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Antibiogram

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Costas Pitris – 1st expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Point-of-care diagnosis of Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) using Surface enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS)
    2012 IEEE 12th International Conference on Bioinformatics & Bioengineering (BIBE), 2012
    Co-Authors: Katerina Hadjigeorgiou, Evdokia Kastanos, Alexandros Kyriakides, Costas Pitris

    Abstract:

    There are three stages to a complete UTI diagnosis: (1) identification of a urine sample as positive/negative for an infection, (2) identification of the responsible bacterium, (3) Antibiogram to determine the antibiotic to which the bacteria are most sensitive to. Using conventional methods, all three stages require bacterial cultures in order to provide results. This long delay in diagnosis causes a rise in ineffective treatments, chronic infections, health care costs and antibiotic resistance. In this work, SERS is used to identify a sample as positive/negative for a UTI as well as to obtain an Antibiogram against different antibiotics. SERS spectra of serial dilutions of E. coli bacteria mixed with silver nanoparticles, showed a linear correlation between spectral intensity and concentration. For antibiotic sensitivity testing, SERS spectra of three species of gram negative bacteria were collected four hours after exposure to the antibiotics ciprofloxacin and amoxicillin. Spectral analysis revealed clear separation between bacterial samples exposed to antibiotics to which they were sensitive and samples exposed to antibiotics to which they were resistant. With the enhancement provided by SERS, the technique can be applied directly to urine samples leading to the development of a new, rapid method for UTI diagnosis and Antibiogram.

  • a novel method for urinary tract infection diagnosis and Antibiogram using raman spectroscopy
    Journal of Raman Spectroscopy, 2010
    Co-Authors: Evdokia Kastanos, Katerina Hadjigeorgiou, Alexandros Kyriakides, Costas Pitris

    Abstract:

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) diagnosis and Antibiogram require a 48-h waiting period using the standard conventional clinical methods. This long waiting period results in ineffective treatments, increased costs and, most importantly, in increased resistance to antibiotics. In this work, a novel method for classifying bacteria and determining their sensitivity to an antibiotic using Raman spectroscopy is described. Raman spectra belonging to three species of gram-negative enterobacteria, which are most commonly responsible for UTIs, are classified with over 94% accuracy using novel feature extraction and discriminant analysis. Sensitivity to ciprofloxacin is also clearly evident as early as 2 h after treatment by differences in the Raman spectra of bacteria treated or not treated with this antibiotic. The proposed technique can become the basis for the development of new technology for UTI diagnosis and Antibiogram with same day results, thus avoiding urine cultures and all undesirable consequences of current practice. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • UTI diagnosis and Antibiogram using Raman spectroscopy
    Clinical and Biomedical Spectroscopy, 2009
    Co-Authors: Evdokia Kastanos, Katerina Hadjigeorgiou, Alexandros Kyriakides, Costas Pitris

    Abstract:

    Urinary tract infection diagnosis and Antibiogram require a 48 hour waiting period using conventional methods. This results in ineffective treatments, increased costs and most importantly in increased resistance to antibiotics. In this work, a novel method for classifying bacteria and determining their sensitivity to an antibiotic using Raman spectroscopy is described. Raman spectra of three species of gram negative Enterobacteria, most commonly responsible for urinary tract infections, were collected. The study included 25 samples each of E.coli, Klebsiella p. and Proteus spp. A novel algorithm based on spectral ratios followed by discriminant analysis resulted in classification with over 94% accuracy. Sensitivity and specificity for the three types of bacteria ranged from 88-100%. For the development of an Antibiogram, bacterial samples were treated with the antibiotic ciprofloxacin to which they were all sensitive. Sensitivity to the antibiotic was evident after analysis of the Raman signatures of bacteria treated or not treated with this antibiotic as early as two hours after exposure. This technique can lead to the development of new technology for urinary tract infection diagnosis and Antibiogram with same day results, bypassing urine cultures and avoiding all undesirable consequences of current practice.

Per H Gesteland – 2nd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • clinical value of an ambulatory based Antibiogram for uropathogens in children
    Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society, 2012
    Co-Authors: Kevin W Dahle, Per H Gesteland, E K Korgenski, Adam L Hersh, Rajendu Srivastava

    Abstract:

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common bacterial infections in ambulatory pediatrics and require empiric antibiotic selection, pending the results of urine culture and sensitivity testing [1]. Empiric antibiotic selection for UTI is influenced by practice patterns, cost, guidelines, and, ideally, knowledge of regional resistance patterns. Empiric selection is challenging due to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant organisms in hospital and community settings. Emerging resistance, most often documented in Antibiograms generated from hospitalized, as opposed to ambulatory patients, may drive providers to select unnecessarily broad-spectrum therapy in both settings [2].

