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Aponeurosis

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Jeremy P. Loenneke – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Does resistance training increase Aponeurosis width? The current results and future tasks
    European Journal of Applied Physiology, 2020
    Co-Authors: Scott Dankel, Robert W. Spitz, Samuel L. Buckner, Vickie Wong, Ricardo B. Viana, Zachary W. Bell, Jeremy P. Loenneke

    Abstract:

    Purpose The Aponeurosis, a sheet of fibrous tissue, is the deep and superficial fascia where muscle fibers attach in pennate muscles. It is quite possible that the Aponeurosis size increases in response to resistance training-induced fiber hypertrophy due to an increase in connection area. As a result, it leads to an increase in anatomical muscle cross-sectional area. However, attention has not been paid to Aponeurosis area changes. This review sought to determine whether muscle hypertrophy changes Aponeurosis width following short-term resistance training using an equation we modified [post/pre changes in Aponeurosis width (AW_post/pre) = post/pre changes in anatomical cross-sectional area (CSA_post/pre) ÷ post/pre changes in pennation angle (PA_post/pre) ÷ post/pre changes in fascicle length (FL_post/pre)]. Methods A search using two electronic databases (PubMed and Google Scholar) was conducted. Nine studies measured CSA_post/pre, PA_post/pre, and FL_post/pre of the vastus lateralis muscle by ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging. Results There was a statistically significant 2.73 [95% CI 1.11, 4.36; p  = 0.009] cm^2 increase in CSA_post/pre along with a statistically significant 1.21° [95% CI 0.44, 1.97; p  = 0.002] increase in PA_post/pre and a statistically significant 0.36 cm [95% CI 0.19, 0.54; p  = 0.0002] increase in FL_post/pre. These results yield an estimated 1% reduction in Aponeurosis width. Conclusion Our results suggest that while muscle CSA, pennation angle, and fascicle length all increase following short-term resistance training, the Aponeurosis width is not altered.

  • does resistance training increase Aponeurosis width the current results and future tasks
    European Journal of Applied Physiology, 2020
    Co-Authors: Scott Dankel, Robert W. Spitz, Samuel L. Buckner, Vickie Wong, Ricardo B. Viana, Zachary W. Bell, Jeremy P. Loenneke

    Abstract:

    PURPOSE The Aponeurosis, a sheet of fibrous tissue, is the deep and superficial fascia where muscle fibers attach in pennate muscles. It is quite possible that the Aponeurosis size increases in response to resistance training-induced fiber hypertrophy due to an increase in connection area. As a result, it leads to an increase in anatomical muscle cross-sectional area. However, attention has not been paid to Aponeurosis area changes. This review sought to determine whether muscle hypertrophy changes Aponeurosis width following short-term resistance training using an equation we modified [post/pre changes in Aponeurosis width (AWpost/pre) = post/pre changes in anatomical cross-sectional area (CSApost/pre) ÷ post/pre changes in pennation angle (PApost/pre) ÷ post/pre changes in fascicle length (FLpost/pre)]. METHODS A search using two electronic databases (PubMed and Google Scholar) was conducted. Nine studies measured CSApost/pre, PApost/pre, and FLpost/pre of the vastus lateralis muscle by ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging. RESULTS There was a statistically significant 2.73 [95% CI 1.11, 4.36; p = 0.009] cm2 increase in CSApost/pre along with a statistically significant 1.21° [95% CI 0.44, 1.97; p = 0.002] increase in PApost/pre and a statistically significant 0.36 cm [95% CI 0.19, 0.54; p = 0.0002] increase in FLpost/pre. These results yield an estimated 1% reduction in Aponeurosis width. CONCLUSION Our results suggest that while muscle CSA, pennation angle, and fascicle length all increase following short-term resistance training, the Aponeurosis width is not altered.

