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Apparel Industry

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Gary Gereffi – 1st expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • Upgrading, uneven development, and jobs in the north american Apparel Industry
    Labor and the Globalization of Production: Causes and Consequences of Industrial Upgrading, 2004
    Co-Authors: Jennifer Bair, Gary Gereffi


    In this article we examine the developmental consequences of globalization at multiple scales, using a commodity chains framework to investigate the case of the North American Apparel Industry. In the first section we outline the Apparel commodity chain and offer a brief typology of its lead firms. In the second section we discuss the concept of industrial upgrading and describe several main export roles in the global Apparel Industry. In the third section we focus on the regional dynamics resulting from the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). We contrast the Mexican experience with that of countries in the Caribbean Basin to show the impact of distinct trade policies on export-oriented development. We argue that NAFTA is creating upgrading opportunities for some Mexican firms to move from the low value-added export-oriented assembly (or maquila) model to full-package production. In the fourth section we explore the unevenness of upgrading dynamics through a comparison of two blue jeans manufacturing clusters in the United States and Mexico: El Paso and Torreon. Our conclusions about upgrading and uneven development in the North American Apparel Industry emphasize the importance of local, national and regional institutional contexts in shaping inter-firm networks and their development impact.

  • free trade and uneven development the north american Apparel Industry after nafta
    , 2002
    Co-Authors: Gary Gereffi, David Spener, Jennifer Bair


    List of Tables and Figures Part I: Analytical Overview 1. Introduction: The Apparel Industry and North American Economic Integration – David Spener, Gary Gereffi, and Jennifer Bair 2 . NAFTA and the Apparel Commodity Chain: Corporate Strategies, Interfirm Networks, and Industrial Upgrading – Jennifer Bair and Gary Gereffi Part II: The Changing Face of the Apparel Industry in the United States 3. Subcontracting Networks in the New York Garment Industry: Changing Characteristics in a Global Era – Florence Palpacuer 4. The Impact of North American Economic Integration on the Los Angeles Garment Industry – Judi A. Kessler 5. The New Sweatshops in the United States: How New, How Real, How Many, and Why? – Robert J. S. Ross 6. Labor’s Response to Global Production – Edna Bonacich Part III: The U.S.-Mexico Border Region 7. The Unraveling Seam: NAFTA and the Decline of the Apparel Industry in El Paso, Texas – David Spener 8. Tex Mex: Linkages in a Binational Garment District? The Garment Industries in El Paso and Ciudad Juarez – Robert van Dooren 9. Commodity Chains and Industrial Organization in the Apparel Industry in Monterrey and Ciudad Juarez – Jorge Carrillo, Alfredo Hualde, and Araceli Almaraz Part IV: Interior Mexico 10. Torreon: The New Blue Jeans Capital of the World – Gary Gereffi, Martha Martinez, and Jennifer Bair 11. Learning and the Limits of Foreign Partners as Teachers – Enrique Dussel Peters, Clemente Ruiz Duran, and Michael J. Piore 12. Knitting the Networks Between Mexican Producers and the U.S. Market – Ulrik Vangstrup 13. Fragmented Markets, Elaborate Chains: The Retail Distribution of Imported Clothing in Mexico – Jorge Mendoza, Fernando Pozos Ponce, and David Spener Part V: Central American and the Caribbean 14. When Does Apparel Become a Peril? On the Nature of Industrialization in the Caribbean Basin – Michael Mortimore 15. Can the Dominican Republic’s Export-Processing Zones Survive NAFTA? – Dale T. Mathews Part VI: Conclusion 16. NAFTA and Uneven Development in the North American Apparel Industry – Jennifer Bair, David Spener, and Gary Gereffi About the Contributors Index

  • Global sourcing in the U.S. Apparel Industry
    Journal of textile and apparel technology and management, 2001
    Co-Authors: Gary Gereffi


    This article analyzes the sourcing patterns of the U.S. Apparel Industry using a global supply chain perspective. Retailers, marketers, and branded manufacturers are the lead firms that organize the bulk of Apparel imports into the U.S. market. U.S. Apparel sourcing patterns are shifting, with an increased emphasis on imports from Mexico and the Caribbean Basin rather than Asia.

David Weil – 2nd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • diffusion and performance of modular production in the u s Apparel Industry
    Industrial Relations, 1996
    Co-Authors: John T. Dunlop, David Weil


    This paper examines the determinants of the diffusion of team production systems (modular assembly) and the impact of these systems on firm performance relative to traditional assembly systems in the Apparel Industry. The paper draws on an extensive survey providing detailed information on a wide range of manufacturing practices and retail relationships in the U.S. Apparel Industry. We find that recent diffusion of modular practices is driven primarily by forces in the product market rather than from human resource-related factors. We also show that the low level of diffusion of team production systems can be explained by the small impact of modular systems relative to other manufacturing innovations (particularly those in information systems).

  • The Information-Integrated Channel: A Study of the U.S. Apparel Industry in Transition
    Brookings Papers on Economic Activity. Microeconomics, 1995
    Co-Authors: F. H. Abernathy, John T. Dunlop, Janice H. Hammond, David Weil


    THE POPULAR PROGNOSIS for the U.S. Apparel Industry is bleak. Citing increased import penetration in many product segments and the concurrent erosion of domestic employment, many analysts regard Apparel manufacturing in the United States as a dying Industry. I The Department of Labor concurs, projecting a significant reduction in employment in the domestic Apparel Industry during the next decade. Under its most optimistic scenario, the department predicts employment will drop from a 1990 level of 839,000 to 649,000 in 2005; under its most

Xiaobo Zhang – 3rd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • flying geese in china the textile and Apparel Industry s pattern of migration
    Journal of Asian Economics, 2014
    Co-Authors: Jianqing Ruan, Xiaobo Zhang


    China has large regional variations in both factor endowments and levels of economic development. In principle, some industrial enterprises will relocate to the inland regions from the coastal regions to take advantage of lower wage rates and land prices, provided that the regions are different enough. However, few studies have empirically tested whether this kind of “flying geese” pattern of domestic industrial relocation has occurred on the ground or not. Using data from the textile and Apparel Industry from 1998 to 2011, this paper shows the existence of the “flying geese” pattern of industrial relocation. Data show that before around 2005, the textile and Apparel Industry was clustered in the eastern region of China, but it has since shifted toward the central and western regions.

  • do geese migrate domestically evidence from the chinese textile and Apparel Industry
    , 2010
    Co-Authors: Ruan Jianqing, Xiaobo Zhang


    The vast majority of empirical literature on “flying geese” examines industrial relocation across national boundaries, in particular in Asia. However, few studies have empirically tested whether this kind of “flying geese” pattern of industrial relocation has occurred domestically in a large country, provided that the regional difference is large enough. Using textile and Apparel Industry data for the period 1997–2008 in China, the paper shows that until 2004, the textile and Apparel Industry was still concentrated in the eastern region of China, but starting in 2005, the flying geese phenomenon of industrial relocation began to appear.