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Antiemetic Activity

The Experts below are selected from a list of 243 Experts worldwide ranked by ideXlab platform

S S Sharma – 1st expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Antiemetic efficacy of ginger (Zingiber officinale) against cisplatin-induced emesis in dogs
    Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 1997
    Co-Authors: S S Sharma, Sudeep Gupta, S D Seth, Vinod Kochupillai, Yashdeep Gupta

    Abstract:

    Abstract Effect of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Zingiberaceae) extracts (acetone, 50% ethanolic and aqueous) were investigated for Antiemetic Activity against emesis induced by 3 mg/kg cisplatin (the 100% emetic dose i.v.) in healthy mongrel dogs. The acetone and 50% ethanolic extract at the doses of 25, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg p.o. exhibited significant protection while aqueous extract at these doses was ineffective against cisplatin emesis. The acetone extract was more effective than ethanolic extract. However, both were less effective when compared to 5-HT3 receptors antagonist—granisetron. Neither of the ginger extract was effective against apomorphine-induced emesis. The findings suggest that ginger could be an effective and cheap Antiemetic adjunct to cancer chemotherapy.

  • cisplatin induced pica behaviour in rats is prevented by antioxidants with Antiemetic Activity
    Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, 1997
    Co-Authors: S S Sharma, Sudeep Gupta, V Kochupillai, S D Seth, Yogendra Kumar Gupta

    Abstract:

    Abstract Pica, eating of non-nutritive substances such as kaolin in rats has been suggested as an illness response behaviour, analogous to vomiting in species that have developed emetic reflex. We have recently demonstrated that antioxidants—glutathione, N-(2- mercaptopropionyl)glycine (tiopronin), vitamin C and vitamin E—exert Antiemetic effect against cisplatin-induced emesis in dogs. In the present study, the effect of these antioxidants was investigated against pica model in rats. Pretreatment with these agents significantly inhibited the cisplatin induced enhanced kaolin intake. However, these agents failed to exert any significant improvement in the decreased food intake by cisplatin. The findings confirm the potential of these antioxidants as Antiemetics against cancer chemotherapy induced vomiting, though they may not improve the anorexia. The experiments further support that pica in rats can be used as a good alternative rodent model to dogs and cats particularly for preliminary and rapid screening of Antiemetic agents.

  • Antiemetic Activity of antioxidants against cisplatin induced emesis in dogs
    Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, 1996
    Co-Authors: Yogendra Kumar Gupta, S S Sharma

    Abstract:

    Antioxidants such as glutathione, N-(2-mercaptopropionyl)glycine (MPG), vitamin E, vitamin C and a combination of vitamin E and vitamin C in different treatment schedules were evaluated for their Antiemetic Activity against cisplatin-induced emesis in dogs. While cisplatin-induced emesis was significantly reduced by all these agents, glutathione, MPG and combination of vitamin E and vitamin C produced maximum reduction. The Antiemetic Activity of antioxidants may be attributable to their ability to react with free radicals generated by cisplatin. The present study provides further evidence that free radicals play a role in cancer chemotherapy induced emesis and warrant clinical evaluation.

Steven M. Grunberg – 2nd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Antiemetic Activity of corticosteroids in patients receiving cancer chemotherapy dosing efficacy and tolerability analysis
    Annals of Oncology, 2006
    Co-Authors: Steven M. Grunberg

    Abstract:

    ABSTRACT Background: Chemotherapy and radiotherapy remain the standards of treatment for many patients with cancer, but these modalities are often limited by distressing side-effects, most notably chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). Methods: This paper considers the role of corticosteroids in CINV prophylaxis. Clinical trial results and treatment guidelines indicate that even with the emergence of new serotonin and neurokinin receptor antagonists, corticosteroids continue to play an important role in antiemesis for oncology patients. Numerous clinical trial results have demonstrated that both dexamethasone and methylprednisolone are effective as monotherapy and in combination with older and more recently developed Antiemetic agents in patients receiving a wide range of chemotherapeutic regimens used for treatment of different cancers. Conclusions: With the increasing number of antineoplastic regimens and factors specific to individual patients, it is important to frequently review Antiemetic treatment options and continually monitor therapeutic progress to establish the optimal therapy for each patient.

