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The Experts below are selected from a list of 216 Experts worldwide ranked by ideXlab platform

Michiko Takayama – 1st expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Reactivity of varicella-zoster virus subunit Antigens in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to sera from varicella, zoster, and herpes simplex virus infections
    Medical Microbiology and Immunology, 1994
    Co-Authors: Michiko Takayama


    Serological responses to varicella-zoster virus (VZV) subunit Antigens, such as capsid, envelope, and soluble (S) Antigens, in patients with VZV and herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections were studied by comparing with responses to virion (V) Antigens using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). S Antigen, prepared by concentrating supernatant of VZV or HSV type 1 (HSV-1)-infected cell culture fluid, reacted strongly to sera from patients with secondary infection but reacted poorly to those from patients with a primary infection of VZV or HSV. Antibody titers to VZV-S Antigen persisted for a long period in patients with VZV infections. Patients infected with VZV showed antibody increase to HSV-1, when tested by complement fixation or complement-enhanced neutralization test, in cases with a history of prior HSV infection. However, such a cross-reaction was only observed to a minor extent in ELISA test using S Antigen. S Antigen reaction was stronger in secondary infections in tests with various subunit Antigens. Almost no cross-reactivity was observed in an immunoblotting test with S Antigen. Differentiation between infections with either varicella or zoster or HSV can be made by comparison of antibody responses to V and S Antigens.

Yaotseng Chen – 2nd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • cancer testis ct Antigens potential targets for immunotherapy
    Cancer Science, 2009
    Co-Authors: Otavia L Caballero, Yaotseng Chen


    Cancer/testis (CT) Antigens are protein Antigens with normal expression restricted to adult testicular germ cells, and yet are aberrantly activated and expressed in a proportion of various types of human cancer. At least a subset of this group of Antigens has been found to elicit spontaneous humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in cancer patients, raising the possibility that these Antigens could be cancer vaccine targets. More than 100 CT Antigen genes have been reported in the literature, with approximately 30 being members of multigene families on the X chromosome, i.e., the CT-X genes. Most CT-X genes are expressed at the spermatogonia stage of spermatogenesis, and their functions are mostly unknown. In cancer, the frequency of CT Antigen expression is highly variable among different tumor types, but is more often expressed in high-grade late-stage cases in general. Cancer vaccine trials based on CT Antigens, MAGE-A3 and NY-ESO-1 are currently ongoing, and these Antigens may also play a role in Antigen-specific adoptive T cell transfer and in the immunomodulation approach of cancer therapy.

  • cancer testis Antigens an expanding family of targets for cancer immunotherapy
    Immunological Reviews, 2002
    Co-Authors: Matthew J Scanlan, Ali O Gure, Achim A Jungbluth, Yaotseng Chen


    Cancer/testis (CT) Antigens are a category of tumor Antigens with normal expression restricted to male germ cells in the testis but not in adult somatic tissues. In some cases, CT Antigens are also expressed in ovary and in trophoblast. In malignancy, this gene regulation is disrupted, resulting in CT Antigen expression in a proportion of tumors of various types. Since their initial identification by T-cell epitope cloning, the list of CT Antigens has been greatly expanded through serological expression cloning (SEREX) and differential mRNA expression analysis, and approximately 20 CT Antigens or Antigen families have been identified to date. Characteristics commonly shared by CT Antigens, aside from the highly tissue-restricted expression profile, include existence as multigene families, frequent mapping to chromosome X, heterogeneous protein expression in cancer, likely correlation with tumor progression, induction of expression by hypomethylation and/or histone acetylation, and immunogenicity in cancer patients. Spontaneous humoral and cell-mediated immune responses have been demonstrated against several CT Antigens, including NY-ESO-1, MAGE-A, and SSX Antigens. Since CT Antigens are immunogenic and highly restricted to tumors, their discovery has led directly to the development of Antigen-specific cancer vaccines, and clinical trials with MAGE-A and NY-ESO-1 are in progress.

Sebastian Amigorena – 3rd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • targeting tumor Antigens to secreted membrane vesicles in vivo induces efficient antitumor immune responses
    Cancer Research, 2008
    Co-Authors: Ingrid S Zeelenberg, Matias Ostrowski, Sophie Krumeich, Angelique Bobrie, Carolina Jancic, Alexandre Boissonnas, Alain Delcayre, Jeanbernard Le Pecq, Behazine Combadiere, Sebastian Amigorena


    Expression of non-self Antigens by tumors can induce activation of T cells in vivo , although this activation can lead to either immunity or tolerance. CD8+ T-cell activation can be direct (if the tumor expresses MHC class I molecules) or indirect (after the capture and cross-presentation of tumor Antigens by dendritic cells). The modes of tumor Antigen capture by dendritic cells in vivo remain unclear. Here we examine the immunogenicity of the same model Antigen secreted by live tumors either in association with membrane vesicles (exosomes) or as a soluble protein. We have artificially addressed the Antigen to secreted vesicles by coupling it to the factor VIII–like C1C2 domain of milk fat globule epidermal growth factor-factor VIII (MFG-E8)/lactadherin. We show that murine fibrosarcoma tumor cells that secrete vesicle-bound Antigen grow slower than tumors that secrete soluble Antigen in immunocompetent, but not in immunodeficient, host mice. This growth difference is due to the induction of a more potent Antigen-specific antitumor immune response in vivo by the vesicle-bound than by the soluble Antigen. Finally, in vivo secretion of the vesicle-bound Antigen either by tumors or by vaccination with naked DNA protects against soluble Antigen-secreting tumors. We conclude that the mode of secretion can determine the immunogenicity of tumor Antigens and that manipulation of the mode of Antigen secretion may be used to optimize antitumor vaccination protocols. [Cancer Res 2008;68(4):1228–35]

  • Paucity of functional T-cell memory to melanoma Antigens in healthy donors and melanoma patients.
    Clinical Cancer Research, 2000
    Co-Authors: Madhav V. Dhodapkar, James W. Young, Paul B. Chapman, Jean-françois Fonteneau, Sebastian Amigorena, Alan N. Houghton, Ralph M. Steinman, Nina Bhardwaj


    The functional characteristics of CD8+ T cells specific for melanoma Antigens (MAs) have often been defined after in vitro culture using nonprofessional Antigen-presenting cells. We have examined CD8+ T-cell immunity to MAs and a viral Antigen (influenza) in uncultured T cells of healthy donors and melanoma patients using autologous, mature, monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) pulsed with peptide Antigens and viral vectors. Antigen-specific IFN-γ-producing T cells reactive with HLA-A*0201-restricted peptides from four melanoma Antigens (MelanA/MART-1, MAGE-3, tyrosinase, and gp100) were detected only at low frequencies (