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Pietro Santamaria – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • faba greens globe artichoke s offshoots crenate broomrape and summer squash greens unconventional vegetables of puglia southern italy with good quality traits
    Frontiers in Plant Science, 2018
    Co-Authors: Massimiliano Renna, Angelo Signore, Vito Michele Paradiso, Pietro Santamaria

    Abstract:

    Globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L. subsp. [L.] scolymus Hayek), summer squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) and faba bean (Vicia faba L.) are widely cultivated for their immature inflorescences, fruits and seeds, respectively. Nevertheless, in some areas of Puglia (Southern Italy), other organs of these species are traditionally used as vegetables, instead of being considered as by-products. Offshoots (so-called cardoni or carducci) of globe artichoke, produced during the vegetative growing cycle and removed by common cultural procedures, are used like to the cultivated cardoons (C. cardunculus L. var. altilis DC). The stems, petioles, flowers and smaller leaves of summer squash are used as greens (so-called cime di zucchini), like other leafy vegetables such as chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) and Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris L.). Also the plant apex of faba bean, about 5-10 cm long, obtained from the green pruning, are used as greens (so-called cime di fava) like spinach leaves. Moreover, crenate broomrape (Orobanche crenata Forssk.), a root parasite plant that produces devastating effects on many crops (mostly legumes), is used like asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) to prepare several traditional dishes. In this study ethnobotanical surveys and quality assessment of these unconventional vegetables were performed. For their content of fiber, offshoots of globe Artichokes can be considered a useful food to bowel. Summer squash greens could be recommended as a vegetable to use especially in the case of hypoglycemic diets considering both content and composition of their carbohydrates. For their low content of nitrate, faba greens could be recommended as a substitute of nitrate-rich leafy vegetables. Crenate broomrape shows a high antioxidant activity and may be considered as a very nutritious agri-food product. Overall, the results of the present study indicate that offshoots of globe artichoke, summer squash greens, faba greens and crenate broomrape have good potential as novel foods, being nutritious and refined products. Their exploitation aiming to the obtainment of labelled and/or new potential ready-to-eat retail products could satisfy the demand for local functional foods.

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Rafael M. Jiménez-díaz – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Verticillium Wilt: A Threat to Artichoke Production
    Plant disease, 2010
    Co-Authors: Matteo Cirulli, Giovanni Bubici, Mario Amenduni, Josep Armengol, Mónica Berbegal, María Del Mar Jiménez-gasco, Rafael M. Jiménez-díaz

    Abstract:

    The globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L. var. scolymus (L.) Fiori (=C. scolymus L.)) (diploid, 2n = 34) is the most important botanical variety of the species, which also includes C. cardunculus L. var. altilis DC. (=C. cardunculus L. var. cardunculus), the cultivated cardoon, and C. cardunculus L. var. sylvestris (Lamk) Fiori, which comprises wild relatives. The genus Cynara, native of the Mediterranean Basin, belongs to the botanical family Asteraceae (=Compositae) and includes seven species besides C. cardunculus. It is widely accepted that C. cardunculus var. sylvestris is the ancestor of the other two varieties (55,120). Artichoke is an allogamous species that is mainly propagated vegetatively via “stumps” (basal stem pieces with attached root sections) or “ovoli” (axillary buds separated from the stumps), although a few cultivars are seed-propagated (101). More than 120,000 ha of globe Artichokes are cultivated in more than 25 countries worldwide that yield approximately 1,300,000 t of buds. This hectarage represents 2.5% of the world area cultivated to vegetables (51). Italy is the leading artichoke-producing country with more than 35% of world production. Spain ranks second with 19% of world production despite a 20% hectarage reduction during the last 5 years. Similar reductions of the cultivated area and production of Artichokes have occurred in France, the United States, and, less markedly, in Greece (Table 1). Conversely, the crop hectarage has expanded greatly in other countries: over a 30-fold increase in Peru, twofold increase in China and Turkey, about 60% increase in Chile and Egypt, and nearly 20% increase in Algeria, Argentina, and Morocco. Additionally, the yield per cultivated area in countries such as Algeria, China, Morocco, Peru, and Turkey has recently achieved a level comparable with that of other countries. This may be a consequence of significant improvements in artichoke cultivation technology in those countries, where artichoke plantations have been established more recently than elsewhere. An overview of world production of Artichokes was published recently (80). Verticillium wilt, caused by the soilborne fungus Verticillium dahliae Kleb., is one of the main constraints for artichoke production worldwide. This disease was first reported on artichoke in Italy in the late 1920s (42,95). Subsequently, new reports were published from France (27), again in Italy (25,32,36), Spain (112), Chile (52), Greece (114), California (17), and Tunisia (67). Currently, Verticillium wilt occurs in all artichoke-growing areas. Verticillium wilt is becoming an increasing concern in artichoke production because the rapid spread of the disease to new growing areas has led to declining production. For example, in the 1980s, the disease was found affecting artichoke crops in several Italian regions such as Apulia, Campania, Lazio, Sardinia, Sicily, and Tuscany. In Apulia, which is the most important Italian area of artichoke production, problems with Verticillium wilt led to a reduction in the area cultivated to artichoke in the Bari Province, and also extended rapidly to new plantations that had been established in the provinces of Brindisi, Foggia, and Lecce (2,33). A similar decrease in artichoke cultivation due to Verticillium wilt was observed in Chile (52,53). In Spain, Armengol et al. (3) underlined the spread of Verticillium wilt in the Comunidad Valenciana region in eastern-central Spain, the main artichoke-growing area in the country. They reported over 80% disease prevalence in fields of stump- and seed-propagated Artichokes sampled during 1999 to 2002, with an average wilt incidence of 53.8%.

