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Pertti Saariluoma – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Apperception in primed problem solving
    Cognitive Processing, 2007
    Co-Authors: Sacha Helfenstein, Pertti Saariluoma


    Mental representation is a central theoretical concept in modern cognitive psychology. However, its investigation has been predominantly based on inapt perceptualist concepts, which presume that information contents in them, i.e., mental contents, solely arise from stimulus. This is in spite of the evidence that much in human thought does not have any sensory equivalence. Consequently, we make a difference between perception and Apperception, as e.g., Kant and Wundt did, and argue in favor of a detailed analysis of this mental process that is responsible for the construction of representations. We present here five primed problem solving experiments. The basic idea was to demonstrate that depending on priming information people represent perceptually identical stimuli very differently, i.e., they ascribe different uses and meanings to objects and they integrate them differently to compose distinct solutions. In this vein, we demonstrate that people regularly rely on information, which is not or cannot be perceived in principle. On the ground of our empirical findings, we resurrect the issue on why the difference between perception and Apperception is theoretically adequate and introduce some central concepts for the theoretical analysis of Apperception such as “seeing as” and functional binding.

  • Apperception content based psychology and design
    , 2003
    Co-Authors: Pertti Saariluoma


    A core area of scientific thinking is explaining. This means answering to the “why-questions and how questions” (Hempel 1965). Why does Sam have a fewer? Why did an organization fail abroad? Why a structure is able to support the weight of snow? How more effective valves for an engine can be designed? How to make computer games more attractive for female users? These are typical examples of design problems, all of which should be based on scientific explanation, i.e., what should be answered based on the laws of nature or as is becoming increasingly more evident, based on the laws of the human mind.

  • Apperception in chess players long range planning
    European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 1994
    Co-Authors: Pertti Saariluoma, Michael Hohlfeld


    Abstract Chess players’ long-range planning or chess-strategic thinking is based on more or less poorly definable and intuitive notions such as weak-square, initiative, space advantage, etc. Since these concepts are fuzzy and thus close to everyday concepts, chess players’ long-range planning provides a good environment to study Apperception with poorly definable notions. The three experiments provided data indicating that problem subspace abstraction has both benefits and costs. Active representation blockades alternative representations unless subjects restructure. As a result, chess players often make serious cognitive errors by abstracting the wrong problem subspaces. Even in strategical positions, the problem subspaces generated are self-consistent and bound by unconscious content-specific principles.

Hao Tang – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Transcendental Idealism in Wittgenstein’s Tractatus
    The Philosophical Quarterly, 2011
    Co-Authors: Hao Tang


    Wittgenstein’s Tractatus contains an insubstantial form of transcendental idealism. It is insubstantial because it rejects the substantial a priori. Yet despite this, the Tractatus still contains two fundamental transcendental idealist insights, (a) the identity of form between thought and reality, and (b) the transcendental unity of Apperception. I argue for (a) by connecting general themes in the Tractatus and in Kant, and for (b) by giving a detailed interpretation of Tractatus 5.6ff., where Wittgenstein talks about solipsism and the metaphysical subject. Tractarian solipsism, on this interpretation, is a special, insubstantial form of transcendental idealism.

Willy Lens – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • measuring needs with the thematic Apperception test a psychometric study
    Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2002
    Co-Authors: Francis Tuerlinckx, Paul De Boeck, Willy Lens


    Three Apperception theories that explain how people respond to Thematic Apperception Test cards are proposed: a simple Apperception theory, an Apperception theory with a dynamic component, and an Apperception theory with 2 types of responses. Each theory is translated into an item response theory model and is applied to need for achievement (nAch) data. The analysis indicates that the best fitting model is provided by the Apperception theory with 2 types of responses, also referred to as the drop-out Apperception theory. The 1st type of response predicted by this theory is determined by the nAch level of the person and the achievement-response-eliciting value of the card; this response is diagnostic for the nAch level of the person. The 2nd type of response is not determined by the 2 aforementioned characteristics and is therefore not diagnostic of the person’s nAch level. The results are cross-validated for need for power and need for affiliation.