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Atriplex

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Ben L Salem – 1st expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • nutritive value behaviour and growth of barbarine lambs fed on oldman saltbush Atriplex nummularia l and supplemented or not with barley grains or spineless cactus opuntia ficus indica f inermis pads
    Small Ruminant Research, 2005
    Co-Authors: Ben H Salem, A Nefzaoui, H Abdouli, A Elmastouri, Ben L Salem

    Abstract:

    This study had three objectives: (i) estimation of biomass availability of Atriplex (Atriplex nummularia Lindl.) foliage and wood (Trial 1), (ii) assessment of the effect of energy supplementation on feeding behaviour and growth performance of grazing lambs (Trial 2), and (iii) determination of in vivo digestibility of Atriplex-based diets and nitrogen balance on lambs housed in metabolism cages (Trial 3).

    In Trial 1, twenty-five unbrowsed shrubs of Atriplex were used for height, circumference, crown, and ellipsoid volume measurements. Thereafter, they were cut and their foliage and biomass weights were recorded and were regressed on dimension parameters. The best equations to estimate foliage biomass (FB = 0.69 × V, r2 = 0.90) and wood biomass (WB = 1.56 × V, r2 = 0.91) involved shrub volume (V).

    In Trial 2, 24 Barbarine lambs (17.9 ± 1.63 kg) were allotted into three equal groups and were housed in individual boxes. They were allowed to graze daily from 10:00 h to 16:00 h in a 5 ha shrubland. They had free access to water while browsing and as well as in the barn where they received either no supplement (group 1, control), 0.4 kg barley grains (group 2) or ad libitum fresh cactus cut into small pieces (group 3). The experiment lasted 85 days (10 days for adaptation and 75 days for measurements). During the measurement period and in every 15 days, three lambs from each group were observed for three consecutive days to record their behavioural activities. Lambs representing the three groups were observed simultaneously by three different observers. Times spent by lambs browsing Atriplex or other vegetation, resting, walking or drinking water were recorded for 30 min at 10:30 and 15:00 h. Feeding behaviour recorded in the morning and the afternoon was similar (P > 0.05). Lambs spent most of their time consuming Atriplex and other vegetation. Both supplements reduced the time spent in Atriplex browsing, increased the time spent in eating other vegetation and that spent in walking, without any change of resting time. Compared to the control group, barley and cactus supply decreased (P < 0.05) the time spent in Atriplex consumption (−31% and −37%, respectively). Lambs on Atriplex without supplementation lost weight (−35 g/day). However, lambs given barley or cactus grew at rates of 67 and 20 g/day, respectively.

    In Trial 3, compared to the control group, barley-supplemented lambs and to a lesser extent cactus-supplemented animals exhibited higher organic matter and crude protein diet digestibilities and nitrogen balance. These results may explain why these lambs grew better than those of the control group.

    It was concluded that supplementation of free-browsing or stall-fed Barbarine lambs on Atriplex with energy source is necessary. Both barley and cactus supply improved lamb performance.

  • spineless cactus opuntia ficus indica f inermis and oldman saltbush Atriplex nummularia l as alternative supplements for growing barbarine lambs given straw based diets
    Small Ruminant Research, 2004
    Co-Authors: Ben H Salem, A Nefzaoui, Ben L Salem

    Abstract:

    Abstract Atriplex nummularia L. foliage (Atriplex) and Opuntia ficus indica f. inermis pads (cactus) have been used as alternative N and energy supplements, respectively. Twenty-four Barbarine lambs (7-month-old, 19.5±0.5 kg BW) were allotted into four homogeneous groups and housed in individual crates. Each group received barley straw ad libitum and was supplemented on fresh weight basis with either barley grains (0.2 kg) and soybean meal (0.18 kg) (BS); or barley grains (0.2 kg) and Atriplex (1.7 kg) (BA); or cactus (3.5 kg) and soybean meal (0.18 kg) (CS); or cactus (3.5 kg) and Atriplex (1.7 kg) (CA). Urea was added to make 2 diets iso-nitrogenous. Animals were adapted for experimental conditions for 15 days before starting the 60-day growth trial. At the end of the growth trial, animals were housed in metabolic cages for total faecal collection during 10 consecutive days. Replacing soybean meal by Atriplex had no effect on straw DMI ( P >0.05). However, sheep fed cactus consumed less straw than those given barley. Crude protein digestibility was high (71–74%) and similar ( P >0.05) among diets. Diets BS, BA and CS had the same organic matter and fibre (NDF and ADF) digestibilities, which were significantly lower than those of diet CA. Nitrogen retention was high for all diets ranging between 9 and 12 g per day. Difference in N balance among diets was ascribed to the different amount of N consumed, since N loss was quite similar among dietary treatments. Urinary excretion of allantoin and microbial N supply were highest in sheep fed cactus-containing diets (8.3 and 11.4 g microbial N/kg DOMI, respectively, with CS and CA diets) as compared to barley-containing diets (3.5 and 3.2 g microbial N/kg DOMI, respectively, with BS and BA diets). Daily gain of lambs averaged 119, 108, 81 and 59 g, respectively, for diets CS, BS, CA and BA ( P P >0.05). The lowest growth recorded in sheep receiving Atriplex (CA; BA) may be ascribed to the high level of soluble N in this shrub species. In practice, growth rate (81 g per day) obtained without use of classic costly concentrate feeds (barley grains and soybean meal), which were replaced by cactus and Atriplex (CA diet), would satisfy smallholders when considering feeding cost.

  • supplementation of acacia cyanophylla lindl foliage based diets with barley or shrubs from arid areas opuntia ficus indica f inermis and Atriplex nummularia l on growth and digestibility in lambs
    Animal Feed Science and Technology, 2002
    Co-Authors: Ben H Salem, A Nefzaoui, Ben L Salem

    Abstract:

    Abstract Twenty-eight Barbarine yearling lambs (4 months of age, average live weight 22.0±2.3 kg) given freshly cut Acacia cyanophylla Lindl. (acacia) foliage ad libitum supplemented with either 0.3 kg barley (B), 4.5 kg freshly cut pads of Opuntia ficus-indica f. inermis (cactus) (C), 0.3 kg barley and 1.4 kg freshly cut Atriplex nummularia L. foliage (Atriplex) (B+A) or 4.5 kg cactus and 1.4 kg Atriplex (C+A) were used in an 80-day study comprising growth, digestibility and N balance trials. The sheep were blocked by weight and within each block randomly allocated to four treatments giving seven animals per treatment. Condensed tannins (CT) content was high in acacia. Great amount of total oxalates was found in cactus (131 g/kg dry matter (DM)). Sheep consumed significantly less acacia when supplemented with cactus either alone (C) or with Atriplex (C+A) as compared with (B) and (B+A) diets (28.7, 26.3, 36.6 and 38.3 g DM/kg W 0.75 , respectively). The amount of drinking water was reduced in sheep given cactus as compared with those receiving barley and was increased with Atriplex supply. Supplementing sheep with cactus alone substantially reduced organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP) and cell wall digestibility of the diet as compared with barley diet (B). These negative effects were reduced when cactus was fed in combination with Atriplex. Nitrogen retention (g per day) with C-diet was proportionately about 0.61 lower than with (C+A)-diet and 0.32 lower with (C+A)-diet than with (B+A)-diet. Replacing barley by cactus had no effect upon the urinary excretion of allantoin, and thus on estimated microbial N supply to the small intestine. Atriplex supplied either with barley or cactus improved the efficiency of microbial protein synthesis. Replacing barley with cactus significantly reduced daily gains. Sheep on (B+A)-diet gained more (54 g per day) than those on the other dietary treatments. It was concluded that acacia may be utilised in sheep feeding provided that an adequate supply of both energy and nitrogen is made. Highest positive responses were obtained when barley was used as supplement of acacia with or without Atriplex. Cactus alone was not able to replace barley as supplement to acacia. It should be offered in combination with a nitrogen-rich supplement, such as Atriplex, to ensure normal microflora activity in the rumen. A diet of acacia supplemented with cactus and Atriplex could be a cost-effective solution to nourish sheep during dry seasons.

