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Timothy E. Martinson - One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.
colonization of new york Vineyards by anagrus spp hymenoptera mymaridae overwintering biology within vineyard distribution of wasps and parasitism of grape leafhopper erythroneura spp homoptera cicadellidae eggsBiological Control, 2000Co-Authors: Livy Williams, Timothy E. MartinsonAbstract:
Received February 16, 1999; accepted January 17, 2000 A study was conducted in New York to identify the Anagrus species present in Vineyards, to determine the plants in which Anagrus species overwinter, and to characterize the dispersal of wasps and level of parasitism of grape leafhopper eggs in Vineyards. Anagrus daanei S. Triapitsyn and Anagrus erythroneurae S. Trjapitzin and Chiappini were the most abundant species reared from Vitis labrusca Bailey and Vitis vinifera L. cultivars, respectively. V. labrusca cultivars are infested predominantly by Erythroneura comes (Say), whereas V. vinifera cultivars are infested primarily by the Erythroneura vitifex Fitch‐Erythroneura bistrata McAtee complex. Anagrus tretiakovae S. Triapitsyn was reared from seven grape cultivars in approximately equal proportions. Thus, A. daanei and A. erythroneurae appear to possess greater degrees of host specificity than A. tretiakovae. These results support the belief that, although Anagrus species have relatively broad host associations, host preferences do exist. These preferences may be mediated by the plant associations of particular leafhopper species. Anagrus species use alternate hosts that infest several plant species. In particular, diapausing insect eggs in Acer saccharum Marshall, Robinia pseudo-acacia L., Rosa multiflora Thunberg, Salix nigra L., Vitis riparia Michaux, and Zanthoxylum americanum Miller may play important roles in the overwintering biology of the Anagrus species that are most abundant in Vineyards. Following emergence from overwintering hosts, Anagrus adults are aggregated at the vineyard edge early in the season (May and June). By midseason or later (August and September), the pattern of wasp colonization and parasitism indicates that parasitoids are more widely dispersed in the Vineyards. This pattern is consistent with colonization from vineyard edges, followed by relatively slow dispersal into the vineyard interior. Further investigations are necessary to identify the alternate host(s) that Anagrus exploits during the winter and spring and to delineate the phenology of such alternate hosts, as well as that of the grape leafhoppers and Anagrus species in the spring. Habitat management studies could then be conducted to identify strategies that would accelerate population growth of Anagrus in the spring and increase the rate of dispersal into Vineyards. © 2000 Academic Press
Phenology, Within-Vineyard Distribution, and Seasonal Movement of Eastern Grape Leafhopper (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) in New York VineyardsEnvironmental Entomology, 1994Co-Authors: Timothy E. Martinson, T. J. Dennehy, Christopher J. HoffmanAbstract:
Seasonal changes in within-vineyard distribution and abundance of Erythroneura comes (Say) adults and nymphs were investigated from 1989 to 1992. Trap catches of adults were highest in May and were concentrated in wooded areas next to Vineyards. In 1989 and 1990 surveys, nymphal densities did not decline as distance from the vineyard edge increased. In 1991, however, nymphal densities were significantly higher at vineyard edges than in vineyard interiors in July, suggesting that oviposition initially was aggregated at vineyard edges. Subsequently, nymphal densities at vineyard edges and interiors were similar. Cumulative degree days (DD) for mean observation of first nymphs, first-generation, and second-generation peak populations, sampled at 14 Vineyards in 1989, 1990, and 1991, were 390 ± 71, 648 ± 86, and 1,190 ± 154 DD (mean ± SD; base 10°C), respectively. Nymphal densities exceeded a provisional threshold of five per leaf in only 2, 25, 13, and 8% of Vineyards untreated with insecticides in 1989, 1990, 1991, and 1992, respectively. These results show that leafhoppers do not cause economic injury in most New York Vineyards in most years. Reduced insecticide strategies recently implemented for grape berry moth control will not greatly increase the need for insecticide applications directed at leafhoppers in New York.
Jacques Wery - One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.
