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Authorization Procedure

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Katja Knauer – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Pesticides in surface waters: a comparison with regulatory acceptable concentrations (RACs) determined in the Authorization process and consideration for regulation
    Environmental Sciences Europe, 2016
    Co-Authors: Katja Knauer

    Abstract:

    Background
    Chemical analysis of surface water conducted in European countries indicates that pesticides are often detected in surface waters. This asks regulatory authorities to consider these monitoring data while re-evaluating pesticide approval and setting appropriate risk mitigation measures. During the years 2005–2012, the cantons in Switzerland performed 345,000 pesticide measurements in surface waters. Overall, 203 approved pesticides were examined. For 60 of these substances, regulatory acceptable concentrations (RACs) were published, which were determined from ecotoxicological data in accordance with international test methods within the framework of the Authorization Procedure.

  • Pesticides in surface waters: a comparison with regulatory acceptable concentrations (RACs) determined in the Authorization process and consideration for regulation
    Environmental Sciences Europe, 2016
    Co-Authors: Katja Knauer

    Abstract:

    Background Chemical analysis of surface water conducted in European countries indicates that pesticides are often detected in surface waters. This asks regulatory authorities to consider these monitoring data while re-evaluating pesticide approval and setting appropriate risk mitigation measures. During the years 2005–2012, the cantons in Switzerland performed 345,000 pesticide measurements in surface waters. Overall, 203 approved pesticides were examined. For 60 of these substances, regulatory acceptable concentrations (RACs) were published, which were determined from ecotoxicological data in accordance with international test methods within the framework of the Authorization Procedure. Results For 73 % of the 60 evaluated pesticides, the monitoring data demonstrated that no exceedance of the RAC in surface waters was found. For the 16 remaining compounds, measured environmental concentrations (MECs) were exceeding the RAC value at some sampling sites. However, the 95 percentile of the MECs of all substances analyzed were below the respective RACs. Due to the classification system of surface waters in Switzerland, it became obvious that exceedances of the RAC value occurred in small to medium surface waters. Based on these monitoring data, it can be concluded that mainly herbicides and fungicides were exceeding the RAC; for insecticides only one exceedance was determined. The findings demonstrate that in principle the pesticides are safely used. Most of the exceedances were measured in a surface water surrounded by vineyards in the canton Geneva. Therefore, risk mitigation measures were locally implemented to reduce the entry of pesticides. Conclusions Results suggest that a few pesticides in use might account for most of the concern for aquatic life. These pesticides with exceedances of the ecotoxicological thresholds are checked for a possible regulatory action. Implementing further risk mitigation measures might be advisable to reduce the exposure in aquatic systems. This evaluation is an ongoing process. When further RAC values are available, currently Switzerland is re-evaluating authorized pesticides, monitoring data can be evaluated accordingly.

Li Li – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • NPC Workshops – Attribute Delegation Authorization Based on Subjective Trust Evaluation
    2008 IFIP International Conference on Network and Parallel Computing, 2008
    Co-Authors: Bo Chen, Guo Sun Zeng, Li Li

    Abstract:

    Trust-based delegation Authorization mechanism is regarded as an effective method for computational resource access in open dynamic environment. One important problem is how to apply more grain subjective trust control on delegation and Authorization Procedure. On this paper, the problem is probed and a trusted role based logic model on the semantic of attribution Authorization mechanism is proposed. The concepts of trusted role and trust constraint are proposed. The computational method for entity decrease trust value in delegation is given in logic model. The trust control policy for delegation and the trust control rule for Authorization based on role trust evaluation and entity trust evaluation respectively are put forward. The policies and rules are expressed in logic syntax and the semantic of delegation Authorization logic program is given out. Finally, the soundness and completeness of logic system are proved theoretically.

  • Attribute Delegation Authorization Based on Subjective Trust Evaluation
    2008 IFIP International Conference on Network and Parallel Computing, 2008
    Co-Authors: Bo Chen, Guo Sun Zeng, Li Li

    Abstract:

    Trust-based delegation Authorization mechanism is regarded as an effective method for computational resource access in open dynamic environment. One important problem is how to apply more grain subjective trust control on delegation and Authorization Procedure. On this paper, the problem is probed and a trusted role based logic model on the semantic of attribution Authorization mechanism is proposed. The concepts of trusted role and trust constraint are proposed. The computational method for entity decrease trust value in delegation is given in logic model. The trust control policy for delegation and the trust control rule for Authorization based on role trust evaluation and entity trust evaluation respectively are put forward. The policies and rules are expressed in logic syntax and the semantic of delegation Authorization logic program is given out. Finally, the soundness and completeness of logic system are proved theoretically.

