy provided clear and characteristic fragmentation patterns. The voltage used affected only the proportions at which these fragments were present. ES-MS may be used as a fast procedure for identification of Anthocyanins, requiring minimal sample preparation. In combination with HPLC, ES-MS and MS-MS could be very powerful tools for Anthocyanin characterization and monitoring the authenticity of Anthocyanin-containing fruit juices and vegetable extracts.