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Lígia Salgueiro – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.
Essential oil of Daucus carota subsp. halophilus: composition, Antifungal Activity and cytotoxicity.Journal of ethnopharmacology, 2008Co-Authors: Ana Cristina Tavares, Maria José Gonçalves, Carlos Cavaleiro, Maria Teresa Cruz, Maria Celeste Lopes, Jorge M. Canhoto, Lígia SalgueiroAbstract:
Abstract Ethnopharmacological relevance : Essential oils are known to possess antimicrobial Activity against a wide spectrum of bacteria and fungi. Daucus carota L. is used since olden times in traditional medicine, due to recognized therapeutic properties, namely the antimicrobial Activity of their essential oils. Aim of the study : In the present study the composition and the Antifungal Activity of the oils of Daucus carota L. subsp. halophilus (Brot.) A. Pujadas (Apiaceae), an endemic plant from Portugal, were evaluated. Moreover, their cytotoxicity in mouse skin dendritic cells at concentration showing significant Antifungal Activity was also evaluated. Material and methods : The oils were investigated by GC and GC-MS and the Antifungal Activity (MIC and MLC) were evaluated against yeasts, dermatophyte and Aspergillus strains. Assessment of cell viability was made by the MTT assay. Results : The results showed large variations in the compositions during ontogenesis, particularly in the amounts of elemicin that increased significantly in the ripe umbels (5.9% vs. 31.0%). The results also demonstrated that the oil with high amounts of elemicin, which have stronger Antifungal Activity, showed no cytotoxic effect, at concentrations ranging from 0.16 to 0.64 μl/ml, for as long as 24h. Conclusion : It is possible to find appropriate doses of Daucus carota oil showing both Antifungal Activity and very low detrimental effect on mammalian cells.
Antifungal Activity of thymus oils and their major compoundsJournal of The European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology, 2004Co-Authors: Cidalia Pinavaz, Lígia Salgueiro, Maria José Gonçalves, Carlos Cavaleiro, Goncalves A Rodrigues, Eugenia Pinto, Sofia Costadeoliveira, C Tavares, Jose MartinezdeoliveiraAbstract:
The increasing recognition and importance of fungal infections, the difficulties encountered in their treatment and the increase in resistance to Antifungals have stimulated the search for therapeutic alternatives. Essential oils have been used empirically. The essential oils of Thymus (Thymus vulgaris, T. zygis subspecies zygis and T. mastichina subspecies mastichina) have often been used in folk medicine. The aim of the present study was to evaluate objectively the Antifungal Activity of Thymus oils according to classical bacteriological methodologies – determination of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimal lethal concentration (MLC) – as well as flow cytometric evaluation. The effect of essential oils upon germ tube formation, an important virulence factor, was also studied. The mechanism of action was studied by flow cytometry, after staining with propidium iodide. The chemical composition of the essential oils was investigated by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). The Antifungal Activity of the major components (carvacrol, thymol, p-cymene and 1,8-cineole) and also possible interactions between them were also investigated. The essential oils of T. vulgaris and T. zygis showed similar Antifungal Activity, which was greater than T. mastichina. MIC and MLC values were similar for all the compounds tested. At MIC values of the essential oils, propidium iodide rapidly penetrated the majority of the yeast cells, indicating that the fungicidal effect resulted primarily from an extensive lesion of the cell membrane. Concentrations below the MIC values significantly inhibited germ tube formation. This study describes the potent Antifungal Activity of the essential oils of Thymus on Candida spp., warranting future therapeutical trials on mucocutaneous candidosis.
Michael Wisniewski – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.
rapid evaluation of plant extracts and essential oils for Antifungal Activity against botrytis cinereaPlant Disease, 1997Co-Authors: Charles L Wilson, Jose M Solar, El A Ghaouth, Michael WisniewskiAbstract:
A rapid assay to determine Antifungal Activity in plant extracts and essential oils is described. Wells in microtiter plates were loaded with Botrytis cinerea spores and plant extracts or essential oils. Subsequent changes in optical density following spore germination in the wells was measured after 24 h using an automatic microtiter plate reader driven by a software program developed for this purpose. Extracts from 345 plants and 49 essential oils were evaluated for their Antifungal Activity against B. cinerea. Among 345 plant extracts analyzed, 13 showed high levels of Antifungal Activity, with species of Allium and Capsicum predominating. Among the 49 essential oils tested, palmarosa (Cymbopogon martini), red thyme (Thymus zygis), cinnamon leaf (Cinnamomum zeylanicum), and clove buds (Eugenia caryophyllata) demonstrated the most Antifungal Activity against B. cinerea. The most frequently occurring constituents in essential oils showing high Antifungal Activity were: D-limonene, cineole; β-myrcene; α-pinene, β-pinene; and camphor.
Ricardo D. Enriz – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.
Structure−Antifungal Activity Relationship of Cinnamic Acid DerivativesJournal of agricultural and food chemistry, 2007Co-Authors: Fabricio R. Bisogno, Laura Mascoti, Cecilia Sanchez, Francisco M. Garibotto, Fernando Angel Giannini, Marcela Kurina-sanz, Ricardo D. EnrizAbstract:
A structure-Antifungal Activity relationship (SAR) study of 22 related cinnamic acid derivatives was carried out. Attention was focused on the Antifungal activities exhibited against Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus terreus, and Aspergillus niger. (E)-3-(4-methoxy-3-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)phenyl)acrylic acid (16) exhibited Antifungal Activity against A. niger, comparable to that of miconazole and a significant Antifungal effect against A. flavus and A. terreus as well. A structure-Activity relationship (SAR) study of related cinnamic acid derivatives has allowed a model to be proposed for the recognition of the minimal structural requirements for the Antifungal effect in this series.