Marieodile Simonnot – 2nd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • phytoextraction of na and cl by Atriplex halimus l and Atriplex hortensis l a promising solution for remediation of road runoff contaminated with deicing salts
    Ecological Engineering, 2016
    Co-Authors: Remi Suaire, Marieodile Simonnot, Ivana Durickovic, Lucie Framontterrasse, Jeanyves Leblain, Anneclaire De Rouck

    Abstract:

    Abstract Two halophytes, Atriplex halimus and Atriplex hortensis , were selected to be tested for phytodesalination of road runoff. A 60 d pot experiment was conducted and germination, survival, growth, and bioaccumulation of NaCl and trace metals by both species were monitored in conditions simulating those encountered in road runoff treatment systems. NaCl concentration was controlled in the hydration solution and ranged from 0 to 2 g/L. Germination and survival of young seedlings were not affected by salinity increase in the tested range. Growth was enhanced by NaCl in the hydration solution for A. halimus whereas water content (WC) was significantly and negatively correlated with NaCl concentration. No significant effect of NaCl concentration in the hydration solution was recorded on either growth or WC for A. hortensis . Both Atriplex species accumulated Na + and other cations. Results for Na/K molar ratio indicated that A. halimus was not affected as much as A. hortensis in its homeostasis and nutritional capacities. These results show that both Atriplex species are able to germinate, grow and accumulate sodium when watered with hydration solutions polluted with NaCl. They are therefore good candidates for phytodesalination of road runoff polluted by deicing salts, and should be tested at the pilot scale.

  • Phytoextraction of Na+ and Cl− by Atriplex halimus L. and Atriplex hortensis L.: A promising solution for remediation of road runoff contaminated with deicing salts
    Ecological Engineering, 2016
    Co-Authors: Remi Suaire, Ivana Durickovic, Jeanyves Leblain, Anneclaire De Rouck, Lucie Framont-terrasse, Marieodile Simonnot

    Abstract:

    Abstract Two halophytes, Atriplex halimus and Atriplex hortensis , were selected to be tested for phytodesalination of road runoff. A 60 d pot experiment was conducted and germination, survival, growth, and bioaccumulation of NaCl and trace metals by both species were monitored in conditions simulating those encountered in road runoff treatment systems. NaCl concentration was controlled in the hydration solution and ranged from 0 to 2 g/L. Germination and survival of young seedlings were not affected by salinity increase in the tested range. Growth was enhanced by NaCl in the hydration solution for A. halimus whereas water content (WC) was significantly and negatively correlated with NaCl concentration. No significant effect of NaCl concentration in the hydration solution was recorded on either growth or WC for A. hortensis . Both Atriplex species accumulated Na + and other cations. Results for Na/K molar ratio indicated that A. halimus was not affected as much as A. hortensis in its homeostasis and nutritional capacities. These results show that both Atriplex species are able to germinate, grow and accumulate sodium when watered with hydration solutions polluted with NaCl. They are therefore good candidates for phytodesalination of road runoff polluted by deicing salts, and should be tested at the pilot scale.

Ben H Salem – 3rd expert on this subject based on the ideXlab platform

  • nutritive value behaviour and growth of barbarine lambs fed on oldman saltbush Atriplex nummularia l and supplemented or not with barley grains or spineless cactus opuntia ficus indica f inermis pads
    Small Ruminant Research, 2005
    Co-Authors: Ben H Salem, A Nefzaoui, H Abdouli, A Elmastouri, Ben L Salem

    Abstract:

    This study had three objectives: (i) estimation of biomass availability of Atriplex (Atriplex nummularia Lindl.) foliage and wood (Trial 1), (ii) assessment of the effect of energy supplementation on feeding behaviour and growth performance of grazing lambs (Trial 2), and (iii) determination of in vivo digestibility of Atriplex-based diets and nitrogen balance on lambs housed in metabolism cages (Trial 3).

