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Atlantic Herring

The Experts below are selected from a list of 297 Experts worldwide ranked by ideXlab platform

Leif Andersson – 1st expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • genetic origin and salinity history influence the reproductive success of Atlantic Herring
    Marine Ecology Progress Series, 2019
    Co-Authors: Florian Berg, Aril Slotte, Leif Andersson, Arild Folkvord

    Abstract:

    Atlantic Herring populations inhabit environments ranging in salinity from fully marine to nearly freshwater, but their relative reproductive success in these respective environments remains unclea …

  • moderate nucleotide diversity in the Atlantic Herring is associated with a low mutation rate
    eLife, 2017
    Co-Authors: Chungang Feng, Arild Folkvord, Leif Andersson, Mats E Pettersson, Sangeet Lamichhaney, Carljohan Rubin, Nima Rafati, Michele Casini

    Abstract:

    Evolution by natural selection favours the survival of individuals that are well suited to their environment. This process depends on genetic differences between individuals that make some more able to survive than others. These genetic differences are the result of mutations in DNA of germ-line cells, that is, the cells that produce egg cells and sperm. These mutations mean that new offspring always have a few small differences in some of the genes they inherited from each of their parents. DNA contains strings of molecules known as bases. These act as individual “letters” in the genetic code of an individual. Rapid sequencing of DNA to find out the order of these bases makes it possible to study the rate of mutations within a species. This provides a way to measure how different an individual is from its parents and, by extension, the potential of the species to diversify and adapt to different environments. There are over a trillion Atlantic Herring in the Atlantic Ocean, so this fish is an ideal model to study the effects of germ-line mutations on genetic diversity. In 2016, a group of researchers reported that there is relatively little genetic diversity across Atlantic Herring. Given the large population, this suggested that the mutation rate in this species may be low. Feng, Pettersson, Lamichhaney et al. – who were also involved with the earlier work – sequenced the DNA of two families of Atlantic Herring raised in captivity to calculate the rate of germ-line mutations in this species. The results showed that, on average, two changes occur per one billion letters in the genetic code in each generation. That is one to two new mutations per egg cell or sperm. This is the lowest mutation rate yet recorded in any animal with a backbone and is around six times lower than the mutation rate in humans. Whilst the low mutation rate in Atlantic Herring means there are few differences between individual fish, the extremely large number of these fish on the planet still means that there is enough diversity across the population to allow the species to adapt to changing conditions. This work is important for conservation as it highlights the great variation in potential genetic diversity across species. Future work will need to examine why the mutation rate in Atlantic Herring is so low and compare it more widely to mutation rates in other species.

  • moderate nucleotide diversity in the Atlantic Herring is associated with a low mutation rate
    bioRxiv, 2017
    Co-Authors: Chungang Feng, Arild Folkvord, Mats E Pettersson, Sangeet Lamichhaney, Carljohan Rubin, Nima Rafati, Michele Casini, Leif Andersson

    Abstract:

    The Atlantic Herring (Clupea harengus) is one of the most abundant vertebrates on earth but its nucleotide diversity is moderate (π=0.3%), only three-fold higher than in human. The expected nucleotide diversity for selectively neutral alleles is a function of population size and the mutation rate, and it is strongly affected by demographic history. Here, we present a pedigree-based estimation of the mutation rate in the Atlantic Herring. Based on whole-genome sequencing of four parents and 12 offspring, the estimated mutation rate is 1.7 x 10-9 per base per generation. There was no significant difference in the frequency of paternal and maternal mutations (8 and 7, respectively). Furthermore, we observed a high degree of parental mosaicism indicating that a large fraction of these de novo mutations occurred during early germ cell development when we do not expect a strong gender effect. The now estimated mutation rate — the lowest among vertebrates analyzed to date — partially explains the discrepancy between the rather low nucleotide diversity in Herring and its huge census population size (>10^11). But our analysis indicates that a species like the Herring will never reach its expected nucleotide diversity for selectively neutral alleles primarily because of fluctuations in population size due to climate variation during the millions of years it takes to build up a high nucleotide diversity. In addition, background selection and selective sweeps lead to reductions in nucleotide diversity at linked neutral sites.