Agronomy for Sustainable Development, 2017Co-Authors: Anne Merot, Jacques WeryAbstract:
Organic viticulture is an effective cultivation method that can reduce the environmental impacts of grape growing while maintaining profitability. For some Vineyards, simple adjustments can suffice to make the conversion to organic farming; however, for most, major changes in system structure and management must be implemented. Here, we showed for the first time that converting to organic viticulture impacts vineyard complexity. We used six complexity indicators to assess modifications to cropping system structure and management: number of fields, number of difficult-to-manage fields, vineyard area, number of field interventions, number of technical management sequences, and number of management indicators. These six indicators were assessed through interviews carried out with winegrowers from 16 Vineyards between 2008 and 2012. Changes in vineyard performances during conversion were also measured. We demonstrate that conversion to organic viticulture increased the complexity of vineyard structure and management for the 16 Vineyards surveyed. While this increase allowed agronomic performances in all Vineyards to be maintained, it also came with an increase in labor requirements (of up to 56%) compared to conventional agriculture. We conclude that the six indicators are appropriate for assessing changes in vineyard complexity and could be extended to all agricultural systems to better anticipate the implications of organic farming conversion for a farm’s biophysical, technical, and decisional subsystems.
Using the crop modelling platform APES to assess water and nitrogen competition in an intercropped vineyard2009Co-Authors: Aurélie Metay, Christian Gary, Aude Ripoche, Eric Casellas, Jacques WeryAbstract:
Modelling the water and nitrogen balance in Intercropping Vineyards with cover crop is a key issue for a better prediction of the competition for water and nitrogen between the two species in a variety of climate, soils and Vineyards management. APES (Agricultural Production and Externalities Simulator) is a field-scale modular simulation platform for cropping systems, developed within the Seamless project. The simulation of cover cropped Vineyards requires the use of Crop, Vineyard, climate, soil and resource arbitration components. This new tool was developed and evaluated on field experiments in southern France and showed promising results to simulate a large range of crop management strategy combining type of intercrop and nitrogen management, under soil-rainfall combinations, on water and nitrogen budget and yield. In the present study, we use both water stress and nitrogen stress indexes to assess competition for water and nitrogen in a vineyard cover cropped with barley under Mediterranean soil and climate
C Fouque - One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.
Efficiency of spreading maize in the garrigues to reduce wild boar (Sus scrofa) damage to Mediterranean VineyardsEuropean Journal of Wildlife Research, 2004Co-Authors: Clement Calenge, Daniel Maillard, P Fournier, C FouqueAbstract:
The aim of this work was to assess the efficiency of dissuasive spreading of maize to reduce the level of wild boar damage to vines in a Mediterranean area (Puéchabon, southern France). The 50 wine growers of Puéchabon were all questioned about the annual losses caused by the wild boar in each vineyard of the study area between 1990 and 1992. We also studied the distribution of the damage on a smaller scale, by mapping the damaged vines within two Vineyards. In summer 1993, we distributed 4.7 tons of maize in the woods , and then questioned the wine growers about the losses in each vineyard for 1993. During 1990–1992, on both large and small scales, the damage had a patchy distribution, with more patches of damage occurring close to the woods. Moreover, the later the vines ripened, the less frequent the damage. The severity of the damage was only affected by the distance of the vineyard from woods. In total, the wild boar consumed 20,049 kg of grapes each year between 1990–1992 (193 kg/ha), and 63% of the Vineyards were damaged. In 1993, both the density and the compensation paid in the département increased threefold. However, in our study area, both the proportion of damaged Vineyards (36%) and the level of damage in the Vineyards (151 kg/ha) were reduced, saving more than 60% in compensation. The dissuasive spreading of maize is therefore an efficient tool to reduce the level of damage to Vineyards.
efficiency of spreading maize in the garrigues to reduce wild boar sus scrofa damage to mediterranean VineyardsEuropean Journal of Wildlife Research, 2004Co-Authors: Clement Calenge, Daniel Maillard, P Fournier, C FouqueAbstract:
The aim of this work was to assess the efficiency of dissuasive spreading of maize to reduce the level of wild boar damage to vines in a Mediterranean area (Puechabon, southern France). The 50 wine growers of Puechabon were all questioned about the annual losses caused by the wild boar in each vineyard of the study area between 1990 and 1992. We also studied the distribution of the damage on a smaller scale, by mapping the damaged vines within two Vineyards. In summer 1993, we distributed 4.7 tons of maize in the woods , and then questioned the wine growers about the losses in each vineyard for 1993. During 1990–1992, on both large and small scales, the damage had a patchy distribution, with more patches of damage occurring close to the woods. Moreover, the later the vines ripened, the less frequent the damage. The severity of the damage was only affected by the distance of the vineyard from woods. In total, the wild boar consumed 20,049 kg of grapes each year between 1990–1992 (193 kg/ha), and 63% of the Vineyards were damaged. In 1993, both the density and the compensation paid in the departement increased threefold. However, in our study area, both the proportion of damaged Vineyards (36%) and the level of damage in the Vineyards (151 kg/ha) were reduced, saving more than 60% in compensation. The dissuasive spreading of maize is therefore an efficient tool to reduce the level of damage to Vineyards.
