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Jerome Ourdo – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.
ratings the state and globalization the politics of television Audience Measurement in israelMedia Culture & Society, 2016Co-Authors: Jerome Ourdo, Nahuel RibkeAbstract:
This is a study of the introduction to Israel of a technology for measuring television Audiences, the ‘People Meter’ (PM), focusing on its political aspects. It links the new practice to the history of the state, precisely to the emergence of the neo-liberal state, which brought about a new relation to numbers, using an increased quantity of statistics for the regulation of economic sectors. In Israel, the state, in both its old (government ministers, administrators, state-owned/public channels) and new (regulatory bodies) guises, has been deeply involved in Audience Measurement. Next, the study situates the history of Audience Measurement in a global context, examining the ways in which both public actors, and private actors associated with international marketing groups have domesticated a new mode of regulation for Audience Measurement – the Joint Industry Committee (JIC), and the new ‘state-of-the-art’ technology – the PM. Third, it considers the political role played by Audience figures in the fight …
ratings as politics television Audience Measurement and the state an international comparisonInternational Journal of Communication, 2015Co-Authors: Jerome Ourdo, Cecile MeadelAbstract:
Whereas most research has focused on the commercial uses of television Audience Measurement, this article examines the political dimension of Audience Measurement in a comparative study of France, Israel, the United Kingdom, and the United States. It identifies three types of relationships between the state and Measurement. The guarantor state performs Measurement via a public broadcaster and is involved in its implementation, be it as shareholder of the organization in charge of Measurement, as reformer, or as supervisor of Measurement procedures. The regulator state introduces Audience Measurement figures as criteria for policy into constraining legal texts, mostly to regulate concentration. The reader state interprets Audience Measurement figures as legitimate representations of the public. This political dimension helps explain the semiofficial status of Measurement institutions across the countries studied.
inside television Audience Measurement deconstructing the ratings machineMedia Culture & Society, 2011Co-Authors: Cecile Meadel, Jerome OurdoAbstract:
Based on empirical research in France, this article proposes a sociological analysis of television Audience Measurement (TAM), an operation in which people from various backgrounds (statisticians, engineers, marketing experts) coexist to produce numerical representations of television Audiences. These are a major, basic “currency” in the television industry and, more broadly speaking, in television culture. This analysis departs from prevalent conceptions of ratings as either “scientific” and therefore faithful representations of Audience preferences, or, from a critical perspective, as apparatuses of surveillance and domestication. Focusing on the technology of peoplemeters, it analyzes ratings as the product of a highly complex socio-technical network, which produces robust representations of the Audience, accepted by a wide range of social actors.
Pavlos S Efraimidis – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.
privacy preserving television Audience Measurement using smart tvsInformation Security Conference, 2012Co-Authors: George Drosatos, Aimilia Tasidou, Pavlos S EfraimidisAbstract:
Internet-enabled television systems, often referred to as Smart TVs, are a new development in television and home entertainment technologies. In this work, we propose a new, privacy-preserving, approach for Television Audience Measurement (TAM), utilizing the capabilities of the Smart TV technologies. We propose a novel application to calculate aggregate Audience Measurements using Smart TV computation capabilities and permanent Internet access. Cryptographic techniques, including homomorphic encryption and zero-knowledge proofs, are used to ensure both that the privacy of the participating individuals is preserved and that the computed results are valid. Additionally, participants can be compensated for sharing their information. Preliminary experimental results on an Android-based Smart TV platform show the viability of the approach.
Philip M Napoli – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.
what social media platforms can learn from Audience Measurement lessons in the self regulation of black boxesFirst Monday, 2019Co-Authors: Philip M Napoli, Anne NapoliAbstract:
The widespread concerns about the misuses and negative effects of social media platforms have prompted a range of governance responses, including preliminary efforts toward self-regulatory models. Building upon these initiatives, this paper looks to the self-regulation of the Audience Measurement industry as a possible template for the self-regulation of social media. This article explores the parallels between Audience Measurement systems and social media platforms; reviews the self-regulatory apparatus in place for the Audience Measurement industry; and, considers the lessons that the self-regulation of Audience Measurement might offer to the design and implementation of self-regulatory approaches to social media.
the local peoplemeter the portable peoplemeter and the unsettled law and policy of Audience Measurement in the united states, 2014Co-Authors: Philip M NapoliAbstract:
This chapter examines the relationship between the process of Audience Measurement and core principles in US communications policy making. The focal points of this analysis are the controversial launches in the United States over the past decade of the Nielsen Local Peoplemeter (which measures local television Audiences) and the Arbitron Portable Peoplemeter (which measures radio Audiences). These new Audience Measurement systems prompted substantial levels of resistance amongst a wide range of stakeholders, including television and radio broadcasters, minority groups and local, state and federal policy makers. The controversies surrounding the launch of these new technologies reveal the complex stakeholder dynamics that are central to understanding how contemporary media Audiences are constructed. As this analysis illustrates, competition and diversity policy issues were central to the emergence of these new Audience Measurement systems and the patterns of resistance that emerged against them. These competition and diversity concerns were the focal point for a variety of advocacy organizations, and ultimately helped to draw the attention of city- and statelevel government officials, as well as the US Congress and the Federal Communications Commission. As a result, an important legal dispute has emerged around the First Amendment status of Audience ratings data.
ratings and Audience MeasurementThe Handbook of Media Audiences, 2011Co-Authors: Philip M NapoliAbstract:
One commonly used, though controversial, approach to conducting research on media Audiences involves ratings analysis. Ratings analysis is the analysis of the Audience size and composition data produced by Audience Measurement firms for use in both the commercial and noncommercial media sectors. Ratings data primarily are used by media outlets and advertisers to determine advertising rates, to assess the performance of media content, and to develop and assess strategies related to the production and placement of content. Ratings data are also are used by policy makers to assess media market dynamics and (most important to this chapter) by academics to develop and test theoretical perspectives regarding the dynamics of how Audiences consume media and how media institutions navigate the Audience marketplace (Stavitsky 2000; Napoli 2003; Webster, Phalen, and Lichty 2005). Perhaps the best-known types of Audience ratings that have been used in academic research are the television ratings produced by Measurement firms such as The Nielsen Company and TNS Media Intelligence, and the radio ratings produced by Measurement firms such as Arbitron and RAJAR (Radio Joint Audience Research). And, increasingly, internet Audience ratings, produced by firms such as comScore and Nielsen//NetRatings, are being utilized in academic research (see e.g. Webster and Lin 2002; Bermejo 2007). As these examples suggest, the term ratings is most often associated with Audiences for the electronic media, though print media also utilize Audience data produced by commercial Measurement firms that indicate the number and demographic characteristics of readers of individual publications. Firms such as Simmons and MRI (Mediamark Research Inc.) produce data for a wide range of print publications. However, for whatever reason (perhaps a comparative lack of academic interest in print media Audiences), academic ratings analyses have overwhelmingly focused on electronic media Audiences. Thus, electronic media ratings,