Catriona Clemmesen – 2nd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • the swimming kinematics and foraging behavior of larval Atlantic Herring clupea harengus l are unaffected by elevated pco2
    Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 2015
    Co-Authors: Rommel Maneja, Arild Folkvord, Andrea Frommel, Howard I Browman, Audrey J Geffen, Uwe Piatkowski, Caroline M F Durif, Reidun M Bjelland, Anne Berit Skiftesvik, Catriona Clemmesen

    Abstract:

    Abstract The kinematics of swimming behavior of Atlantic Herring larvae cultured under three p CO 2 conditions (control — 370, medium — 1800, and high — 4200 μatm) were extracted at 34 days post-hatch (dph) from swim path recordings obtained using silhouette video photography. The swim paths were analyzed for move duration, speed and length, stop duration, and horizontal and vertical turn angles to determine the effects of elevated p CO 2 on fish larval behavior. The swimming kinematics and occurrence of S-postures in Atlantic Herring larvae that had survived to 34-dph were unaffected by extremely elevated levels of seawater p CO 2 , indicating that at least some larvae in the population are resilient to ocean acidification.

  • the proteome of Atlantic Herring clupea harengus l larvae is resistant to elevated pco2
    Marine Pollution Bulletin, 2014
    Co-Authors: Rommel Maneja, Catriona Clemmesen, Andrea Frommel, Audrey J Geffen, Anne Berit Skiftesvik, R Dineshram, Vengatesen Thiyagarajan, Howard I Browman

    Abstract:

    Abstract Elevated anthropogenic pCO2 can delay growth and impair otolith structure and function in the larvae of some fishes. These effects may concurrently alter the larva’s proteome expression pattern. To test this hypothesis, Atlantic Herring larvae were exposed to ambient (370 μatm) and elevated (1800 μatm) pCO2 for one-month. The proteome structure of the larvae was examined using a 2-DE and mass spectrometry. The length of Herring larvae was marginally less in the elevated pCO2 treatment compared to the control. The proteome structure was also different between the control and treatment, but only slightly: the expression of a small number of proteins was altered by a factor of less than 2-fold at elevated pCO2. This comparative proteome analysis suggests that the proteome of Herring larvae is resilient to elevated pCO2. These observations suggest that Herring larvae can cope with levels of CO2 projected for near future without significant proteome-wide changes.

  • organ damage in Atlantic Herring larvae as a result of ocean acidification
    Ecological Applications, 2014
    Co-Authors: Andrea Frommel, Arild Folkvord, Rommel Maneja, Audrey J Geffen, Uwe Piatkowski, D M Lowe, Christine Pascoe, Catriona Clemmesen

    Abstract:

    The dissolution of anthropogenically emitted excess carbon dioxide lowers the pH of the world’s ocean water. The larvae of mass spawning marine fishes may be particularly vulnerable to such ocean acidification (OA), yet the generality of earlier results is unclear. Here we show the detrimental effects of OA on the development of a commercially important fish species, the Atlantic Herring (Clupea harengus). Larvae were reared at three levels of CO2: today (0.0385 kPa), end of next century (0.183 kPa), and a coastal upwelling scenario (0.426 kPa), under near-natural conditions in large outdoor tanks. Exposure to elevated CO2 levels resulted in stunted growth and development, decreased condition, and severe tissue damage in many organs, with the degree of damage increasing with CO2 concentration. This complements earlier studies of OA on Atlantic cod larvae that revealed similar organ damage but at increased growth rates and no effect on condition.