Andres Munozsaez - One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.
Conservation Biology, 2020Co-Authors: Justin Kitzes, Andres Munozsaez, Adina M. MerenlenderAbstract:
Vinecology, the integration of ecological and viticultural practices, focuses on the working landscapes of the Mediterranean-climate biomes to make wine-grape production compatible with species conservation. We examined how maintaining remnant native vegetation and surrounding natural areas in and around Vineyards, two primary practices of vinecology, may influence bird community richness and composition across a vineyard landscape. We conducted bird surveys over spring and summer (October-January) at 120 sites across a wine-grape growing region in central Chile. The sites were equally divided across Vineyards with and without remnant native vegetation, and sites had varying amounts of adjacent natural land cover. We used generalized linear mixed models to examine individual species responses to remnant vegetation in the vineyard at plot scale (within a 50-m radius) in the surrounding natural area (within a 500-1000 m radius). We used the Horn similarity index to explore overall community differences to quantify variations in endemic species, guild detection levels, and species richness between site types. At the plot scale, 9 out of 30 species were positively associated with the proportion of remnant vegetation and 3 species were negatively associated. Six were positively influenced by the proportion of native vegetation in the surrounding landscape and 3 species were negatively associated with proportion of native vegetation. Although overall total detections and richness were significantly greater in continuous mixed Mediterranean forest, 84.9% of these species were also detected in forest remnants within Vineyards. Endemics, insectivores, granivores, and omnivores were all more abundant in Vineyards with remnant native vegetation than in Vineyards without remnant native vegetation. Our results show the value of maintaining and restoring natural vegetation remnants in Vineyards as a tool for bird conservation that can be applied in working landscapes of the New World Mediterranean climate regions.
M. Kriechbaum - One of the best experts on this subject based on the ideXlab platform.
Agriculture Ecosystems and Environment, 2018Co-Authors: S. Kratschmer, M. Guernion, B. Pachinger, M. Schwantzer, D. Paredes, F. Burel, A. Nicolai, P. Strauss, T. Bauer, M. KriechbaumAbstract:
Vineyard inter-rows can provide habitats for a range of plant and animal species especially when covered with vegetation. However, frequent tillage results in the degradation of habitat quality and the provision of biodiversity-based ecosystem services. Wild bees are important pollinators of crops and wild plants and depend on both, floral resources and suitable nesting sites, which are influenced by the landscape configuration. We examined effects of field and landscape parameters on wild bee species’ richness, abundance and functional traits in Austrian Vineyards over two years using Generalised Linear Mixed models, Detrended Correspondence Analysis and Random Forests. Alternating tillage was compared with no tillage in two inter-rows per vineyard. Forage availability in these inter-rows was estimated by flower coverage at each sampling date, and landscape features were analysed within a radius of 750 m around the Vineyards. Across all Vineyards we found 84 wild bee species with a mean abundance (±SD) of 29 (±16.6). Forage availability had the strongest positive effect on wild bee diversity and abundance. In comparison to no tillage, alternating tillage slightly increased wild bee diversity and abundance. Eusocial wild bees were more abundant in untilled inter-rows, whereas solitary wild bees were more closely associated with alternating tilled Vineyards. At the landscape scale, the percentage of artificial areas (mostly villages) and distance to semi-natural elements raised wild bee diversity and abundance. The proportion of woodland increased the abundance of wild bees, in particular of eusocial taxa. Solitary wild bee abundance was enhanced by the number of solitary trees. Pollination provided by wild bees in viticultural areas can be enhanced by maintaining a diversity of different soil management strategies to improve forage availability in Vineyards. Furthermore, semi-natural elements such as fallows or solitary trees providing floral resources and nesting habitat should be preserved within viticultural landscapes. © 2018 The Authors