Christian Dick – One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.

  • Versuche mit Herbiziden in Baldrian Valeriana officinalis L. in Thüringen
    Gesunde Pflanzen, 2010
    Co-Authors: Rüdiger Schmatz, Christian Dick

    Abstract:

    In den Jahren 1998 bis 2008 erfolgte in Thüringen die Anlage und Durchführung von 12 Versuchen mit 25 Herbiziden in Baldrian auf Flächen von Versuchsstationen sowie Praxisbetrieben. Die Erarbeitung von Daten für das Genehmigungsverfahren gemäß § 18 a PflSchG war das Hauptziel der Versuchstätigkeit. Für Devrinol FL, Lentagran WP sowie Stomp Aqua und Stomp Raps wurde die Genehmigung gemäß § 18 a PflSchG erteilt, die Herbizide Basagran, Boxer, Roundup UltraMAX und Targa Super können über die Genehmigung gemäß § 18 b PflSchG in Baldrian eingesetzt werden. Die zur Verfügung stehenden Herbizide reichen angesichts der zunehmenden Probleme mit Polygonum -, Solanum – und Galinsoga -Arten sowie anderen Unkräutern und Ungräsern oftmals nicht aus und zwingen die Anbauer zur verstärkten Durchführung von mechanischen Bekämpfungsmaßnahmen (Hand- und Maschinenhacke), die die Rentabilität des Anbaus der Kultur negativ beeinflussen. Auch aus diesem Grund sind weitere Herbizidversuche in Baldrian erforderlich. Between 1998 and 2008 12 experiments with 25 herbicides were carried out in valerian in experimental stations and on valerian fields of Thuringian farms. The main objective of the tests was to get the necessary data for the Authorization Procedure according to the regulations of § 18 a PflSchG. The use oft the herbicides Devrinol FL, Lentagran WP, Stomp Aqua and Stomp Raps is authorized for the application in valerian according the regulations of § 18 a PflSchG. The herbicides Basagran, Boxer, Roundup UltraMAX and Targa Super can be used in valerian according the regulations of § 18 b PflSchG. Further experiments with herbicides in valerian are intended to the Authorization to more herbicides and to unsolved problems with the weed control in this crop like for example the often insufficient effects of the recently authorized herbicides against Solanum spec., Galinsoga spec., Polygonum spec. and other weeds.

  • Versuche mit Herbiziden in Zitronenmelisse Melissa officinalis L. in Thüringen
    Gesunde Pflanzen, 2009
    Co-Authors: Rüdiger Schmatz, Corinna Ormerod, Christian Dick

    Abstract:

    Between 1996 and 2008 19 experiments with 33 herbicides were carried out in lemon balm in experimental stations and on lemon balm fields of Thuringian farms. The main objective of the tests was to get the necessary data for the Authorization Procedure according to the regulations of § 18a PflSchG. Lemon balm plants are very susceptible against some herbicides like Bacara, Bandur, Centium 36 CS, Goltix 700 SC, Husar, Sumimax. Other herbicides like Boxer, Stomp SC and other Pendimethalin-herbicides can cause severe damages on peppermint if they are applied to the false stage of development of the plant and/or unfavourable climatic conditions. The use oft the herbicides Basagran, Boxer, Fusilade MAX, Lentagran WP and Stomp SC, Stomp Aqua, Stomp Raps is authorized for the application in lemon balm according the regulations of § 18a PflSchG. The herbicides Goltix 700 SC, Lontrel 100 und CLIOPHAR 100, Roundup UltraMAX and Targa Super can be used in lemon balm according the regulations of § 18b PflSchG. Further experiments with herbicides in lemon balm are intended to the Authorization to more herbicides and to unsolved problems with the weed control in this crop like for example the often insufficient effects of the recently authorized herbicides against Solanum spec., Galinsoga spec., Polygonum spec. and other weeds. In den Jahren 1996 bis 2008 erfolgte in Thüringen die Anlage und Durchführung von 19 Versuchen mit 33 Herbiziden in Zitronenmelisse auf Flächen von Versuchsstationen sowie von Praxisbetrieben. Die Erarbeitung von Daten für das Genehmigungsverfahren gemäß § 18a PflSchG war das Hauptziel der Versuchstätigkeit. Mehrere Herbizide (z. B. Bacara, Bandur, Centium 36 CS, Goltix 700 SC, Husar, Sumimax) sind nach den vorliegenden Versuchsergebnissen nicht für die Anwendung in Zitronenmelisse geeignet. Andere Herbizide wie Boxer, Stomp CS und andere Pendimethalin-Präparate können bei Nichtbeachtung des Entwicklungsstadiums der Zitronenmelisse und/oder der Witterungsbedingungen (z. B. Lentagran WP) starke Schäden an der Kultur verursachen. Für mehrere Herbizide wurde die Genehmigung gemäß § 18a PflSchG erteilt, weitere Herbizide können über die Genehmigung gemäß § 18b PflSchG in Zitronenmelisse eingesetzt werden. Die zur Verfügung stehenden Herbizide reichen angesichts der zunehmenden Probleme mit Polygonum -, Solanum – und Galinsoga -Arten sowie anderen Unkräutern und Ungräsern oftmals nicht aus und zwingen die Anbauer zur verstärkten Durchführung von mechanischen Bekämpfungsmaßnahmen (Hand- und Maschinenhacke), die die Rentabilität des Anbaus der Kultur negativ beeinflussen. Auch aus diesem Grund sind weitere Herbizidversuche in Zitronenmelisse erforderlich.

  • Versuche mit Herbiziden in Pfefferminze Mentha x piperita L. in Thüringen
    Gesunde Pflanzen, 2009
    Co-Authors: Rüdiger Schmatz, Christine Schäkel, Christian Dick

    Abstract:

    Between 1996 and 2007 31 experiments with 34 herbicides were carried out in peppermint in experimental stations and on peppermint fields of Thuringian farms. The main objective of the tests was to get the necessary data for the Authorization Procedure according to the regulations of § 18a PflSchG. Peppermint plants are susceptible against some herbicides like Callisto, Monitor. Other herbicides like Afalon, Basta, Boxer, Centium 36 CS and Roundup Ultra can cause severe damages on peppermint if they are applied to the false stage of development of the plant. The use oft the herbicides Basagran, Fusilade MAX, Lentagran WP, Lontrel 100 and CLIOPHAR 100 is authorized for the application in peppermint according the regulations of § 18a PflSchG. The herbicides Bandur, Boxer, Stomp SC and Targa Super can be used in peppermint according the regulations of § 18b PflSchG. Further experiments with herbicides in peppermint are intended to the Authorization to more herbicides and to unsolved problems with the weed control like for example the often insufficient effects of the recently authorized herbicides against Solanum spp., Galinsoga spp., Polygonum spp. and other weeds. In den Jahren 1996 bis 2007 erfolgte in Thüringen die Anlage und Durchführung von 31 Versuchen mit 34 Herbiziden in Pfefferminze auf Flächen von Versuchsstationen sowie Praxisbetrieben. Die Erarbeitung von Daten für das Genehmigungsverfahren gemäß § 18a PflSchG war das Hauptziel der Versuchstätigkeit. Mehrere Herbizide (Callisto, Monitor) sind nach den Versuchsergebnissen nicht für die Anwendung in Pfefferminze geeignet. Andere Herbizide wie Afalon, Basta, Boxer, Centium 36 CS und Roundup Ultra können bei Nichtbeachtung des Entwicklungsstadiums der Pfefferminze starke Schäden an der Kultur verursachen. Für mehrere Herbizide wurde die Genehmigung gemäß § 18a PflSchG erteilt, weitere Herbizide können über die Genehmigung gemäß § 18b PflSchG in Pfefferminze eingesetzt werden. Die zur Verfügung stehenden Herbizide reichen angesichts der wachsenden Probleme mit Knötericharten, Nachtschatten, Franzosenkraut und anderen Unkräutern und Ungräsern oftmals nicht aus. Aus diesem Grund sind weitere Herbizidversuche in Pfefferminze erforderlich.