Arild Folkvord – 3rd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • genetic origin and salinity history influence the reproductive success of Atlantic Herring
    Marine Ecology Progress Series, 2019
    Co-Authors: Florian Berg, Aril Slotte, Leif Andersson, Arild Folkvord

    Abstract:

    Atlantic Herring populations inhabit environments ranging in salinity from fully marine to nearly freshwater, but their relative reproductive success in these respective environments remains unclea …

  • moderate nucleotide diversity in the Atlantic Herring is associated with a low mutation rate
    eLife, 2017
    Co-Authors: Chungang Feng, Arild Folkvord, Leif Andersson, Mats E Pettersson, Sangeet Lamichhaney, Carljohan Rubin, Nima Rafati, Michele Casini

    Abstract:

    Evolution by natural selection favours the survival of individuals that are well suited to their environment. This process depends on genetic differences between individuals that make some more able to survive than others. These genetic differences are the result of mutations in DNA of germ-line cells, that is, the cells that produce egg cells and sperm. These mutations mean that new offspring always have a few small differences in some of the genes they inherited from each of their parents. DNA contains strings of molecules known as bases. These act as individual “letters” in the genetic code of an individual. Rapid sequencing of DNA to find out the order of these bases makes it possible to study the rate of mutations within a species. This provides a way to measure how different an individual is from its parents and, by extension, the potential of the species to diversify and adapt to different environments. There are over a trillion Atlantic Herring in the Atlantic Ocean, so this fish is an ideal model to study the effects of germ-line mutations on genetic diversity. In 2016, a group of researchers reported that there is relatively little genetic diversity across Atlantic Herring. Given the large population, this suggested that the mutation rate in this species may be low. Feng, Pettersson, Lamichhaney et al. – who were also involved with the earlier work – sequenced the DNA of two families of Atlantic Herring raised in captivity to calculate the rate of germ-line mutations in this species. The results showed that, on average, two changes occur per one billion letters in the genetic code in each generation. That is one to two new mutations per egg cell or sperm. This is the lowest mutation rate yet recorded in any animal with a backbone and is around six times lower than the mutation rate in humans. Whilst the low mutation rate in Atlantic Herring means there are few differences between individual fish, the extremely large number of these fish on the planet still means that there is enough diversity across the population to allow the species to adapt to changing conditions. This work is important for conservation as it highlights the great variation in potential genetic diversity across species. Future work will need to examine why the mutation rate in Atlantic Herring is so low and compare it more widely to mutation rates in other species.

  • moderate nucleotide diversity in the Atlantic Herring is associated with a low mutation rate
    bioRxiv, 2017
    Co-Authors: Chungang Feng, Arild Folkvord, Mats E Pettersson, Sangeet Lamichhaney, Carljohan Rubin, Nima Rafati, Michele Casini, Leif Andersson

    Abstract:

    The Atlantic Herring (Clupea harengus) is one of the most abundant vertebrates on earth but its nucleotide diversity is moderate (π=0.3%), only three-fold higher than in human. The expected nucleotide diversity for selectively neutral alleles is a function of population size and the mutation rate, and it is strongly affected by demographic history. Here, we present a pedigree-based estimation of the mutation rate in the Atlantic Herring. Based on whole-genome sequencing of four parents and 12 offspring, the estimated mutation rate is 1.7 x 10-9 per base per generation. There was no significant difference in the frequency of paternal and maternal mutations (8 and 7, respectively). Furthermore, we observed a high degree of parental mosaicism indicating that a large fraction of these de novo mutations occurred during early germ cell development when we do not expect a strong gender effect. The now estimated mutation rate — the lowest among vertebrates analyzed to date — partially explains the discrepancy between the rather low nucleotide diversity in Herring and its huge census population size (>10^11). But our analysis indicates that a species like the Herring will never reach its expected nucleotide diversity for selectively neutral alleles primarily because of fluctuations in population size due to climate variation during the millions of years it takes to build up a high nucleotide diversity. In addition, background selection and selective sweeps lead to reductions in nucleotide diversity at linked neutral sites.