    Copp et al [3] have reported that broader-spectrum antibiotics (eg, third-generation cephalosporins) are prescribed one third of the time for ambulatory pediatric UTI. Broader-spectrum antibiotic use, when a narrower spectrum drug would suffice, has the potential to add cost and pressure for selecting antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains. Whereas pediatric UTI is a problem primarily managed in the outpatient setting, antibiotic selection is mostly based on data derived from inpatients. Hospital Antibiograms may suggest different resistance rates than those that exist among ambulatory patients, thus leading providers to favor prescribing unnecessarily broad antibiotics. If this occurs, then presenting providers with data about regional antibiotic resistance patterns of uropathogens isolated from ambulatory pediatric could promote more judicious antibiotic use.

    Although the spectrum and antimicrobial susceptibility of a variety of pediatric uropathogens have been well characterized in the literature [4-6], no studies have compared Antibiogram data about uropathogens derived exclusively from ambulatory pediatric patients with traditional hospital-based Antibiograms. The objective of this study was to compare the spectrum and antimicrobial susceptibility, using current Antibiogram guidelines, of the most common uropathogens isolated in hospital and community clinic settings in Salt Lake County, Utah.

Evdokia Kastanos – 3rd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Point-of-care diagnosis of Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) using Surface enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS)
    2012 IEEE 12th International Conference on Bioinformatics & Bioengineering (BIBE), 2012
    Co-Authors: Katerina Hadjigeorgiou, Evdokia Kastanos, Alexandros Kyriakides, Costas Pitris

    Abstract:

    There are three stages to a complete UTI diagnosis: (1) identification of a urine sample as positive/negative for an infection, (2) identification of the responsible bacterium, (3) Antibiogram to determine the antibiotic to which the bacteria are most sensitive to. Using conventional methods, all three stages require bacterial cultures in order to provide results. This long delay in diagnosis causes a rise in ineffective treatments, chronic infections, health care costs and antibiotic resistance. In this work, SERS is used to identify a sample as positive/negative for a UTI as well as to obtain an Antibiogram against different antibiotics. SERS spectra of serial dilutions of E. coli bacteria mixed with silver nanoparticles, showed a linear correlation between spectral intensity and concentration. For antibiotic sensitivity testing, SERS spectra of three species of gram negative bacteria were collected four hours after exposure to the antibiotics ciprofloxacin and amoxicillin. Spectral analysis revealed clear separation between bacterial samples exposed to antibiotics to which they were sensitive and samples exposed to antibiotics to which they were resistant. With the enhancement provided by SERS, the technique can be applied directly to urine samples leading to the development of a new, rapid method for UTI diagnosis and Antibiogram.

  • a novel method for urinary tract infection diagnosis and Antibiogram using raman spectroscopy
    Journal of Raman Spectroscopy, 2010
    Co-Authors: Evdokia Kastanos, Katerina Hadjigeorgiou, Alexandros Kyriakides, Costas Pitris

    Abstract:

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) diagnosis and Antibiogram require a 48-h waiting period using the standard conventional clinical methods. This long waiting period results in ineffective treatments, increased costs and, most importantly, in increased resistance to antibiotics. In this work, a novel method for classifying bacteria and determining their sensitivity to an antibiotic using Raman spectroscopy is described. Raman spectra belonging to three species of gram-negative enterobacteria, which are most commonly responsible for UTIs, are classified with over 94% accuracy using novel feature extraction and discriminant analysis. Sensitivity to ciprofloxacin is also clearly evident as early as 2 h after treatment by differences in the Raman spectra of bacteria treated or not treated with this antibiotic. The proposed technique can become the basis for the development of new technology for UTI diagnosis and Antibiogram with same day results, thus avoiding urine cultures and all undesirable consequences of current practice. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • UTI diagnosis and Antibiogram using Raman spectroscopy
    Clinical and Biomedical Spectroscopy, 2009
    Co-Authors: Evdokia Kastanos, Katerina Hadjigeorgiou, Alexandros Kyriakides, Costas Pitris

    Abstract:

    Urinary tract infection diagnosis and Antibiogram require a 48 hour waiting period using conventional methods. This results in ineffective treatments, increased costs and most importantly in increased resistance to antibiotics. In this work, a novel method for classifying bacteria and determining their sensitivity to an antibiotic using Raman spectroscopy is described. Raman spectra of three species of gram negative Enterobacteria, most commonly responsible for urinary tract infections, were collected. The study included 25 samples each of E.coli, Klebsiella p. and Proteus spp. A novel algorithm based on spectral ratios followed by discriminant analysis resulted in classification with over 94% accuracy. Sensitivity and specificity for the three types of bacteria ranged from 88-100%. For the development of an Antibiogram, bacterial samples were treated with the antibiotic ciprofloxacin to which they were all sensitive. Sensitivity to the antibiotic was evident after analysis of the Raman signatures of bacteria treated or not treated with this antibiotic as early as two hours after exposure. This technique can lead to the development of new technology for urinary tract infection diagnosis and Antibiogram with same day results, bypassing urine cultures and avoiding all undesirable consequences of current practice.