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Artificial Lift Method

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Mike R. Wells – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • CHAPTER 11 – GAS Lift
    Gas Well Deliquification, 2008
    Co-Authors: James F. Lea, Henry V. Nickens, Mike R. Wells

    Abstract:

    Publisher Summary
    This chapter gives a complete overview of gas Lift. Gas Lift is an Artificial Lift Method whereby external gas is injected into the produced flow stream at some depth in the well bore. The additional gas augments the formation gas and reduces the flowing bottom hole pressure, thereby increasing the inflow of produced fluids. For dewatering gas wells, the volume of injected gas is designed so that the combined formation and injected gas will be above the critical rate for the well bore, especially for lower liquid producing gas wells. For higher liquid rates, much of the design procedure may more closely mirror producing oil well gas Lift techniques. In addition, gas Lift may not lower the flowing pressure as much as an optimized pumping system; there are several advantages of a gas Lift system that often make gas Lift the Artificial Lift Method of choice. For gas wells in particular, when producing a low amount of liquids, the producing bottom hole pressure with gas Lift may compare well with other Methods of dewatering. For higher liquid rates, the achievable producing BHP may be higher than pumping techniques. Of all Artificial Lift Methods, gas Lift most closely resembles natural flow and has long been recognized as one of the most versatile Artificial Lift Methods. Because of its versatility, gas Lift is a good candidate for removing liquids from gas wells under certain conditions. The two fundamental types of gas Lifts used in the industry today are continuous flow and intermittent flow, and these are briefly explained in this chapter.

  • CHAPTER 7 – PLUNGER Lift
    Gas Well Deliquification, 2008
    Co-Authors: James F. Lea, Henry V. Nickens, Mike R. Wells

    Abstract:

    Publisher Summary
    Plunger Lift is an intermittent Artificial Lift Method that uses only the energy of the reservoir to produce the liquids. A plunger is a free-traveling piston that fits snugly within the production tubing and depends on well pressure to rise and solely on gravity to get back to the bottom of the well. Plunger Lift operates in a cyclic process with the well alternately flowing and shut-in. During the shut-in period with the plunger on the bottom, gas pressure accumulates in the annulus and liquids have mostly already accumulated in the well during the last portion of the flow period. Liquids accumulate in the bottom of the tubing, and the plunger falls through the liquids to the bumper spring to await a pressure buildup period. The pressure of the annulus gas depends on the shut-in time, reservoir pressure, and permeability. When the annulus pressure increases sufficiently, the motor valve is opened to allow the well to flow. The annulus gas expands into the tubing, Lifting the plunger and liquids to the surface. A plunger Lift system is relatively simple and requires few components

  • CHAPTER 6 – COMPRESSION
    Gas Well Deliquification, 2008
    Co-Authors: James F. Lea, Henry V. Nickens, Mike R. Wells

    Abstract:

    Publisher Summary
    Compression is crucial to all gas well production as it is the primary means to transport gas to market. Compression is also vital to deliquification, lowering wellhead pressure, and increasing gas velocity. The lower bottom hole producing pressure from deliquifying wells and lowering surface pressures with compression can result in substantial production and reserves increases. Compressing associated gas in oil wells is often seen as a simple “rate acceleration” project that seldom has good economics. Compression and reduced surface pressure is usually the first tool used in the life of a gas well to keep it deliquified and sometimes the only Artificial Lift Method used, but compression can also be used to increase the effectiveness of other Artificial Lift deliquification Methods including foamers, gas Lift, beam pumping, ESPs, and velocity strings. There are many different types of compressors, each of which has its own operating ranges, efficiencies, strengths, and weaknesses. A majority of the applications for gas well deliquification involve the use of reciprocating or screw compressors. In addition, the study discusses compression horsepower and critical velocity; compression horsepower is related to the ratio of the discharge and suction pressures in psia commonly known as the compression ratio. Along with this, the effect of permeability on compression, pressure drop in compression suction, downstream gathering, and compression’s effect on upLift from deliquifying individual gas wells are briefly discussed in this chapter.

