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Robert Riener – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Online adaptive compensation of the Armin Rehabilitation Robot
    2016 6th IEEE International Conference on Biomedical Robotics and Biomechatronics (BioRob), 2016
    Co-Authors: Fabian Just, Robert Riener, Kilian Baur, Verena Klamroth-marganska, Georg Rauter

    Abstract:

    Robot-assisted arm therapy is increasingly applied in neurorehabilitation. The reason for this development over the last decades was that robots relieve the therapist from hard physical work while the training intensity can be increased. Importantly, an increase in training intensity is closely linked to functional improvements of the patient. However, usability of the robot for therapists was hardly considered an important factor in rehabilitation robot development so far. We believe that usability of the robot is a key factor for acceptance of the device by therapists. In this paper, an online adaptive compensation for the Armin rehabilitation robot is presented, which aims at improving usability of the robot. Therefore, we expect Armin therapy to become even more effective than conventional therapy at a level that is also relevant for the patient. Additionally, improved usability relieves the therapist from unnecessary/time-consuming tasks linked to robot handling. For the Armin, the new online adaptive compensation takes over automatic updates of changed upper and lower arm lengths as well as adaptation of shoulder angle settings to fit the patient’s anthropometry. Simultaneously, the model-based compensation in Armin is directly updated to account for hardware changes. Importantly, the online adaptive compensation provides improved performance of Armin even at the borders of the workspace. In experiments, we could show that the adaptive online compensation relieves the force and position controller from additional burdens and increases the robot performance drastically especially at the workspace border.

  • BioRob – Online adaptive compensation of the Armin Rehabilitation Robot
    2016 6th IEEE International Conference on Biomedical Robotics and Biomechatronics (BioRob), 2016
    Co-Authors: Fabian Just, Robert Riener, Kilian Baur, Verena Klamroth-marganska, Georg Rauter

    Abstract:

    Robot-assisted arm therapy is increasingly applied in neurorehabilitation. The reason for this development over the last decades was that robots relieve the therapist from hard physical work while the training intensity can be increased. Importantly, an increase in training intensity is closely linked to functional improvements of the patient. However, usability of the robot for therapists was hardly considered an important factor in rehabilitation robot development so far. We believe that usability of the robot is a key factor for acceptance of the device by therapists. In this paper, an online adaptive compensation for the Armin rehabilitation robot is presented, which aims at improving usability of the robot. Therefore, we expect Armin therapy to become even more effective than conventional therapy at a level that is also relevant for the patient. Additionally, improved usability relieves the therapist from unnecessary/time-consuming tasks linked to robot handling. For the Armin, the new online adaptive compensation takes over automatic updates of changed upper and lower arm lengths as well as adaptation of shoulder angle settings to fit the patient’s anthropometry. Simultaneously, the model-based compensation in Armin is directly updated to account for hardware changes. Importantly, the online adaptive compensation provides improved performance of Armin even at the borders of the workspace. In experiments, we could show that the adaptive online compensation relieves the force and position controller from additional burdens and increases the robot performance drastically especially at the workspace border.

  • Strength and Motor Function after Arm Training with an Exoskeleton Robot
    Biosystems & Biorobotics, 2014
    Co-Authors: Verena Klamroth-marganska, Georg Rauter, Robert Riener

    Abstract:

    Strength training of the arm after stroke can have a beneficial effect not only on strength but also on activity. We aimed to explore whether arm motor function, achieved with robot-assisted training with the arm therapy robot Armin, correlated to strength. We measured isometric strength in arm movements involving six joints with the therapy robot Armin. In addition, we assessed grip strength with a hand held dynamometer. Furthermore, we compared the strength gains under therapy between robot-assisted training and conventional, occupational or physical therapy. We could show that patients with Armin therapy gain less strength than patients in the control group although they improve in motor function. Furthermore, conventional therapy shows higher association between motor function and strength.

Tobias Nef – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Three-Dimensional Multi-Degree-of-Freedom Arm Therapy Robot (Armin)
    Neurorehabilitation Technology, 2011
    Co-Authors: Tobias Nef, Robert Riener

    Abstract:

    Rehabilitation robots have become an important tool in stroke rehabilitation. Compared to manual arm therapy, robot-supported arm therapy can be more intensive, with more frequent, more numerous, and longer repetitions. Therefore, robots have the potential to improve the rehabilitation process in stroke patients. In this chapter, the three-dimensional, multi-degree-of-freedom Armin arm robot is presented. The device has an exoskeleton structure that enables the training of activities of daily living. Patient-responsive control strategies assist the patient only as much as needed and stimulate patient activity. This chapter covers the mechanical setup, the therapy modes, and the clinical evaluation of the Armin robot. It concludes with an outlook on technical developments and about the technology transfer to industry.

