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Robert S. Schulz – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Rating the risks of anticoagulant rodenticides in the aquatic environment: a review
    Environmental Chemistry Letters, 2019
    Co-Authors: Julia Regnery, Anton Friesen, Anke Geduhn, Bernd Göckener, Matthias Kotthoff, Pia Parrhysius, Eleonora Petersohn, Georg Reifferscheid, Erik Schmolz, Robert S. Schulz

    Abstract:

    Anticoagulant rodenticides are used worldwide to control commensal rodents for hygienic and public health reasons. As Anticoagulants act on all vertebrates, risk is high for unintentional poisoning of terrestrial and aquatic wildlife. Causative associations have been demonstrated for the unintended poisoning of terrestrial nontarget organisms. However, behavior and fate of anticoagulant rodenticides in the aquatic environment have received minimal attention in the past despite considerable acute toxicity of several Anticoagulants to aquatic species such as fish. In light of recent regulatory developments in the European Union concerning rodenticides, we critically review available information on the environmental occurrence, fate, and impact of anticoagulant rodenticides in the aquatic environment and identify potential risks and routes of exposure as well as further research needs. Recent findings of anticoagulant rodenticides in raw and treated wastewater, sewage sludge, estuarine sediments, suspended particulate matter, and liver tissue of freshwater fish in the low ng/L and µg/kg range, respectively, demonstrate that the aquatic environment experiences a greater risk of anticoagulant rodenticide exposure than previously thought. While the anticoagulant’s mechanism of action from the molecular through cellular levels is well understood, substantial data gaps exist regarding the understanding of exposure pathways and potential adverse effects of chronic exposure with multiple active ingredients. Anticoagulants accumulating in aquatic wildlife are likely to be transferred in the food chain, causing potentially serious consequences for the health of wildlife and humans alike.

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  • Rating the risks of anticoagulant rodenticides in the aquatic environment: a review
    Environmental Chemistry Letters, 2019
    Co-Authors: Julia Regnery, Anton Friesen, Anke Geduhn, Bernd Göckener, Matthias Kotthoff, Pia Parrhysius, Eleonora Petersohn, Georg Reifferscheid, Erik Schmolz, Robert S. Schulz

    Abstract:

    Anticoagulant rodenticides are used worldwide to control commensal rodents for hygienic and public health reasons. As Anticoagulants act on all vertebrates, risk is high for unintentional poisoning of terrestrial and aquatic wildlife. Causative associations have been demonstrated for the unintended poisoning of terrestrial nontarget organisms. However, behavior and fate of anticoagulant rodenticides in the aquatic environment have received minimal attention in the past despite considerable acute toxicity of several Anticoagulants to aquatic species such as fish. In light of recent regulatory developments in the European Union concerning rodenticides, we critically review available information on the environmental occurrence, fate, and impact of anticoagulant rodenticides in the aquatic environment and identify potential risks and routes of exposure as well as further research needs. Recent findings of anticoagulant rodenticides in raw and treated wastewater, sewage sludge, estuarine sediments, suspended particulate matter, and liver tissue of freshwater fish in the low ng/L and µg/kg range, respectively, demonstrate that the aquatic environment experiences a greater risk of anticoagulant rodenticide exposure than previously thought. While the anticoagulant’s mechanism of action from the molecular through cellular levels is well understood, substantial data gaps exist regarding the understanding of exposure pathways and potential adverse effects of chronic exposure with multiple active ingredients. Anticoagulants accumulating in aquatic wildlife are likely to be transferred in the food chain, causing potentially serious consequences for the health of wildlife and humans alike.

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Thomas L Ortel – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • rna aptamers as reversible antagonists of coagulation factor ixa
    Nature, 2002
    Co-Authors: Christophe P Rusconi, Elizabeth Scardino, Juliana M Layze, George A Pitoc, Thomas L Ortel, Dougald M Monroe, Uce A Sullenge

    Abstract:

    Many therapeutic agents are associated with adverse effects in patients. Anticoagulants can engender acute complications such as significant bleeding that increases patient morbidity and mortality. Antidote control provides the safest means to regulate drug action. For this reason, despite its known limitations and toxicities, heparin use remains high because it is the only anticoagulant that can be controlled by an antidote, the polypeptide protamine. To date, no generalizable strategy for developing drug-antidote pairs has been described. We investigated whether drug-antidote pairs could be rationally designed by taking advantage of properties inherent to nucleic acids to make antidote-controlled anticoagulant agents. Here we show that protein-binding oligonucleotides (aptamers) against coagulation factor IXa are potent Anticoagulants. We also show that oligonucleotides complementary to these aptamers can act as antidotes capable of efficiently reversing the activity of these new Anticoagulants in plasma from healthy volunteers and from patients who cannot tolerate heparin. This generalizable strategy for rationally designing a drug-antidote pair thus opens up the way for developing safer regulatable therapeutics.

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  • Subdural Hematoma and Lupus Anticoagulants
    Stroke, 1997
    Co-Authors: Stephan Moll, Michael Mccloud, Thomas L Ortel

    Abstract:

    Background and Purpose Patients with lupus Anticoagulants do not typically have a bleeding tendency. However, a few reports of hemorrhage in patients with lupus Anticoagulants in the absence of known risk factors for bleeding have been published, raising the question of an etiologic connection between lupus Anticoagulants and certain types of hemorrhage. The presentation of three patients with subdural hematoma and lupus Anticoagulants within only 1 year at our institutions and the report of two such patients in the literature led us to conduct a retrospective study to determine whether patients with lupus Anticoagulants may have an increased risk for the development of subdural hematoma. Case Descriptions All patients with a discharge diagnosis of nontraumatic subdural hematoma and lupus anticoagulant at three medical institutions between 1985 and 1996 were identified, and their medical histories and laboratory evaluations were reviewed. Of 733 patients with a discharge diagnosis of nontraumatic subdural…

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Alan Buckle – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • anticoagulant resistance in the united kingdom and a new guideline for the management of resistant infestations of norway rats rattus norvegicus berk
    Pest Management Science, 2013
    Co-Authors: Alan Buckle

    Abstract:

    Anticoagulant resistance was first discovered in UK Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus Berk.) in 1958 and has been present ever since. The possible detrimental impact of resistance on effective rodent control was quickly recognised, and, for almost three decades, extensive research was conducted on the geographical distribution and severity of anticoagulant resistance in UK rats. Various schemes for the eradication of resistant rats were also implemented. At first, surveys showed resistance only to the first-generation Anticoagulants, such as warfarin, chlorophacinone and coumatetralyl, but, later, resistance to the more potent second-generation Anticoagulants, such as difenacoum and bromadiolone, was also discovered. Unlike some European countries, where only one or two resistance mutations occur, virtually all known rat resistance mutations occur in the United Kingdom, and five (Leu128Gln, Tyr139Ser, Tyr139Cys, Tyr139Phe and Leu120Gln) are known to have significant impacts on anticoagulant efficacy. Little is currently known of the geographical extent of anticoagulant resistance among Norway rats in the United Kingdom because no comprehensive survey has been conducted recently. At an operational level, Anticoagulants generally retain their utility for Norway rat control, but it is impossible to control resistant rats in some areas because of restrictions on the use of the more potent resistance-breaking compounds. This paper reviews the development of resistance in Norway rats in the United Kingdom, outlines the present situation for resistance management and introduces a new resistance management guideline from the UK Rodenticide Resistance Action Group. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry

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