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Ascaris lumbricoides

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Adauto Araújo – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • are Ascaris lumbricoides and Ascaris suum a single species
    Parasites & Vectors, 2012
    Co-Authors: Daniela Leles, Scott Lyell Gardner, Karl J Reinhard, Alena Mayo Iniguez, Adauto Araújo

    Abstract:

    Since the original description and naming of Ascaris lumbricoides from humans by Linnaeus in 1758 and later of Ascaris suum from pigs by Goeze 1782, these species have been considered to be valid. Four hypotheses relative to the conspecificity or lack thereof (and thus origin of these species) are possible: 1) Ascaris lumbricoides (usually infecting humans) and Ascaris suum (recorded mostly from pigs) are both valid species, with the two species originating via a speciation event from a common ancestor sometime before the domestication of pigs by humans, or 2) Ascaris lumbricoides in humans is derived directly from the species A. suum found in pigs with A. suum then existing as a persistent ancestor after formation of A. lumbricoides, or 3) Ascaris suum is derived directly from A. lumbricoides with the persistent ancestor being A. lumbricoides and A. suum being the newly derived species, and finally, 4) Ascaris lumbricoides and A. suum are the same species, this hypothesis being supported by studies showing both low morphological and low genetic divergence at several genes. We present and discuss paleoparasitological and genetic evidence that complement new data to evaluate the origin and evolution of Ascaris spp. in humans and pigs, and the uniqueness of the species in both hosts. Finally, we conclude that Ascaris lumbricoides and A. suum are a single species and that the name A. lumbricoides Linnaeus 1758 has taxonomic priority; therefore A. suum Goeze 1782 should be considered a synonym of A. lumbricoides.

Daniela Leles – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • are Ascaris lumbricoides and Ascaris suum a single species
    Parasites & Vectors, 2012
    Co-Authors: Daniela Leles, Scott Lyell Gardner, Karl J Reinhard, Alena Mayo Iniguez, Adauto Araújo

    Abstract:

    Since the original description and naming of Ascaris lumbricoides from humans by Linnaeus in 1758 and later of Ascaris suum from pigs by Goeze 1782, these species have been considered to be valid. Four hypotheses relative to the conspecificity or lack thereof (and thus origin of these species) are possible: 1) Ascaris lumbricoides (usually infecting humans) and Ascaris suum (recorded mostly from pigs) are both valid species, with the two species originating via a speciation event from a common ancestor sometime before the domestication of pigs by humans, or 2) Ascaris lumbricoides in humans is derived directly from the species A. suum found in pigs with A. suum then existing as a persistent ancestor after formation of A. lumbricoides, or 3) Ascaris suum is derived directly from A. lumbricoides with the persistent ancestor being A. lumbricoides and A. suum being the newly derived species, and finally, 4) Ascaris lumbricoides and A. suum are the same species, this hypothesis being supported by studies showing both low morphological and low genetic divergence at several genes. We present and discuss paleoparasitological and genetic evidence that complement new data to evaluate the origin and evolution of Ascaris spp. in humans and pigs, and the uniqueness of the species in both hosts. Finally, we conclude that Ascaris lumbricoides and A. suum are a single species and that the name A. lumbricoides Linnaeus 1758 has taxonomic priority; therefore A. suum Goeze 1782 should be considered a synonym of A. lumbricoides.

Edwin K Silverman – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • sensitization to Ascaris lumbricoides and severity of childhood asthma in costa rica
    The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 2007
    Co-Authors: Gary M Hunninghake, Edwin K Silverman, Manuel E Sotoquiros, Lydiana Avila, Ngoc P Ly, Catherine Liang, Jody S Sylvia, Barbara J Klanderman

    Abstract:

    Background Little is known about sensitization (defined as a positive IgE) to helminths and disease severity in patients with asthma. Objectives To examine the relationship between sensitization (defined as a positive IgE) to Ascaris lumbricoides and measures of asthma morbidity and severity in a Costa Rican population with low prevalence of parasitic infection but high prevalence of parasitic exposure. Methods Cross-sectional study of 439 children (ages 6 to 14 years) with asthma. Linear regression and logistic regression were used for the multivariate statistical analysis. Results After adjustment for parental education and other covariates, sensitization to Ascaris lumbricoides was associated with having at least 1 positive skin test to allergens (odds ratio, 5.15; 95% CI, 2.36-11.21; P 1 and FEV 1 /forced vital capacity, increased airway responsiveness and bronchodilator responsiveness, and hospitalizations for asthma in the previous year (odds ratio, 3.08; 95% CI, 1.23-7.68; P = .02). Conclusion Sensitization to Ascaris lumbricoides is associated with increased severity and morbidity of asthma among children in Costa Rica. This association is likely mediated by an increased degree of atopy among children with asthma who are sensitized to Ascaris. Clinical implications In areas with a low prevalence of helminthiasis such as Costa Rica, Ascaris sensitization may be an important marker of severe atopy and disease morbidity in children with asthma.