  • Potential for combination therapy with the new antiserotonergic agents
    European Journal of Cancer, 1993
    Co-Authors: Steven M. Grunberg

    Abstract:

    Appreciation of the major role played by serotonergic (5-HT 3 ) neuroreceptors in the emetic reflex arc has introduced an additional factor into the rational design of combination Antiemetic therapy. Combinations of an antidopaminergic agent and a corticosteroid have previously served as the basis for many successful Antiemetic regimens. Three pilot studies and three randomised studies have now demonstrated potentiation of Antiemetic Activity of a 5-HT 3 antagonist by dexamethasone as well. Further development of combination Antiemetic regimens may involve antagonism of additional receptors including those for benzodiazepines, opiates, and catecholamines. Even antidopaminergic agents may continue to have a role. Although high-dose metoclopramide has both antiserotonergic and anti-dopaminergic Activity, other pure antidopaminergic agents retain significant Antiemetic Activity. The combination of an antiserotonergic agent and a low-dose antidopaminergic agent has already shown promise in one pilot study. Newer and more effective Antiemetic combinations will be needed to continue to improve the quality of life of patients receiving chemotherapy.

  • Clinical Aspects of Antiemesis: Role of the 5-HT, Antagonists
    Medical Science Symposia Series, 1993
    Co-Authors: Steven M. Grunberg

    Abstract:

    Development of effective Antiemetics has depended upon understanding of the emetic reflex arc and identification of significant neurotransmitter receptors within that reflex arc. Appreciation of the role of histaminergic, cholinergic, and dopaminergic receptors led to development of the first generation of Antiemetics. The increased efficacy of high-dose metoclopramide (an antidopaminergic agent) was later found to be due at least in part to additional blockade of serotonergic (5-HT3) neurotransmitter receptors. Pure 5-HT3antagonists now allow effective antiemesis without antidopaminergic toxicity. However recent studies concerning dose-response effects and schedule effects with 5-HT3receptor blockers suggest that additional factors must also be identified to fully understand the physiology and pharmacology of chemotherapy-induced emesis and Antiemetic Activity.

Yogendra Kumar Gupta – 3rd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • cisplatin induced pica behaviour in rats is prevented by antioxidants with Antiemetic Activity
    Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, 1997
    Co-Authors: S S Sharma, Sudeep Gupta, V Kochupillai, S D Seth, Yogendra Kumar Gupta

    Abstract:

    Abstract Pica, eating of non-nutritive substances such as kaolin in rats has been suggested as an illness response behaviour, analogous to vomiting in species that have developed emetic reflex. We have recently demonstrated that antioxidants—glutathione, N-(2- mercaptopropionyl)glycine (tiopronin), vitamin C and vitamin E—exert Antiemetic effect against cisplatin-induced emesis in dogs. In the present study, the effect of these antioxidants was investigated against pica model in rats. Pretreatment with these agents significantly inhibited the cisplatin induced enhanced kaolin intake. However, these agents failed to exert any significant improvement in the decreased food intake by cisplatin. The findings confirm the potential of these antioxidants as Antiemetics against cancer chemotherapy induced vomiting, though they may not improve the anorexia. The experiments further support that pica in rats can be used as a good alternative rodent model to dogs and cats particularly for preliminary and rapid screening of Antiemetic agents.

  • Antiemetic Activity of antioxidants against cisplatin induced emesis in dogs
    Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, 1996
    Co-Authors: Yogendra Kumar Gupta, S S Sharma

    Abstract:

    Antioxidants such as glutathione, N-(2-mercaptopropionyl)glycine (MPG), vitamin E, vitamin C and a combination of vitamin E and vitamin C in different treatment schedules were evaluated for their Antiemetic Activity against cisplatin-induced emesis in dogs. While cisplatin-induced emesis was significantly reduced by all these agents, glutathione, MPG and combination of vitamin E and vitamin C produced maximum reduction. The Antiemetic Activity of antioxidants may be attributable to their ability to react with free radicals generated by cisplatin. The present study provides further evidence that free radicals play a role in cancer chemotherapy induced emesis and warrant clinical evaluation.