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Giancarlo Colelli – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Floral vegetables: Artichokes
    Controlled and Modified Atmospheres for Fresh and Fresh-Cut Produce, 2020
    Co-Authors: Maria Luisa Amodio, Michele La Zazzera, Giancarlo Colelli

    Abstract:

    Abstract Artichoke (Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus) is cultivated for its large immature inflorescence, called “capitula” or “head,” of which the edible part is represented by the most inner part. It should be stored at low temperature (0°C), with exception of some varieties which are shown to be chilling sensitive. The use of controlled atmospheres or modified atmosphere packaging offers moderate to little benefit to maintaining quality of fresh intact Artichokes, while some levels of O2 or CO2 may cause physiological disorders, as internal browning.

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  • influence of pre cutting operations on quality of fresh cut Artichokes cynara scolymus l effect of storage time and temperature before cutting
    Postharvest Biology and Technology, 2013
    Co-Authors: Ilde Ricci, Maria Luisa Amodio, Giancarlo Colelli

    Abstract:

    Abstract The effect of pre-processing storage time and temperature on post-cutting quality of two artichoke cultivars (‘Catanese’ and ‘Violetto Foggiano’) was studied. Artichoke heads were harvested in January 2010 for ‘Catanese’ and in March 2011 for ‘Violetto Foggiano’ from commercial plantations. Freshly harvested artichoke heads were stored at 0, 5, and 12 °C in a humidified flow of air. Initially, and after 3 and 7 days of storage, respiration rate, weight loss, and electrolytic leakage were monitored. Moreover, at each sampling, Artichokes were cut in quarters and stored for additional 3 days at 5 °C. On cut Artichokes, soon after cutting and after post-cutting storage, visual appearance, color attributes (on outer bract surface, on cut bracts, and on cut receptacle surface) and phenol content were determined. Time and temperature of storage influenced quality attributes of cut Artichokes, but to a different extent depending on the cultivar, whereas temperature did not affect the phenol content. ‘Violetto Foggiano’ Artichokes benefited from pre-cutting low storage temperature (0 °C), whereas ‘Catanese’ showed physiological injuries on outer bract surfaces, where brown spots occurred. In both cases low temperatures during pre-cutting storage (5 and 0 °C) reduced the browning rate of the cut surface which maintained a higher L* value, compared to Artichokes stored at 12 °C. Moreover, pre-cutting storage at 12 °C resulted in a reduction of quality of Artichokes due to growth of floral primordia in the form of reddish tissues at the base of the receptacle for both cultivars. Management of storage conditions before cutting is therefore critical in fresh-cut processing operations of Artichokes.

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  • influence of pre cutting operations on quality of fresh cut Artichokes cynara scolymus l effect of harvest dates
    Postharvest Biology and Technology, 2013
    Co-Authors: Ilde Ricci, Maria Luisa Amodio, Giancarlo Colelli

    Abstract:

    Abstract The effect of harvest date on post-cutting quality of two cultivars (‘ Violetto foggiano ’, and ‘ Catanese ’) of Artichokes ( Cynara cardunculus L. subsp. scolymus (L.) Hayek) was studied. Artichoke heads were harvested from December 2009 to May 2010 for ‘ Violetto foggiano ’ (7 harvest dates), and from January to April 2010, for‘ Catanese ’ (4 harvest dates) from a commercial orchard in the Apulia Region, always from the same 20 randomly-chosen and labeled plants (for each cultivar). Freshly harvested artichoke heads were trimmed, cut into quarters, then stored in a humidified air flow at 5 °C. Initially, and after 2, 5 and 7 days of storage, quality parameters were analyzed, including total phenol content, antioxidant activity, color attributes (outer bract surface, cut-bract surface, and cut receptacle) and visual appearance. Global color variations (Δ E *), for receptacle, cut surfaces and outer bracts, were calculated, in order to compare samples of different initial color and to evaluate variation in terms of browning. Artichokes ‘ Catanese ’ harvested in February showed the lowest Δ E * on cut surfaces after 7 days of storage which then increased with the proceeding of the season. Also for ‘ Violetto foggiano ’ after 7 days of storage, samples harvested in February showed lowest values of Δ E * on cut surfaces (bracts and receptacle), if compared to other harvesting dates. Visual quality of fresh-cut quarters decreased with the progress of the season, and for ‘ Violetto foggiano ’, with the decrease of the antioxidant activity. Total phenolic content and antioxidant activity were different among harvest dates for both cultivars studied, and for ‘ Violetto foggiano ’ showed a significant polynomial trend, denoting 2 phases of antioxidant accumulation from December to February and then from middle of March to May. The natural decline of plants at the end of production may be the reason of the poor quality of cut-Artichokes in the last sampling date, and in general, considering the average temperatures at harvest, quality of fresh-cut Artichokes could be positively affected by the lowest temperatures occurring in February.

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