    In Trial 1, twenty-five unbrowsed shrubs of Atriplex were used for height, circumference, crown, and ellipsoid volume measurements. Thereafter, they were cut and their foliage and biomass weights were recorded and were regressed on dimension parameters. The best equations to estimate foliage biomass (FB = 0.69 × V, r2 = 0.90) and wood biomass (WB = 1.56 × V, r2 = 0.91) involved shrub volume (V).

    In Trial 2, 24 Barbarine lambs (17.9 ± 1.63 kg) were allotted into three equal groups and were housed in individual boxes. They were allowed to graze daily from 10:00 h to 16:00 h in a 5 ha shrubland. They had free access to water while browsing and as well as in the barn where they received either no supplement (group 1, control), 0.4 kg barley grains (group 2) or ad libitum fresh cactus cut into small pieces (group 3). The experiment lasted 85 days (10 days for adaptation and 75 days for measurements). During the measurement period and in every 15 days, three lambs from each group were observed for three consecutive days to record their behavioural activities. Lambs representing the three groups were observed simultaneously by three different observers. Times spent by lambs browsing Atriplex or other vegetation, resting, walking or drinking water were recorded for 30 min at 10:30 and 15:00 h. Feeding behaviour recorded in the morning and the afternoon was similar (P > 0.05). Lambs spent most of their time consuming Atriplex and other vegetation. Both supplements reduced the time spent in Atriplex browsing, increased the time spent in eating other vegetation and that spent in walking, without any change of resting time. Compared to the control group, barley and cactus supply decreased (P < 0.05) the time spent in Atriplex consumption (−31% and −37%, respectively). Lambs on Atriplex without supplementation lost weight (−35 g/day). However, lambs given barley or cactus grew at rates of 67 and 20 g/day, respectively.

    In Trial 3, compared to the control group, barley-supplemented lambs and to a lesser extent cactus-supplemented animals exhibited higher organic matter and crude protein diet digestibilities and nitrogen balance. These results may explain why these lambs grew better than those of the control group.

    It was concluded that supplementation of free-browsing or stall-fed Barbarine lambs on Atriplex with energy source is necessary. Both barley and cactus supply improved lamb performance.

  • spineless cactus opuntia ficus indica f inermis and oldman saltbush Atriplex nummularia l as alternative supplements for growing barbarine lambs given straw based diets
    Small Ruminant Research, 2004
    Co-Authors: Ben H Salem, A Nefzaoui, Ben L Salem

    Abstract:

    Abstract Atriplex nummularia L. foliage (Atriplex) and Opuntia ficus indica f. inermis pads (cactus) have been used as alternative N and energy supplements, respectively. Twenty-four Barbarine lambs (7-month-old, 19.5±0.5 kg BW) were allotted into four homogeneous groups and housed in individual crates. Each group received barley straw ad libitum and was supplemented on fresh weight basis with either barley grains (0.2 kg) and soybean meal (0.18 kg) (BS); or barley grains (0.2 kg) and Atriplex (1.7 kg) (BA); or cactus (3.5 kg) and soybean meal (0.18 kg) (CS); or cactus (3.5 kg) and Atriplex (1.7 kg) (CA). Urea was added to make 2 diets iso-nitrogenous. Animals were adapted for experimental conditions for 15 days before starting the 60-day growth trial. At the end of the growth trial, animals were housed in metabolic cages for total faecal collection during 10 consecutive days. Replacing soybean meal by Atriplex had no effect on straw DMI ( P >0.05). However, sheep fed cactus consumed less straw than those given barley. Crude protein digestibility was high (71–74%) and similar ( P >0.05) among diets. Diets BS, BA and CS had the same organic matter and fibre (NDF and ADF) digestibilities, which were significantly lower than those of diet CA. Nitrogen retention was high for all diets ranging between 9 and 12 g per day. Difference in N balance among diets was ascribed to the different amount of N consumed, since N loss was quite similar among dietary treatments. Urinary excretion of allantoin and microbial N supply were highest in sheep fed cactus-containing diets (8.3 and 11.4 g microbial N/kg DOMI, respectively, with CS and CA diets) as compared to barley-containing diets (3.5 and 3.2 g microbial N/kg DOMI, respectively, with BS and BA diets). Daily gain of lambs averaged 119, 108, 81 and 59 g, respectively, for diets CS, BS, CA and BA ( P P >0.05). The lowest growth recorded in sheep receiving Atriplex (CA; BA) may be ascribed to the high level of soluble N in this shrub species. In practice, growth rate (81 g per day) obtained without use of classic costly concentrate feeds (barley grains and soybean meal), which were replaced by cactus and Atriplex (CA diet), would satisfy smallholders when considering feeding cost.

  • supplementation of acacia cyanophylla lindl foliage based diets with barley or shrubs from arid areas opuntia ficus indica f inermis and Atriplex nummularia l on growth and digestibility in lambs
    Animal Feed Science and Technology, 2002
    Co-Authors: Ben H Salem, A Nefzaoui, Ben L Salem

    Abstract:

    Abstract Twenty-eight Barbarine yearling lambs (4 months of age, average live weight 22.0±2.3 kg) given freshly cut Acacia cyanophylla Lindl. (acacia) foliage ad libitum supplemented with either 0.3 kg barley (B), 4.5 kg freshly cut pads of Opuntia ficus-indica f. inermis (cactus) (C), 0.3 kg barley and 1.4 kg freshly cut Atriplex nummularia L. foliage (Atriplex) (B+A) or 4.5 kg cactus and 1.4 kg Atriplex (C+A) were used in an 80-day study comprising growth, digestibility and N balance trials. The sheep were blocked by weight and within each block randomly allocated to four treatments giving seven animals per treatment. Condensed tannins (CT) content was high in acacia. Great amount of total oxalates was found in cactus (131 g/kg dry matter (DM)). Sheep consumed significantly less acacia when supplemented with cactus either alone (C) or with Atriplex (C+A) as compared with (B) and (B+A) diets (28.7, 26.3, 36.6 and 38.3 g DM/kg W 0.75 , respectively). The amount of drinking water was reduced in sheep given cactus as compared with those receiving barley and was increased with Atriplex supply. Supplementing sheep with cactus alone substantially reduced organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP) and cell wall digestibility of the diet as compared with barley diet (B). These negative effects were reduced when cactus was fed in combination with Atriplex. Nitrogen retention (g per day) with C-diet was proportionately about 0.61 lower than with (C+A)-diet and 0.32 lower with (C+A)-diet than with (B+A)-diet. Replacing barley by cactus had no effect upon the urinary excretion of allantoin, and thus on estimated microbial N supply to the small intestine. Atriplex supplied either with barley or cactus improved the efficiency of microbial protein synthesis. Replacing barley with cactus significantly reduced daily gains. Sheep on (B+A)-diet gained more (54 g per day) than those on the other dietary treatments. It was concluded that acacia may be utilised in sheep feeding provided that an adequate supply of both energy and nitrogen is made. Highest positive responses were obtained when barley was used as supplement of acacia with or without Atriplex. Cactus alone was not able to replace barley as supplement to acacia. It should be offered in combination with a nitrogen-rich supplement, such as Atriplex, to ensure normal microflora activity in the rumen. A diet of acacia supplemented with cactus and Atriplex could be a cost-effective solution to nourish sheep during dry seasons.