Geraldo Luis Bezerra Ramalho – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Designing a New Artificial Lift Method Using Computational Simulation and Evolutionary Optimization
    IEEE Access, 2019
    Co-Authors: André Pimentel Moreira, Herman Augusto Lepikson, Leizer Schnitman, Geraldo Luis Bezerra Ramalho

    Abstract:

    Oil exploitation has moved into deeper reservoirs with the advances in drilling techniques and thus the development of new pumping techniques has become a challenge to improve production. The positive displacement pumping system proposed in this paper is presented as an Artificial Lift technique. Here we present a new pumping device, its estimated operational curves through numerical simulations and a prototype of the device, denominated a Double Acting Submersible Linear Pump (SLP), which is a hydraulic system adapted for inside well operations. Design parameters used in the tests were optimized using the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm to maximize oil production while optimizing the parameters (characterstics) of the pump, such as maximum pump diameters and submersible electric motor power, pressure and volumetric displacement of the hydraulic pump. Also presented are the operating curves estimated from the numerical simulation of the power and pump modules, as well as the SLP0 and SLP1 experimental test curves in a controlled environment using the optimized parameters obtained using PSO The data obtained were compared to the computational simulations performed with the Automation Studio™ software. The SLP0 and SLP1 optimal design tests showed the importance to delimit the range of operation within which the SLP must operate, since the pipes and hydraulic components must be suitable for the flow of hydraulic oil and the production oil. The findings presented here play an important role in the production process of a fully operational SLP prototype.

James F. Lea – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Selection of Artificial Lift
    SPE Mid-Continent Operations Symposium, 2013
    Co-Authors: James F. Lea, Henry V. Nickens

    Abstract:

    Selection of the most economical Artificial Lift Method is necessary for the operator to realize the maximum potential from developing any oil or gas field. Historically the Methods used to select the Method of Lift for a particular field have varied broadly across the industry, including Determining what Methods will Lift at the desired rates and from the required depths. . Evaluating lists of advantages and disadvantages. . Use of expert systems to both eliminate and select systems. . Evaluation of initial costs, operating costs, production capabilities, etc. using economics as a tool of selection. This paper will highlight some of the Methods commonly used for selection and also include some examples of costs and profits over time calculated to the present time as a tool of selection. The operator should consider all of these Methods when selecting a Method of Artificial Lift, especially for a large, long-term project.

  • CHAPTER 11 – GAS Lift
    Gas Well Deliquification, 2008
    Co-Authors: James F. Lea, Henry V. Nickens, Mike R. Wells

    Abstract:

    Publisher Summary
    This chapter gives a complete overview of gas Lift. Gas Lift is an Artificial Lift Method whereby external gas is injected into the produced flow stream at some depth in the well bore. The additional gas augments the formation gas and reduces the flowing bottom hole pressure, thereby increasing the inflow of produced fluids. For dewatering gas wells, the volume of injected gas is designed so that the combined formation and injected gas will be above the critical rate for the well bore, especially for lower liquid producing gas wells. For higher liquid rates, much of the design procedure may more closely mirror producing oil well gas Lift techniques. In addition, gas Lift may not lower the flowing pressure as much as an optimized pumping system; there are several advantages of a gas Lift system that often make gas Lift the Artificial Lift Method of choice. For gas wells in particular, when producing a low amount of liquids, the producing bottom hole pressure with gas Lift may compare well with other Methods of dewatering. For higher liquid rates, the achievable producing BHP may be higher than pumping techniques. Of all Artificial Lift Methods, gas Lift most closely resembles natural flow and has long been recognized as one of the most versatile Artificial Lift Methods. Because of its versatility, gas Lift is a good candidate for removing liquids from gas wells under certain conditions. The two fundamental types of gas Lifts used in the industry today are continuous flow and intermittent flow, and these are briefly explained in this chapter.

  • CHAPTER 7 – PLUNGER Lift
    Gas Well Deliquification, 2008
    Co-Authors: James F. Lea, Henry V. Nickens, Mike R. Wells

    Abstract:

    Publisher Summary
    Plunger Lift is an intermittent Artificial Lift Method that uses only the energy of the reservoir to produce the liquids. A plunger is a free-traveling piston that fits snugly within the production tubing and depends on well pressure to rise and solely on gravity to get back to the bottom of the well. Plunger Lift operates in a cyclic process with the well alternately flowing and shut-in. During the shut-in period with the plunger on the bottom, gas pressure accumulates in the annulus and liquids have mostly already accumulated in the well during the last portion of the flow period. Liquids accumulate in the bottom of the tubing, and the plunger falls through the liquids to the bumper spring to await a pressure buildup period. The pressure of the annulus gas depends on the shut-in time, reservoir pressure, and permeability. When the annulus pressure increases sufficiently, the motor valve is opened to allow the well to flow. The annulus gas expands into the tubing, Lifting the plunger and liquids to the surface. A plunger Lift system is relatively simple and requires few components