J. P. Paul – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • The effect of heel elevation on strain within the plantar Aponeurosis: In vitro study
    Foot and Ankle International, 2001
    Co-Authors: Geza F. Kogler, F. B. Veer, Steven J. Verhulst, S.e Solomonidis, J. P. Paul

    Abstract:

    Mild, temporary reduction of symptoms from plantar fasciitis have been reported with the use of high heeled shoes (i.e. cowboy boots, ladies pumps). However, little is known on how heel elevation may contribute to a decrease in the pain and inflammation. The aim of this study was to quantify strain in the plantar Aponeurosis in cadaveric feet with the use of various heel elevation configurations. An in vitro method that simulated “static” stance was used to determine the loading characteristics of the plantar Aponeurosis (n = 12). Heel elevation was evaluated with blocks placed beneath the heel and with a contoured platform that simulated the arch profile of a shoe at three different heel heights (2.0, 4.0, 6.0 cm) with a level plane serving as the control. Strain in the plantar Aponeurosis decreased with elevations of the heel that simulated the arch profile of a shoe at load levels (337, 450 N) (P < 0.05). Elevations of the heel with blocks did not significantly affect strain in the plantar Aponeurosis (P < 0.05). Contrasting results of some specimen limbs compared with the overall means suggests that the influence of heel elevation on loading of the plantar Aponeurosis may be dependent on individual variation and foot structure differences. Therefore, clinicians should be cautious in recommending heel elevation as a treatment for plantar fasciitis since some subjects may not achieve the desired decrease in plantar Aponeurosis strain.

  • load elongation characteristics of in vivo human tendon and Aponeurosis
    The Journal of Experimental Biology, 2000
    Co-Authors: Constantinos N Maganaris, J. P. Paul

    Abstract:

    In the present study, we measured the in vivo load‐elongation characteristics of the human tibialis anterior tendon and its central Aponeurosis. Measurements were taken in five men using dynamometry, muscle electrical stimulation and ultrasonography. Percutaneous tetanic stimulation of the muscle at successive voltages corresponding to 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 % of maximum isometric dorsiflexion moment was applied. During electrical stimulation, we recorded the displacements of the tibialis anterior tendon origin and its Aponeurosis proximal end using B-mode ultrasonography. Aponeurosis displacement was calculated by subtracting tendon displacement from the displacement of the Aponeurosis proximal end. Tendon and Aponeurosis displacements increased curvilinearly from 1.3 to 4 mm and from 3.7 to 12 mm, respectively, as a function of dorsiflexion load. Scaling of the displacements recorded to the resting lengths (measured over the skin) yielded strain values that increased curvilinearly with load, from 0.8 to 2.5 % in the tendon and from 2.1 to 7 % in the Aponeurosis. Tendon strain was smaller by between 61 and 64 % compared with Aponeurosis strain at any given contraction level. These findings are in line with reports from in vitro isolated material testing and have important implications for muscle modelling. Summary

  • the influence of medial and lateral placement of orthotic wedges on loading of the plantar Aponeurosis an in vitro study
    Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery American Volume, 1999
    Co-Authors: Geza F. Kogler, S.e Solomonidis, Franklin B Veer, J. P. Paul

    Abstract:

    Background: Repetitive trauma and overuse of the plantar Aponeurosis are believed to be causal factors of plantar fasciitis. Therefore, it is important to know how an orthosis influences loading of the plantar Aponeurosis. The aim of this study was to quantify strain in the plantar Aponeurosis in cadaveric feet with the use of various combinations of orthotic wedges. Methods: An in vitro test that simulated static stance was used to determine the loading characteristics of the plantar Aponeurosis. A differential variable reluctance transducer was operatively implanted into the plantar Aponeurosis of nine fresh-frozen cadaveric lower limbs. Each specimen was mounted in an electromechanical testing machine that applied an axial load of as much as 900 newtons to the tibia. Eight different combinations of test conditions, in which wedges (each with a 6-degree incline) were or were not positioned under the medial and lateral aspects of the forefoot and hindfoot, were evaluated, with the plantigrade foot used as a neutral control. Results: Each of the test conditions that involved a wedge under the forefoot resulted in strain that was significantly different from that in the neutral control. A wedge under the lateral aspect of the forefoot decreased strain in the plantar Aponeurosis, and a wedge under the medial aspect increased strain (p 0.05). Conclusions: A wedge under the lateral aspect of the forefoot transmits loads through the lateral support structures of the foot, locking the calcaneocuboid joint and decreasing strain in the plantar Aponeurosis. A wedge under the medial aspect of the forefoot transmits loads through the medial support structures of the foot, which produces a truss-like action that increases strain in the plantar Aponeurosis. Clinical Relevance: Orthotic wedges seem to be effective in controlling the load-path pattern in the foot. The results of the tests involving a wedge under the lateral aspect of the forefoot were noteworthy, as the potential of such a wedge for reducing strain in the plantar Aponeurosis was not previously known. The data suggest that an orthotic wedge under the lateral aspect of the forefoot thus may be effective for the treatment of plantar fasciitis.