  • Transferring Armin to the Clinics and Industry
    Topics in Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation, 2011
    Co-Authors: Robert Riener, Marco Guidali, Urs Keller, Alexander Duschau-wicke, Verena Klamroth, Tobias Nef

    Abstract:

    In the last few years, novel robotic technology has been developed that has the potential to improve upper extremity function after spinal cord injury (SCI), stroke, and other neurological diseases. Three generations of the arm therapy robot Armin were developed and clinically evaluated on many patients. Key focus was on the training of functional tasks incorporating activities of daily living (ADL) with large range of motion of the entire arm in order to enhance transfer to daily life and improve quality of life. Encouraged by the promising results in first single-case studies performed with Armin I and Armin II, an optimized Armin III was developed and duplicated and is currently being used within a 4-center randomized clinical trial. A fourth generation of Armin is currently under development that will have further functional benefits with respect to patient-cooperative control and therapy assessment. Intellectual property has been identified for technology transfer and commercial exploitation. The con…

  • Effects of arm training with the robotic device Armin I in chronic stroke: three single cases.
    Neurodegenerative Diseases, 2009
    Co-Authors: Tobias Nef, Roland Muller, Gabriela Quinter, Robert Riener

    Abstract:

    Background:Several clinical studies on chronic stroke conducted with end-effector-based robots showed improvement of the motor function in the affected arm. Compared to end-effector-based robots, exoskeleton robots provide improved guidance of the human limb and are better suited to train task-oriented movements with a large range of motions. Objective: To test whether intensive arm training with the arm exoskeleton Armin I is feasible with chronic-stroke patients and whether it improves motor function in the paretic arm. Methods: Three single cases with chronic hemiparesis resulting from unilateral stroke (at least 14 months after stroke). A-B design with 2 weeks of multiple baseline measurements (A), 8 weeks of training (B) with repetitive measurements and a follow-up measurement 8 weeks after training. The training included shoulder and elbow movements with the robotic rehabilitation device Armin I. Two subjects had three 1-hour sessions per week and 1 subject received five 1-hour sessions per week. The main outcome measurement was the upper-limb part of the Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA). Results:The Armin training was well tolerated by the patients, and the FMA showed moderate, but significant improvements for all 3 subjects (p < 0.05). Most improvements were maintained 8 weeks after discharge. Conclusions: This study indicates that intensive training with an arm exoskeleton is feasible with chronic-stroke patients. Moderate improvements were found in all 3 subjects, thus further clinical investigations are justified.

Matjaz Mihelj – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Armin ii 7 dof rehabilitation robot mechanics and kinematics
    International Conference on Robotics and Automation, 2007
    Co-Authors: Matjaz Mihelj, Tobias Nef, Robert Riener

    Abstract:

    Task-oriented repetitive movements can improve motor recovery in patients with neurological or orthopaedic lesions. The application of robotics can serve to assist, enhance, evaluate, and document neurological and orthopaedic rehabilitation. Armin II is the second prototype of a robot for arm therapy applicable to the training of activities of daily living. Armin II has a semi-exoskeletal structure with seven active degrees of freedom (two of them coupled), five adjustable segments to fit in with different patient sizes, and is equipped with position and force sensors. The mechanical structure, the actuators and the sensors of the robot are optimized for patient-cooperative control strategies based on impedance and admittance architectures. This paper describes the mechanical structure and kinematics of Armin II.

  • Armin – Exoskeleton for arm therapy in stroke patients
    2007 IEEE 10th International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics ICORR'07, 2007
    Co-Authors: Tobias Nef, Matjaz Mihelj, Gabriela Kiefer, Christina Perndl, Roland Muller, Robert Riener

    Abstract:

    Task-oriented repetitive movement can improve movement performance in patients with neurological lesions. The application of robotics can serve to assist, enhance, evaluate and document rehabilitation of movements. Armin is a robot for arm therapy applicable to the arm training in clinics. It has an exoskeleton structure and is equipped with position and force sensors. Our latest version Armin II has six degrees of freedom. The mechanical structure, the actuators, and the sensors of the robot are optimized for patient-cooperative control strategies based on impedance and admittance architectures. The device can work in three therapy modes: passive mobilization, game therapy, and task-oriented training. This paper presents the technical components of the new version Armin II, the therapy modes, the control strategy for a new example of a game therapy, and clinical results of a pilot study with 11 chronic stroke patients and of single case studies conducted with three chronic stroke patients.

  • Armin: A robot for patient-cooperative arm therapy
    Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing, 2007
    Co-Authors: Tobias Nef, Matjaz Mihelj, Robert Riener

    Abstract:

    Task-oriented, repetitive and intensive arm training can enhance arm rehabilitation in patients with paralyzed upper extremities due to lesions of the central nervous system. There is evidence that the training duration is a key factor for the therapy progress. Robot-supported therapy can improve the rehabilitation allowing more intensive training. This paper presents the kinematics, the control and the therapy modes of the arm therapy robot Armin. It is a haptic display with semi-exoskeleton kinematics with four active and two passive degrees of freedom. Equipped with position, force and torque sensors the device can deliver patient-cooperative arm therapy taking into account the activity of the patient and supporting him/her only as much as needed. The haptic display is combined with an audiovisual display that is used to present the movement and the movement task to the patient. It is assumed that the patient-cooperative therapy approach combined with a multimodal display can increase the patient’s motivation and activity and, therefore, the therapeutic progress.