Silvia S Blemker – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • activation and Aponeurosis morphology affect in vivo muscle tissue strains near the myotendinous junction
    Journal of Biomechanics, 2012
    Co-Authors: Niccolo M Fiorentino, Frederick H Epstein, Silvia S Blemker

    Abstract:

    Hamstring strain injury is one of the most common injuries in athletes, particularly for sports that involve high speed running. The aims of this study were to determine whether muscle activation and internal morphology influence in vivo muscle behavior and strain injury susceptibility. We measured tissue displacement and strains in the hamstring muscle injured most often, the biceps femoris long head muscle (BFLH), using cine DENSE dynamic magnetic resonance imaging. Strain measurements were used to test whether strain magnitudes are (i) larger during active lengthening than during passive lengthening and (ii) larger for subjects with a relatively narrow proximal Aponeurosis than a wide proximal Aponeurosis. Displacement color maps showed higher tissue displacement with increasing lateral distance from the proximal Aponeurosis for both active lengthening and passive lengthening, and higher tissue displacement for active lengthening than passive lengthening. First principal strain magnitudes were averaged in a 1 cm region near the myotendinous junction, where injury is most frequently observed. It was found that strains are significantly larger during active lengthening (0.19 SD 0.09) than passive lengthening (0.13 SD 0.06) (po 0.05), which suggests that elevated localized strains may be a mechanism for increased injury risk during active as opposed to passive lengthening. First principal strains were higher for subjects with a relatively narrow Aponeurosis width (0.26 SD 0.15) than wide (0.14 SD 0.04) (po 0.05). This result suggests that athletes who have BFLH muscles with narrow proximal aponeuroses may have an increased risk for BFLH strain injuries.

  • the effects of Aponeurosis geometry on strain injury susceptibility explored with a 3d muscle model
    Journal of Biomechanics, 2010
    Co-Authors: Michael R Rehorn, Silvia S Blemker

    Abstract:

    In the musculoskeletal system, some muscles are injured more frequently than others. For example, the biceps femoris longhead (BFLH) is the most commonly injured hamstring muscle. It is thought that acute injuries result from large strains within the muscle tissue, but the mechanism behind this type of strain injury is still poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to build computational models to analyze the stretch distributions within the BFLH muscle and to explore the effects of Aponeurosis geometry on the magnitude and location of peak stretches within the model. We created a three-dimensional finite element (FE) model of the BFLH based on magnetic resonance (MR) images. We also created a series of simplified models with a similar geometry to the MR-based model. We analyzed the stretches predicted by the MR-based model during lengthening contractions to determine the region of peak local fiber stretch. The peak along-fiber stretch was 1.64 and was located adjacent to the proximal myotendinous junction (MTJ). In contrast, the average along-fiber stretch across all the muscle tissue was 0.95. By analyzing the simple models, we found that varying the dimensions of the aponeuroses (width, length, and thickness) had a substantial impact on the location and magnitude of peak stretches within the muscle. Specifically, the difference in widths between the proximal and distal Aponeurosis in the BFLH contributed most to the location and magnitude of peak stretch, as decreasing the proximal Aponeurosis width by 80% increased peak average stretches along the proximal MTJ by greater than 60% while slightly decreasing stretches along the distal MTJ. These results suggest that the Aponeurosis morphology of the BFLH plays a significant role in determining stretch distributions throughout the muscle. Furthermore, this study introduces the new hypothesis that Aponeurosis widths may be important in determining muscle injury susceptibility.